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QOTD: Neuropeptide substance P is released

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QOTD: Neuropeptide substance P is released [#permalink]

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Verbal Question Of The Day: Day 77: Critical Reasoning


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Neuropeptide substance P is released in the spinal cord in response to pain and causes nerve endings around the initiating nerves to also become more sensitive to pain. Normally, this mechanism is "reset" during stages of deep sleep. If, however, the mechanism cannot be reset, this process may run out of control and cause fibromyalgia, a disorder characterized by body-wide chronic pain and fatigue. Conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use, and serotonin deficiency can interfere with stages of "deep" sleep.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

(A) The simplest way to treat fibromyalgia is to control the release of neuropeptide substance P.
(B) The release of neuropeptide substance P cannot be reset if a patient suffers from a condition that interferes with stages of "deep" sleep.
(C) Patients who do not suffer from conditions that can interfere with stages of "deep" sleep will not develop fibromyalgia.
(D) Conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia.
(E) Drug users who experience body-wide chronic pain and fatigue most likely suffer from fibromyalgia.

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QOTD: Neuropeptide substance P is released [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2017, 10:21
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Normally, I like to start analyzing a passage by identifying the conclusion. In this case, we are asked to select the best conclusion, so let's make sure we are clear on the given information:

  • Neuropeptide substance P (NSP), as described in the first sentence, "is released in the spinal cord in response to pain and causes nerve endings around the initiating nerves to also become more sensitive to pain."
  • This mechanism is normally reset during stages of deep sleep. Notice that the passage does not say that the mechanism is always reset during stages of deep sleep or that this is the only way to reset the mechanism.
  • If "the mechanism cannot be reset, this process may run out of control and cause fibromyalgia." - Notice the word "may"; the passage does not say that "if the mechanism cannot be reset, the process will definitely run out of control and cause fibromyalgia."
  • "Conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use, and serotonin deficiency can interfere with stages of 'deep' sleep." - Those conditions might interfere with deep sleep, and deep sleep, as we know, normally resets the NSP mechanism. This implies that those conditions might interfere with the resetting of the NSP mechanism, which could in turn lead to fibromyalgia. However, we are not told whether those conditions will always have those effects.

These statements best support which of the following conclusions?

Quote:
(A) The simplest way to treat fibromyalgia is to control the release of neuropeptide substance P.

We have no idea if controlling the release of NSP is simple or if there are other, simpler ways to treat fibromyalgia. Eliminate choice (A).

Quote:
(B) The release of neuropeptide substance P cannot be reset if a patient suffers from a condition that interferes with stages of "deep" sleep.

As stated above, the NSP mechanism is normally reset during deep sleep. However, it is possible that there are other ways to reset the NSP mechanism, even in the absence of deep sleep. Thus, choice (B) cannot be properly inferred and can be eliminated.

Quote:
(C) Patients who do not suffer from conditions that can interfere with stages of "deep" sleep will not develop fibromyalgia.

A lack of deep sleep can cause fibromyalgia, but we aren't told whether there are other ways of developing fibromyalgia. Thus, choice (C) should be eliminated.

Quote:
(D) Conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia.

This statement says that the conditions CAN aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia. It does not say that the conditions will DEFINITELY aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia. Those conditions might interfere with deep sleep, and this, in turn, might prevent the NSP process from being reset. As stated in the passage, if "the mechanism cannot be reset, this process may run out of control and cause fibromyalgia." Statement D is consistent with the information in the passage, so let's hang on to it.

Quote:
(E) Drug users who experience body-wide chronic pain and fatigue most likely suffer from fibromyalgia.

Those drug users might experience body-wide chronic pain and fatigue for a variety of other reasons besides having fibromyalgia. Thus, choice (E) cannot be properly inferred and should be eliminated.

(D) is the best choice.
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Re: QOTD: Neuropeptide substance P is released [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2017, 17:51
IMO D.

1. Neuropeptide causes pain and is reset during sleep.
2. If it is not reset then it causes fibromyalgia.
3. Conditions like depression, anxiety interfere with deep sleep.

conlusion would link points 2 & 3.

hence D
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QOTD: Neuropeptide substance P is released [#permalink]

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souvik101990 wrote:
Neuropeptide substance P is released in the spinal cord in response to pain and causes nerve endings around the initiating nerves to also become more sensitive to pain. Normally, this mechanism is "reset" during stages of deep sleep. If, however, the mechanism cannot be reset, this process may run out of control and cause fibromyalgia, a disorder characterized by body-wide chronic pain and fatigue. Conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use, and serotonin deficiency can interfere with stages of "deep" sleep.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?


1. P is released in response to pain
2. (1) is reset during deep sleep
3. If (1) cannot be reset, P may run out of control and cause fibromyalgia
4. Some conditions can interfere deep sleep

(A) The simplest way to treat fibromyalgia is to control the release of neuropeptide substance P.
The statements make no comparison between some ways to treat fibromyalgia, so "the simplest way to treat fibromyalgia" is incorrect. Also, P running out of control is just a possible cause to fibromyalgia. The statements have no information indicated that controlling the release of P is a way to treat fibromyalgia.

(B) The release of neuropeptide substance P cannot be reset if a patient suffers from a condition that interferes with stages of "deep" sleep.
Trap here. In (2) and (3), the statements indicate that if (4) then there may be some reasons cause (1) not to be reset. The statements don't imply that (1) cannot be reset because of conditions that interferes with stage of deep sleep.

(C) Patients who do not suffer from conditions that can interfere with stages of "deep" sleep will not develop fibromyalgia.
There is no information indicated that patients who don't suffer from conditions that interferes with deep sleep will not develop fibromyalgia. The statements just say that patients have trouble with deep sleep could cause fibromyalgia.

(D) Conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia.
Correct. Such conditions can interfere deep sleep and thus can make the release of P cannot be reset and cause fibromyalgia as the result.

(E) Drug users who experience body-wide chronic pain and fatigue most likely suffer from fibromyalgia.
There is no information linked "fibromyalgia" to "Drug users who experience body-wide chronic pain and fatigue"
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Re: QOTD: Neuropeptide substance P is released [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2017, 23:40
Neuropeptide substance P is released in the spinal cord in response to pain and causes nerve endings around the initiating nerves to also become more sensitive to pain. Normally, this mechanism is "reset" during stages of deep sleep. If, however, the mechanism cannot be reset, this process may run out of control and cause fibromyalgia, a disorder characterized by body-wide chronic pain and fatigue. Conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use, and serotonin deficiency can interfere with stages of "deep" sleep.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

(A) The simplest way to treat fibromyalgia is to control the release of neuropeptide substance P. -It's too exaggerated choice.
(B) The release of neuropeptide substance P cannot be reset if a patient suffers from a condition that interferes with stages of "deep" sleep. -This is the opposite of the premise
(C) Patients who do not suffer from conditions that can interfere with stages of "deep" sleep will not develop fibromyalgia. -It's too exaggerated choice. We do not know about all the causes of fibromyalgia.
(D) Conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia. Correct
(E) Drug users who experience body-wide chronic pain and fatigue most likely suffer from fibromyalgia. -It's too exaggerated choice
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Re: QOTD: Neuropeptide substance P is released [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2017, 07:21
How can we infer that anxiety, drug use, etc. can aggravate fibromyalgia? According to the question It can cause fibromyalgia, but I haven't found grounds for the conclusion that it can also aggravate fibromyalgia

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Re: QOTD: Neuropeptide substance P is released [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2017, 08:58
+1 for Option D. My take :

1) Neuropeptide initiates a mechanism.
2) This mechanism is reset during deep sleep.
3) Failure to reset can cause problems.
4) Certain conditions can interfere with deep sleep cycle.

Pre thinking - A condition that can interfere with sleep cycles can cause problems.

Only option D fits into our pre-thinking mold. Awaiting OE :)
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Re: QOTD: Neuropeptide substance P is released [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2017, 01:48
(A) The simplest way to treat fibromyalgia is to control the release of neuropeptide substance P. we are not told what is the simplest way to treat X

(B) The release of neuropeptide substance P cannot be reset if a patient suffers from a condition that interferes with stages of "deep" sleep. We know that deep sleep helps in resetting of the substance; we know certain conditions affect deep sleep- but its an overstatement to say that these conditions will lead to affect resetting process.

(C) Patients who do not suffer from conditions that can interfere with stages of "deep" sleep will not develop fibromyalgia. - again an overstatement - for all we know these conditions can have extreme impact on deep sleep and stop resetting.

(D) Conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia.
Balance and correct - rightfully makes a connection between conditions affecting deep sleep that could have an effect on release of substance and consequently on fibromyalgia

(E) Drug users who experience body-wide chronic pain and fatigue most likely suffer from fibromyalgia. Wrong correlation- there could be an unrelated coz for chronic pain that is not at all related to fibromyalgia.
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Re: QOTD: Neuropeptide substance P is released   [#permalink] 10 Aug 2017, 01:48
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