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Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated

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Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2019, 00:20
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Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated with bacteria that causes mononucleosis. They found that contamination usually occurs after the lipstick has been used for six months. For that reason, women should dispose of any lipstick after six months of use.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion above?


A. The researchers could not discover why lipstick contamination usually occurred only after six months of use.

B. The researchers failed to investigate contamination of lipstick by viruses, yeasts, and other pathogenic microorganisms.

C. The researchers found that among women who used lipstick contaminated with bacteria that causes mononucleosis, the incidence of these diseases was no higher than among people who used uncontaminated lipsticks.

D. The researchers found that people who wiped their lipsticks clean after each use were as likely to have contaminated lipsticks as were people who never wiped their lipsticks.

E. The researchers found that, after six weeks of use, greater length of use of a lipstick did not correlate with a higher number of bacteria being present.

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Re: Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2019, 01:15
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Here the conclusion is based on the cause effect relationship

C. The researchers found that among women who used lipstick contaminated with bacteria that causes mononucleosis, the incidence of these diseases was no higher than among people who used uncontaminated lipsticks......this clearly weakens the conclusion by weakening the cause of the relation


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Re: Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2019, 02:18
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Conclusion ;

Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated with bacteria that causes mononucleosis For that reason, women should dispose of any lipstick after six months of use.

IMO C; weakens conclusion
The researchers found that among women who used lipstick contaminated with bacteria that causes mononucleosis, the incidence of these diseases was no higher than among people who used uncontaminated lipsticks.

Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated with bacteria that causes mononucleosis. They found that contamination usually occurs after the lipstick has been used for six months. For that reason, women should dispose of any lipstick after six months of use.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion above?


A. The researchers could not discover why lipstick contamination usually occurred only after six months of use.

B. The researchers failed to investigate contamination of lipstick by viruses, yeasts, and other pathogenic microorganisms.

C. The researchers found that among women who used lipstick contaminated with bacteria that causes mononucleosis, the incidence of these diseases was no higher than among people who used uncontaminated lipsticks.

D. The researchers found that people who wiped their lipsticks clean after each use were as likely to have contaminated lipsticks as were people who never wiped their lipsticks.

E. The researchers found that, after six weeks of use, greater length of use of a lipstick did not correlate with a higher number of bacteria being present.
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Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 12 Nov 2019, 02:10
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Quote:
Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated with bacteria that causes mononucleosis. They found that contamination usually occurs after the lipstick has been used for six months. For that reason, women should dispose of any lipstick after six months of use.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion above?

A. The researchers could not discover why lipstick contamination usually occurred only after six months of use.
B. The researchers failed to investigate contamination of lipstick by viruses, yeasts, and other pathogenic microorganisms.
C. The researchers found that among women who used lipstick contaminated with bacteria that causes mononucleosis, the incidence of these diseases was no higher than among people who used uncontaminated lipsticks.
D. The researchers found that people who wiped their lipsticks clean after each use were as likely to have contaminated lipsticks as were people who never wiped their lipsticks.
E. The researchers found that, after six weeks of use, greater length of use of a lipstick did not correlate with a higher number of bacteria being present.


ARGUMENT
[con] Women should dispose of any lipstick after 6 mos. use;
[prem] Researchers found that lipstick contamination usually occurred after 6 mos. use;
[asum] Contaminated lipstick will affect Women's health.

WEAKEN
A. The reason why it happens this way is irrelevant, this doesn't weaken;
B. We are concerned about bacteria that causes mono, not others;
D. This doesn't change the fact that after 6 mos. of use contamination occurs;
E. This doesn't change the fact that after 6 mos. of use contamination occurs;

Ans C: If contaminated vs uncontaminated lipsticks caused the same number of incidences, then there must be some other reason.

Originally posted by exc4libur on 11 Nov 2019, 05:04.
Last edited by exc4libur on 12 Nov 2019, 02:10, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2019, 15:36
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The right answer is option C.

Premise 1: Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated with bacteria that cause mononucleosis.
Premise 2: That contamination usually occurs after the lipstick has been used for six months.

Conclusion: Women should dispose of any lipstick after six months of use.

Option C says that the researchers found that among women who used lipstick contaminated with bacteria that cause mononucleosis, the incidence of these diseases was [b]not higher[/b] than among people who used uncontaminated lipsticks. This is the correct answer. This is because if it is true that the researchers found out that women who use the contaminated lipsticks do not record higher cases of mononucleosis compared with those whose lipsticks have not been contaminated, then what is the rationale behind throwing away the lipstick after 6months of use? This, therefore, weakens the conclusion.
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Re: Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2019, 19:52
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The stimulus states that women who use lipstick for more than six months get the disease. So women should not use lipstick for more than six months.

If we have to weaken the conclusion we need to find that lipstick should not be used for more than six months

IMO C the incidence of women who get the disease while using the contaminated lipstick is same as compared to the ones who do not use lipstick.

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Re: Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2019, 23:31
Bunuel wrote:

Competition Mode Question



Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated with bacteria that causes mononucleosis. They found that contamination usually occurs after the lipstick has been used for six months. For that reason, women should dispose of any lipstick after six months of use.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion above?


A. The researchers could not discover why lipstick contamination usually occurred only after six months of use.

B. The researchers failed to investigate contamination of lipstick by viruses, yeasts, and other pathogenic microorganisms.

C. The researchers found that among women who used lipstick contaminated with bacteria that causes mononucleosis, the incidence of these diseases was no higher than among people who used uncontaminated lipsticks.

D. The researchers found that people who wiped their lipsticks clean after each use were as likely to have contaminated lipsticks as were people who never wiped their lipsticks.

E. The researchers found that, after six weeks of use, greater length of use of a lipstick did not correlate with a higher number of bacteria being present.


Official Explanation



Correct Answer: C

The best answer is C. According to choice C, using a contaminated lipstick does not increase the incidence of infection, so the recommendation to replace a lipstick before it becomes contaminated is greatly undermined.
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Re: Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2019, 23:44
Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated with bacteria that causes mononucleosis. They found that contamination usually occurs after the lipstick has been used for six months. For that reason, women should dispose of any lipstick after six months of use.


Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion above?

conclusion : women should dispose of any lipstick after six months of use.

reason : since, contamination occurs after use for 6 months!

underlying assumption : all lipsticks are contaminated and not just the the one they studied!

we need to find an option that proves that women need not dispose of the lipstick after 6 months of use!


A. The researchers could not discover why lipstick contamination usually occurred only after six months of use.- this doesn't matter- probably strengthens the argument

B. The researchers failed to investigate contamination of lipstick by viruses, yeasts, and other pathogenic microorganisms.- doesn't mean that if they do examine they can prevent the contamination- 50/50 option!

C. The researchers found that among women who used lipstick contaminated with bacteria that causes mononucleosis, the incidence of these diseases was no higher than among people who used uncontaminated lipsticks.---- Correct! uncontaminated and contaminated lipsticks have equal chances therefore its not the contamination but rather some other reason!!!!!

D. The researchers found that people who wiped their lipsticks clean after each use were as likely to have contaminated lipsticks as were people who never wiped their lipsticks.- strengthens!! wrong!

E. The researchers found that, after six weeks of use, greater length of use of a lipstick did not correlate with a higher number of bacteria being present.--- irrelevant
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Re: Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2019, 00:08
But my point is the conclusion states that women should dispose of any lipstick after six months of use. So even if it gets contaminated from any other sources, women should dispose it. So in a way option c strengthens the convlusion.

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Re: Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated   [#permalink] 12 Nov 2019, 00:08

Researchers recently discovered that lipstick can become contaminated

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