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Researchers have found that children as young as two year old toddlers

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Researchers have found that children as young as two year old toddlers  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2018, 22:19
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Researchers have found that children as young as two year old toddlers use mathematical concepts such as probability to understand the world around them and make decisions accordingly. In an experiment conducted to study such behaviour, toddlers observed an experimenter play a game with two different colored buttons. The pressing of the button would sometimes release a marble and sometimes not. When these toddlers were asked to play the same game, 23 out of 32 toddlers chose to press the button that was more successful in generating a marble.

Which of the following, if true, is important to rule out the possibility that the toddlers made a choice purely based on frequency, i.e. the number of times a button returned marbles, rather than probability?


A. The toddlers who chose the button that returned a marble fewer number of times were measured to have the same IQ as the ones who chose the other button.

B. None of the toddlers were found to have color-blindness and could differentiate between the two buttons on the basis of their colors.

C. During the experimenter's turn at the game, both the buttons generated a marble the same number of times, though the number of attempts for each button varied significantly.

D. 19 out of 23 toddlers who chose the button that was more successful in generating marbles belonged to families in which one of the parents was a Mathematics teacher.

E. Both the buttons released marbles with the same number of unsuccessful attempts between two successful ones.

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Re: Researchers have found that children as young as two year old toddlers  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2018, 23:21
A. The toddlers who chose the button that returned a marble fewer number of times were measured to have the same IQ as the ones who chose the other button. - talks about IQ, therefore, irrelevant.

B. None of the toddlers were found to have color-blindness and could differentiate between the two buttons on the basis of their colors. - irrelevant

C. During the experimenter's turn at the game, both the buttons generated a marble the same number of times, though the number of attempts for each button varied significantly. - Talks about frequency and attempts made. Hold

D. 19 out of 23 toddlers who chose the button that was more successful in generating marbles belonged to families in which one of the parents was a Mathematics teacher. - irrelevant

E. Both the buttons released marbles with the same number of unsuccessful attempts between two successful ones -

indicates that the probability is same. So then, how can the toddler decide on the basis of probability. Thus, I eliminated this.

IMO C, though not 100% sure.

OA ??

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Re: Researchers have found that children as young as two year old toddlers  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2018, 04:20
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C. During the experimenter's turn at the game, both the buttons generated a marble the same number of times, though the number of attempts for each button varied significantly.

C is the correct choice imo. The question asks us to rule out the possibility that the frequency influenced the toddlers' decision. C tells us that the frequency of both buttons was the same, hence it couldn't be the deciding factor.

Hope that helps :-)
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Re: Researchers have found that children as young as two year old toddlers  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2018, 06:21
I will go with E AS IT SAYS THAT BOTH BUTTONS HAVE SAME PROBABILITY.

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Re: Researchers have found that children as young as two year old toddlers  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2018, 07:36
IMO C is the Answer as it is related to frequency.

+1 if this helps!

arun6765 wrote:
Researchers have found that children as young as two year old toddlers use mathematical concepts such as probability to understand the world around them and make decisions accordingly. In an experiment conducted to study such behaviour, toddlers observed an experimenter play a game with two different colored buttons. The pressing of the button would sometimes release a marble and sometimes not. When these toddlers were asked to play the same game, 23 out of 32 toddlers chose to press the button that was more successful in generating a marble.

Which of the following, if true, is important to rule out the possibility that the toddlers made a choice purely based on frequency, i.e. the number of times a button returned marbles, rather than probability?


A. The toddlers who chose the button that returned a marble fewer number of times were measured to have the same IQ as the ones who chose the other button.

B. None of the toddlers were found to have color-blindness and could differentiate between the two buttons on the basis of their colors.

C. During the experimenter's turn at the game, both the buttons generated a marble the same number of times, though the number of attempts for each button varied significantly.

D. 19 out of 23 toddlers who chose the button that was more successful in generating marbles belonged to families in which one of the parents was a Mathematics teacher.

E. Both the buttons released marbles with the same number of unsuccessful attempts between two successful ones.

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Researchers have found that children as young as two year old toddlers  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2018, 09:50
arun6765 wrote:
Researchers have found that children as young as two year old toddlers use mathematical concepts such as probability to understand the world around them and make decisions accordingly. In an experiment conducted to study such behaviour, toddlers observed an experimenter play a game with two different colored buttons. The pressing of the button would sometimes release a marble and sometimes not. When these toddlers were asked to play the same game, 23 out of 32 toddlers chose to press the button that was more successful in generating a marble.

Which of the following, if true, is important to rule out the possibility that the toddlers made a choice purely based on frequency, i.e. the number of times a button returned marbles, rather than probability?


A. The toddlers who chose the button that returned a marble fewer number of times were measured to have the same IQ as the ones who chose the other button.

B. None of the toddlers were found to have color-blindness and could differentiate between the two buttons on the basis of their colors.

C. During the experimenter's turn at the game, both the buttons generated a marble the same number of times, though the number of attempts for each button varied significantly.

D. 19 out of 23 toddlers who chose the button that was more successful in generating marbles belonged to families in which one of the parents was a Mathematics teacher.

E. Both the buttons released marbles with the same number of unsuccessful attempts between two successful ones.


KarishmaB : Mam, can you explain how C is correct and others are wrong. Not able to understand the concept here.
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Re: Researchers have found that children as young as two year old toddlers  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2018, 05:09
Researchers have found that children as young as two year old toddlers use mathematical concepts such as probability to understand the world around them and make decisions accordingly. In an experiment conducted to study such behaviour, toddlers observed an experimenter play a game with two different colored buttons. The pressing of the button would sometimes release a marble and sometimes not. When these toddlers were asked to play the same game, 23 out of 32 toddlers chose to press the button that was more successful in generating a marble.

Which of the following, if true, is important to rule out the possibility that the toddlers made a choice purely based on frequency, i.e. the number of times a button returned marbles, rather than probability?


A. The toddlers who chose the button that returned a marble fewer number of times were measured to have the same IQ as the ones who chose the other button.

B. None of the toddlers were found to have color-blindness and could differentiate between the two buttons on the basis of their colors.

C. During the experimenter's turn at the game, both the buttons generated a marble the same number of times, though the number of attempts for each button varied significantly.

D. 19 out of 23 toddlers who chose the button that was more successful in generating marbles belonged to families in which one of the parents was a Mathematics teacher.

E. Both the buttons released marbles with the same number of unsuccessful attempts between two successful ones.

negating the main point:
kid used probabilty not frequency to press the buttons
given that a) 50% chance of getting a marble from each button.

pre-think:
1. when probabiility is same , kid cannot use it to decide.

look at the options:
A. The toddlers who chose the button that returned a marble fewer number of times were measured to have the same IQ as the ones who chose the other button.
even if kid have different IQ, it doesnot imply how they decided. hence irrelevant.

B. None of the toddlers were found to have color-blindness and could differentiate between the two buttons on the basis of their colors.
even if both buttons are same color, they still use counting to calculate the frrquency or probability. hence it is irrelevant

C. During the experimenter's turn at the game, both the buttons generated a marble the same number of times, though the number of attempts for each button varied significantly.
lets say a -> 10 attempts and b-> 5 attempts
as per c successful attempts for both are same , lets success = 2 , then probaility for each is different. this will help the
kid to select high probability button.hence negating it , probability is different, sometimes a>b , sometimes b>a depending upon no of successful attempts of each kid. hence probability cannot be used.

D. 19 out of 23 toddlers who chose the button that was more successful in generating marbles belonged to families in which one of the parents was a Mathematics teacher.
even if parents are mathematicians, it doesnot say anything. hence irrelevant.

E. Both the buttons released marbles with the same number of unsuccessful attempts between two successful ones.
if successful and unsuccessful attempts of both are same,then there is a chance of 50% proabaility in each case.
but negating will say they have different probabilty. hence it is opposit. hence incorrect
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Re: Researchers have found that children as young as two year old toddlers &nbs [#permalink] 27 Sep 2018, 05:09
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Researchers have found that children as young as two year old toddlers

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