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QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a

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QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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Verbal Question of The Day: Day 41: Sentence Correction


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Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

(A) which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks

(B) which caused the plant and animal extinctions and marks

(C) and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark

(D) an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, which marks

(E) an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark

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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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This one isn't too awful, compared to some of the QOTDs we'll inflict on you later this week. For the most part, this is a nice story about straightforward uses of "that" and "which" modifiers, with some meaning stuff thrown in.

The uses of "that" and "which" can get nastier, though. Check out last Monday's YouTube webinar for more on the various uses of "that" on the GMAT... and we'll feature the other examples from the webinar as QOTDs later this week.

Quote:
A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks

"Which" can only modify "North America" here, and that makes no sense at all: "North America, which... marks the end of the geologic era"?! The placement of the "-ing" modifier doesn't seem great, either. Eliminate (A).

Quote:
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking

Again, the modifier beginning with "which" is modifying "North America" again, and that makes no sense: "North America, which caused the plant and animal extinctions..." Eliminate (B).

Quote:
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark

I'm OK with the use of "that" here, but the parallelism doesn't work. The parallelism marker "and" is followed by "causing plant and animal extinctions", and I can't find anything in the sentence that could possibly be parallel to "causing." (C) is gone.

Quote:
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks

The last part of the underlined portion makes me hesitate: "it" could refer to "event", I guess. So "...an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and the event marks the end of the geologic era..." That's not awful, but I really don't understand why we're starting a whole new clause there, with "event" as the subject. It makes a whole lot more sense when the end of the sentence says "... marks the end of the geologic era..." function as a modifier for "extinctions" -- and that's exactly what (E) does.

Since "it" is the subject of the second clause, you could also argue that it refers back to the subject of the first clause: "an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest." But that wouldn't really make much sense, either: the asteroid marks the end of the geologic era? Hm, not so sure about that one. But either way: even if you're OK with the pronoun, (E) does a much better job of conveying the meaning of the sentence.

Incidentally, there's another version of this answer choice in the verbal guide (any edition): "an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, which marks..." Clearly, that's wrong for a different reason: "extinctions... marks" is a clear subject-verb error.

Either way, (D) is gone.

Quote:
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark

(E) has two "thats", and they're both perfectly fine. The event caused the plant and animal extinctions, and the extinctions mark the end of the geologic era. Nice and clear. (E) wins.
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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2017, 10:02
Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks
(modifier error)
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking
(modifier error)
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark
(parallelism error)
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks
(parallelism error)
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark
(Correct)
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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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Verbal Question of The Day: Day 41: Sentence Correction


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Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark

Every question of the day will be followed by an expert reply by GMATNinja in 12-15 hours. Stay tuned! Post your answers and explanations to earn kudos.


A. modifier error - which is modifying North America. North America cannot cause plant and animal extinctions
B. Same as above
C. Parallelism error - slammed and caused need to be in the same tense .....An asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America...and causing....... is incorrect
D. "An event" clearly modifies "an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America". The word "it" may cause some concern, but "it" here correctly refers to "event"
E. Meaning error - plant and animal extinctions did not mark the end of the geologic era. The era was marked by the event of the asteroid slamming into North America.

Answer is D
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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2017, 12:24
Its D....

Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks - which refers to NA...non-sensical
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking - which refers to NA...non-sensical
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark - use of AND not required
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks - Correct
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark - incorrect since 'THAT' refers to plant and animal extinctions and they did not mark the end of era
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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2017, 12:27
I think it is (D).

It is the event that marks the end of the geologic era. (E) seems to convey that extinctions mark the end of the era. Meaning error in (E).
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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2017, 14:48
Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks --> which modifies NA
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking --> which modifies NA
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark --> slammed into NA and causing are not || and that mark means the extinctions mark
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks --> CORRECT
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark --> that mark means the extensions mark

Hence, D imo
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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2017, 17:12
D

A, B - improper usage of which
C-parallelism
D - it is ambiguous but hold it
E- event is singular hence the verb '' marks''should be used

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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2017, 19:12
preksha001 wrote:
B

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B has "which" and it always represent the preceding noun and here its "America" which is nonsensical.

Hope it helps... :)
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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2017, 19:15
AN easy but typical one. Solved it in 55 Sec.

A and B are out as they have "which" in it which is nonsensical here.
C-) and ... and that causing changes the intended meaning.
D-) Best suits till now having no errors.
E-) that changes the intended meaning of the original Sentence.

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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A., which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks --- 'Which' has no referent, present tense ' marks' is incorrect.

B., which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking -- same pronoun error as in A.

C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark --- a fragment

D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks -- no referent for the pronoun 'it'

E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark -- correct choice. The restrictive pronoun 'that' before the plural verb 'mark' refers to the plural noun 'extinctions'.
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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2017, 20:15
IMO E



Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks -incorrect verb-tense
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking -animal extension marking -doesn't make sense to me
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark -incorrect verb-tense
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks -S-V agreement issue
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark -(best among all -no ambiguity)


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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2017, 21:12
Imo D
It maintains parallelism .
I think it correctly refers to event hence the verb should be singular.
the use of and makes the use of it proper .
Please correct me if i am wrong .
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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2017, 04:35
daagh wrote:
Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A., which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks --- 'Which' has no referent, present tense ' marks' is incorrect.

B., which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking -- same pronoun error as in A.

C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark --- a fragment

D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks -- no referent for the pronoun 'it'

E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark -- correct choice. The restrictive pronoun 'that' before the plural verb 'mark' refers to the plural noun 'extinctions'.


daagh, doesn't "it" in (D) refer to "an event".
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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2017, 05:10
In a and b which incorrectly modifies north America incorrect

C construction error

In d and e, the it in D has no antecedent, it might even refer to the asteroid

Hence E

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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2017, 18:49
After so much discussion whats actual answer I marked D , Is it correct ?
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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2017, 23:01
manhasnoname wrote:
doesn't "it" in (D) refer to "an event".

Hi manhasnoname, D says:

an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks

From a purely parallelism perspective, if the intent of it was to refer to an event, then option D should have been:

an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and that marks
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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2017, 23:16
Should the answer not be B: which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking
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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2017, 01:33
guneetk wrote:
Should the answer not be B: which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking


Hi,

B totally cannot be a correct answer, and main problem lies on the usage of "which". "Which" modifies its immediately preceding noun. In this case, that preceding noun is "North America", as a result, the sentence meaning turns out to be illogical. How can North America cause the plant and animal extinctions ???

You can look at the first post of GMATNinja for more details.

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Re: QOTD: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an a [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2017, 21:21
E stands out by far ...
First two has "which" error
Third one is a run on sentence
And D has new clause in the end saying that its the asteroid that marks the end of the era !!!


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