GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

 It is currently 17 Aug 2018, 02:59

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# QOTD: In 1923, the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

MBA Section Director
Joined: 19 Mar 2012
Posts: 5124
Location: India
GMAT 1: 760 Q50 V42
GPA: 3.8
WE: Marketing (Non-Profit and Government)
QOTD: In 1923, the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

16 Jan 2018, 11:50
1
15
00:00

Difficulty:

55% (hard)

Question Stats:

57% (01:04) correct 43% (01:14) wrong based on 583 sessions

### HideShow timer Statistics

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 203: Sentence Correction

Subscribe to GMAT Question of the Day: E-mail | RSS

In 1923, the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia as unconstitutional, and ruling that it was a form of price-fixing and, as such, an abridgment of the right of contract.

(A) the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia as unconstitutional, and

(B) the Supreme Court declared as unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia, and

(C) the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia,

(D) a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court,

(E) when the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia as unconstitutional,

Every question of the day will be followed by an expert reply by GMATNinja in 12-15 hours. Stay tuned! Post your answers and explanations to earn kudos.

_________________
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
Status: GMAT and GRE tutor
Joined: 13 Aug 2009
Posts: 1897
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
GMAT 2: 800 Q51 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V170
QOTD: In 1923, the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

18 Jan 2018, 21:56
4
4
Quote:
(A) the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia as unconstitutional, and

The parallelism trigger “and” gives us the best hint on this one. The “and” is followed by “ruling that it was a form…”, so we need something that’s parallel to ruling. And we really don’t have that: there are no other “-ing” modifiers that could possibly be an option.

The word order at the beginning of the underlined portion is also just a little bit confusing. It sounds like “the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage for women and children” – which isn’t what the sentence is saying. It’s saying that the Supreme Court declared that the minimum wage as unconstitutional – so why not keep the phrase “minimum wage as unconstitutional” together? That would make the sentence clearer.

So we can eliminate (A).

Quote:
(B) the Supreme Court declared as unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia, and

In (B), the phrase “as unconstitutional” is in a much better spot: “declared as unconstitutional a minimum wage…” might sound funny, but it’s much clearer than the version in (A). We now know exactly what the Supreme Court actually declared, without having to think too hard about it. That’s great.

Trouble is, the parallelism still makes no sense, exactly as we described in answer choice (A): “and” is followed by “ruling”, and nothing is parallel with “ruling.”

So we can get rid of (B), too.

Quote:
(C) the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia,

The “and” is missing from (C), and that’s actually a good thing: now “ruling that it was a form of price-fixing” is a modifier that gives us more information about the previous clause (“the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional a minimum wage…”) And that makes perfect sense.

The placement of the word “unconstitutional” is also much better than in some of the other answer choices: it’s immediately clear that the Supreme Court declared the minimum wage unconstitutional, and that makes the sentence much clearer.

Let’s keep (C).

Quote:
(D) a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court,

(D) is exactly the same as (C), except that it’s in passive voice: “a minimum wage… was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court” is an unnecessarily indirect way to say “the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional a minimum wage…”

To be clear: there are times when passive voice is perfectly acceptable. It’s not automatically wrong. But in this case, there’s no justification for the passive voice: why would we use passive when it’s clearer to just use active voice, and state that the Supreme Court took action?

(D) isn’t as good as (C), so we can eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) when the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia as unconstitutional,

Like (A), (E) separates the phrase “as unconstitutional” from the action it modifies (“the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage”), and that’s a little bit confusing. For more on this issue, see the explanation for answer choice (A).

The bigger issue is that this thing just isn’t a sentence at all. The underlined portion is a modifier, and then it’s followed by another modifier (beginning with “ruling”) – so we never have a main clause, with a nice subject and verb.

So (E) is out, and (C) is our answer.
_________________

GMAT Club Verbal Expert | GMAT/GRE tutor @ www.gmatninja.com (Now hiring!) | GMAT blog | Food blog | Notoriously bad at PMs

Beginners' guides to GMAT verbal
Reading Comprehension | Critical Reasoning | Sentence Correction

Series 1: Fundamentals of SC & CR | Series 2: Developing a Winning GMAT Mindset

SC & CR Questions of the Day (QOTDs), featuring expert explanations
All QOTDs | Subscribe via email | RSS

Hit the request verbal experts' reply button -- and please be specific about your question. Feel free to tag @GMATNinja and @GMATNinjaTwo in your post. Priority is always given to official GMAT questions.

Sentence Correction articles & resources
How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

Reading Comprehension, Critical Reasoning, and other articles & resources
All GMAT Ninja articles on GMAT Club | Using LSAT for GMAT CR & RC |7 reasons why your actual GMAT scores don't match your practice test scores | How to get 4 additional "fake" GMAT Prep tests for \$29.99 | Time management on verbal

##### General Discussion
Manager
Joined: 01 Feb 2017
Posts: 155
Re: QOTD: In 1923, the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

18 Jan 2018, 22:17
1
(A) the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia as unconstitutional, and:
*AS+NOUN: IN THE ROLE OF- NONSENSICAL HERE
* AND: CANNOT BE USED FOR JOINING A CLAUSE WITH VERBING MODIFIER (RULING)

(B) the Supreme Court declared as unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia, and:
SAME ERRORS AS A

(C) the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia,:
CORRECT

(D) a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court,:
SUBJECT 'A MINIMUM WAGE' DOESN'T MAKE SENSE WITH VERBING MODIFIER 'RULING'

(E) when the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia as unconstitutional,:
NO MAIN CLAUSE IN THE SENTENCE

Posted from my mobile device
Intern
Joined: 14 Jul 2014
Posts: 4
Re: QOTD: In 1923, the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

05 Apr 2018, 11:40
GMATNinja wrote:
Quote:
(D) a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court,

(D) is exactly the same as (C), except that it’s in passive voice: “a minimum wage… was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court” is an unnecessarily indirect way to say “the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional a minimum wage…”

To be clear: there are times when passive voice is perfectly acceptable. It’s not automatically wrong. But in this case, there’s no justification for the passive voice: why would we use passive when it’s clearer to just use active voice, and state that the Supreme Court took action?

(D) isn’t as good as (C), so we can eliminate (D).

GMATNinja , GMATNinjaTwo , egmat

I thought D was the correct answer because the non -underlined word 'ruling' correctly modifies the 'supreme court' at the end of the sentence. Is that correct?
Also how do we realize which word the modifier is modifying (in this case - 'ruling'). Sometimes it could be the subject at the start of the sentence or sometimes the last word of the sentence.
e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2617
Re: QOTD: In 1923, the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

06 Apr 2018, 12:13
1
Deepit wrote:
egmat

I thought D was the correct answer because the non -underlined word 'ruling' correctly modifies the 'supreme court' at the end of the sentence. Is that correct?
Also how do we realize which word the modifier is modifying (in this case - 'ruling'). Sometimes it could be the subject at the start of the sentence or sometimes the last word of the sentence.

Hello Deepit,

The verb-ing modifiers modify the preceding noun entities when they are NOT preceded by a comma. For example:

The man wearing the red hat is my uncle.

In the above-mentioned sentence, wearing modifies the preceding noun The man.

When a verb-ing modifier is preceded by a comma and is placed after a clause, then it modifies the action in the preceding clause. In such a modification, the action presented by the comma + verb-ing modifier must make sense with the doer of the modified action.

Same is the structure we see in the correct answer choice of this official sentence as well.

In 1923, the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional a minimum wage for women and children in the District of Columbia, ruling that it was a form of price-fixing and, as such, an abridgment of the right of contract.

As you can see, the verb-ing modifier ruling is preceded by the comma and placed after the clause. Hence, it is an action modifier. It modifies the action declared in the preceding clause.

The sentence intends to say that the Supreme Court declared xyz unconstitutional. In doing so, the court ruled something. So you see, in choice C, the action of ruled makes sense with the doer - the Supreme Court - of the modified action declared.

But this is not the case with Choice D. Choice D seems to suggest that a minimum wage did the action of ruling. This is certainly not the intended logical meaning.

You can learn all about the Verb-ing Modifiers at e-GMAT by simply registering at e-gmat.com for free. This concept is part of our Free Trial course.

Hope this helps.
Thanks
_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Director
Joined: 26 Aug 2016
Posts: 687
Location: India
Concentration: Strategy, Marketing
GMAT 1: 690 Q50 V33
GMAT 2: 700 Q50 V33
GMAT 3: 730 Q51 V38
GPA: 4
WE: Consulting (Consulting)
Re: QOTD: In 1923, the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

10 Jul 2018, 07:26
1
The supreme court declared X Y, ruling something.
ruling something must modify supreme court.
Declare X Y is an idiom. just like consider X Y .
I think now its clear why C is correct

Re: QOTD: In 1923, the Supreme Court declared a minimum wage &nbs [#permalink] 10 Jul 2018, 07:26
Display posts from previous: Sort by

# Events & Promotions

 Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.