Last visit was: 23 Jul 2024, 22:14 It is currently 23 Jul 2024, 22:14
Close
GMAT Club Daily Prep
Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History
Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.
Close
Request Expert Reply
Confirm Cancel
SORT BY:
Date
Tags:
Difficulty: 555-605 Level,   Science,                        
Show Tags
Hide Tags
Volunteer Expert
Joined: 16 May 2019
Posts: 3507
Own Kudos [?]: 6986 [1]
Given Kudos: 500
Manager
Manager
Joined: 11 May 2020
Posts: 126
Own Kudos [?]: 17 [0]
Given Kudos: 146
Send PM
Tutor
Joined: 16 Oct 2010
Posts: 15141
Own Kudos [?]: 66819 [3]
Given Kudos: 436
Location: Pune, India
Send PM
Intern
Intern
Joined: 08 Oct 2017
Posts: 13
Own Kudos [?]: 6 [0]
Given Kudos: 7
Location: India
WE:Project Management (Non-Profit and Government)
Send PM
Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize [#permalink]
In question 1. Can someone explain the difference between option (C) and (A) and how (A) is correct?
Retired Moderator
Joined: 31 May 2017
Posts: 745
Own Kudos [?]: 676 [1]
Given Kudos: 53
Concentration: Technology, Strategy
Send PM
Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize [#permalink]
1
Kudos
parthgohel wrote:
In question 1. Can someone explain the difference between option (C) and (A) and how (A) is correct?


Question 1:
According to the passage, which of the following is true of plant antiherbivore chemistry?

According to the passage , the plant antiherbivore chemistry deals with plants' chemical defenses against attack by herbivores such as insects

(A) Changes in a plant's antiherbivore chemistry may affect insect feeding behavior. - Plants are attacked by Insects for feeding and if plant's chemicals build defenses against attack , then it directly impacts Insects feeding. Option A directly says the same.

(C) A plant's antiherbivore responses assist in combating bacterial infections.
Agreed, this might theoritically be right, but responses mentioned here comes after infections.
Intern
Intern
Joined: 23 Jul 2021
Posts: 10
Own Kudos [?]: 0 [0]
Given Kudos: 389
Send PM
Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize [#permalink]
GMATNinja @e-gmat
I selected C for Q3 considering that initially the bacterial infections were considered as the reason and later chemical analysis showed that insects were the actual cause

Posted from my mobile device
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
Joined: 13 Aug 2009
Status: GMAT/GRE/LSAT tutors
Posts: 6991
Own Kudos [?]: 64576 [0]
Given Kudos: 1824
Location: United States (CO)
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
GMAT 2: 800 Q51 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V170

GRE 2: Q170 V170
Send PM
Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize [#permalink]
Expert Reply

Question 3


ag28 wrote:
GMATNinja @e-gmat
I selected C for Q3 considering that initially the bacterial infections were considered as the reason and later chemical analysis showed that insects were the actual cause

Posted from my mobile device

VeritasKarishma explained why (A) is correct here, but we'll throw in our thoughts on why (C) is wrong in case that's helpful!

Quote:
3. The author refers to “bacterial infections” (see line 11) most likely in order to

(C) explain how modern chemical analysis has been used to clarify the function of resin

The purpose of the first paragraph is to describe various misunderstandings about the terms "resin" and "amber." Gum is mentioned as an example of one of these misunderstandings -- "Resin is often confused with gum."

Later in the paragraph, we learn a few more relevant facts about resin and gum:
  • Gum is "produced in plants in response to bacterial infections"
  • Scientists have not yet "determined a physiological function for resin"

Therefore (C) is wrong because scientists have not clarified the function of resin. While various theories about the function of resin in relation to insect attack are discussed in the second paragraph, none of this is related to the mention of "bacterial infections" in line 11, which only relates to gum.

I hope that helps!
Intern
Intern
Joined: 11 Jul 2019
Posts: 18
Own Kudos [?]: 17 [0]
Given Kudos: 239
GMAT 1: 640 Q48 V30
Send PM
Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize [#permalink]
Hi Experts,

I got other questions right but highly confused in question 2 for options B, D and E
Can you please help me understand what exactly is making E right and how to go about it


2. Of the following topics, which would be most likely to be studied within the discipline of chemical ecology as it is described in the passage?
Chemical ecology talks about the interaction between chemical and insect.
(A) Seeds that become attached to certain insects, which in turn carry away the seeds and aid in the reproductive cycle of the plant species in question -Seeds are not chemicals. Incorrect.
(B) An insect species that feeds on weeds detrimental to crop health and yield, and how these insects might aid in agricultural production
(C) The effects of deforestation on the life cycles of subtropical carnivorous plants and the insect species on which the plants feed -Effect of deforestation? Irrelevant
(D) The growth patterns of a particular species of plant that has proved remarkably resistant to herbicides -Growth pattern is talking about evolution of plants here right which is said in last lines of passage
(E) Insects that develop a tolerance for feeding on a plant that had previously been toxic to them, and the resultant changes within that plant species


EducationAisle GMATNinja TommyWallach egmat AjiteshArun EMPOWERgmatVerbal
GMAT Club Legend
GMAT Club Legend
Joined: 15 Jul 2015
Posts: 5340
Own Kudos [?]: 4747 [1]
Given Kudos: 666
Location: India
GMAT Focus 1:
715 Q83 V90 DI83
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V169
Send PM
Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize [#permalink]
1
Kudos
Expert Reply
pratishtha1210 wrote:
I got other questions right but highly confused in question 2 for options B, D and E
Can you please help me understand what exactly is making E right and how to go about it

Hi pratishtha1210,

Here's what the passage says about chemical ecology:
BillyZ wrote:
chemical ecology, which is concerned with the role of plant chemicals in interactions with other organisms and with the evolution and ecology of plant antiherbivore chemistry (plants' chemical defenses against attack by herbivores such as insects)

B. Mentions insects (other organisms), but doesn't have anything to do with plant chemicals.

D. Mentions plants and their resistance to herbicides. Doesn't mention other organisms. Also, herbicides may be chemicals, but they aren't plant chemicals. Herbicides are actually chemicals that are used to kill plants.

E. Mentions insects (other organisms), plants, and "resultant changes within that plant species" (evolution).

Insects' developing tolerance for feeding on a plant would necessarily involve an interaction between them and plant antiherbivore chemistry (otherwise, there would be no need for the word "tolerance"), and if the plant changes as a result, that points to the "evolution" mentioned in the passage.
Intern
Intern
Joined: 30 May 2021
Posts: 16
Own Kudos [?]: 7 [0]
Given Kudos: 88
Send PM
Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize [#permalink]
GMATNinja wrote:
himswarn wrote:
In the first question, agree that (A) is correct. But can someone please explain why is (E) incorrect?
(E) Researchers first studied repellent effects in plants beginning in the 1950s.

Quote:
Question 1 (Book Question: 467)

According to the passage, which of the following is true of plant antiherbivore chemistry?

(A) Changes in a plant's antiherbivore chemistry may affect insect feeding behavior.

(B) A plant's repellent effects often involve interactions between gum and resin.

(C) A plant's antiherbivore responses assist in combating bacterial infections.

(D) Plant antiherbivore chemistry plays only a minor role in the coevolution of plants and insects.

(E) Researchers first studied repellent effects in plants beginning in the 1950s.

Quote:
In the 1950s, entomologists posited that resin may function to repel or attract insects...

We are told that the repellent effects of resin were first considered in the 1950s. However, that does not necessarily mean that researchers were not studying OTHER (non-resin) repellent effects in plants prior to the 1950s.

I hope that helps!


Hi All/ GMATNinja

Kindly help on my below query for Question 1

The above explanation has confused me more. Can you please explain what should be the approach/ thinking that should go behind our reading/understanding. Do I need to question the author's intent for something, which I had considered a fact from the paragraph . As you see here " In the 1950s, entomologists posited that resin may function to repel or attract insects" this statement I had considered fact but your explanation question's the intent of the fact stating that "However, that does not necessarily mean that researchers were not studying OTHER (non-resin) repellent effects in plants prior to the 1950s." Hence kindly elaborate on your thinking for better understanding.

Also, the answer which is given for this question. "Changes in a plant's antiherbivore chemistry may affect insect feeding behavior." The reason why I had not selected (A) because I felt that the statement is making a general comment for all the insect rather than some insects which is what the paragraph indented: quoted " But some insect species, he noted, might overcome the repellent effects, actually becoming attracted to the resin. This might induce the insects to feed on those plants or aid them in securing a breeding site." Can you please correct my understanding here.
GMAT Club Legend
GMAT Club Legend
Joined: 15 Jul 2015
Posts: 5340
Own Kudos [?]: 4747 [2]
Given Kudos: 666
Location: India
GMAT Focus 1:
715 Q83 V90 DI83
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V169
Send PM
Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize [#permalink]
2
Kudos
Expert Reply
Anvesh99 wrote:
Hi All/ GMATNinja

Kindly help on my below query for Question 1

The above explanation has confused me more. Can you please explain what should be the approach/ thinking that should go behind our reading/understanding. Do I need to question the author's intent for something, which I had considered a fact from the paragraph . As you see here " In the 1950s, entomologists posited that resin may function to repel or attract insects" this statement I had considered fact but your explanation question's the intent of the fact stating that "However, that does not necessarily mean that researchers were not studying OTHER (non-resin) repellent effects in plants prior to the 1950s." Hence kindly elaborate on your thinking for better understanding.

Also, the answer which is given for this question. "Changes in a plant's antiherbivore chemistry may affect insect feeding behavior." The reason why I had not selected (A) because I felt that the statement is making a general comment for all the insect rather than some insects which is what the paragraph indented: quoted " But some insect species, he noted, might overcome the repellent effects, actually becoming attracted to the resin. This might induce the insects to feed on those plants or aid them in securing a breeding site." Can you please correct my understanding here.

Hi Anvesh99,

This is what the passage says:
BillyZ wrote:
In the 1950s, entomologists posited that resin may function to repel or attract insects.

And this is option E:
BillyZ wrote:
(E) Researchers first studied repellent effects in plants beginning in the 1950s.

In other words, the information we have is "in the 1950s, someone said that X does Y". Now, in the absence of any further information, how can we go from that to "~Y was first studied beginning in the 1950s"? For example, if we have a statement like "in the 1950s, someone said that X contributes to global warming", from that statement we can't conclude "researchers first studied global warming beginning in the 1950s".
Director
Director
Joined: 20 Apr 2022
Posts: 593
Own Kudos [?]: 343 [0]
Given Kudos: 330
Location: India
GPA: 3.64
Send PM
Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize [#permalink]
avigutman KarishmaB AndrewN GMATNinja really not clear about choice A in question 1. it seems way too irrelevant with the word 'changes' . Where can we see that with the changes in the chemistry, their eating behaviour changes? Their behaviour has just evolved generally and has nothing to do with changes in chemistry. In fact not that plants are intentionally changing their chemistry
Tutor
Joined: 17 Jul 2019
Posts: 1304
Own Kudos [?]: 1749 [1]
Given Kudos: 66
Location: Canada
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V45
GMAT 2: 780 Q50 V47
GMAT 3: 770 Q50 V45
Send PM
Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize [#permalink]
1
Kudos
Expert Reply
Elite097 wrote:
really not clear about choice A in question 1. it seems way too irrelevant with the word 'changes' . Where can we see that with the changes in the chemistry, their eating behaviour changes? Their behaviour has just evolved generally and has nothing to do with changes in chemistry. In fact not that plants are intentionally changing their chemistry

Here, Elite097:
Quote:
over time, plants evolved that produced resin with specific repellent effects. But some insect species, he noted, might overcome the repellent effects, actually becoming attracted to the resin.


Posted from my mobile device
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
Joined: 20 Dec 2020
Posts: 285
Own Kudos [?]: 30 [0]
Given Kudos: 497
Location: India
Send PM
Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize [#permalink]
KarishmaB GMATNinja

1. According to the passage, which of the following is true of plant antiherbivore chemistry?

(A) Changes in a plant's antiherbivore chemistry may affect insect feeding behavior.
(C) A plant's antiherbivore responses assist in combating bacterial infections.

Understanding from passage - plant antiherbivore chemistry relates to plant releasing some substances such as resin when attacked by insects. ( plants initially produced resin in nonspecific chemical responses to insect attack and that, over time, plants evolved that produced resin with specific repellent effects)
Meaning of C - When insect attacks plants and causes bacterial infection, plant will release resin with specific repellent effects to prevent infections.
But resin was released to stop insect attack.
C is incorrect because infection process happens after plant attack and resins was able to repel the insect. So we don't know whether plant antiherbivore chemistry/repelling effect helps in preventing or fighting against infection.
Please help to understand the reason to reject C.

3. The author refers to “bacterial infections” (see line 11) most likely in order to
(E) give an example of how confusion has arisen with regard to the nature of resin
E can be rejected because we don't still don't the reason or nature of resin. What's the meaning of "nature of resin"? Is the author referring to "physiological function" or something else?

Thank you for your help!
Tutor
Joined: 16 Oct 2010
Posts: 15141
Own Kudos [?]: 66819 [0]
Given Kudos: 436
Location: Pune, India
Send PM
Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize [#permalink]
Expert Reply
Sneha2021 wrote:
KarishmaB GMATNinja

1. According to the passage, which of the following is true of plant antiherbivore chemistry?

(A) Changes in a plant's antiherbivore chemistry may affect insect feeding behavior.
(C) A plant's antiherbivore responses assist in combating bacterial infections.

Understanding from passage - plant antiherbivore chemistry relates to plant releasing some substances such as resin when attacked by insects. ( plants initially produced resin in nonspecific chemical responses to insect attack and that, over time, plants evolved that produced resin with specific repellent effects)
Meaning of C - When insect attacks plants and causes bacterial infection, plant will release resin with specific repellent effects to prevent infections.
But resin was released to stop insect attack.
C is incorrect because infection process happens after plant attack and resins was able to repel the insect. So we don't know whether plant antiherbivore chemistry/repelling effect helps in preventing or fighting against infection.
Please help to understand the reason to reject C.

3. The author refers to “bacterial infections” (see line 11) most likely in order to
(E) give an example of how confusion has arisen with regard to the nature of resin
E can be rejected because we don't still don't the reason or nature of resin. What's the meaning of "nature of resin"? Is the author referring to "physiological function" or something else?

Thank you for your help!



1. According to the passage, which of the following is true of plant antiherbivore chemistry?

(A) Changes in a plant's antiherbivore chemistry may affect insect feeding behavior.

(B) A plant's repellent effects often involve interactions between gum and resin.

(C) A plant's antiherbivore responses assist in combating bacterial infections.

(D) Plant antiherbivore chemistry plays only a minor role in the coevolution of plants and insects.

(E) Researchers first studied repellent effects in plants beginning in the 1950s.


(A) Changes in a plant's antiherbivore chemistry may affect insect feeding behavior.

From the passage:
... This might induce the insects to feed on those plants or aid them in securing a breeding site.
Hence changes in antiherbivore chemistry may affect insect feeding behavior.

Answer (A)


(C) A plant's antiherbivore responses assist in combating bacterial infections.

From the passage:

Resin is often confused with gum, a substance produced in plants in response to bacterial infections, and with sap, an aqueous solution transported through certain plant tissues. Resin differs from both gum and sap in that scientists have not determined a physiological function for resin.

The second paragraph says that resin seems to be connected with plants and insects interdependence.

Resin has nothing to do with bacterial infections. Gum is the substance managing that. Hence (C) is not correct.
Tutor
Joined: 16 Oct 2010
Posts: 15141
Own Kudos [?]: 66819 [1]
Given Kudos: 436
Location: Pune, India
Send PM
Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize [#permalink]
1
Kudos
Expert Reply
Sneha2021 wrote:
KarishmaB GMATNinja

1. According to the passage, which of the following is true of plant antiherbivore chemistry?

(A) Changes in a plant's antiherbivore chemistry may affect insect feeding behavior.
(C) A plant's antiherbivore responses assist in combating bacterial infections.

Understanding from passage - plant antiherbivore chemistry relates to plant releasing some substances such as resin when attacked by insects. ( plants initially produced resin in nonspecific chemical responses to insect attack and that, over time, plants evolved that produced resin with specific repellent effects)
Meaning of C - When insect attacks plants and causes bacterial infection, plant will release resin with specific repellent effects to prevent infections.
But resin was released to stop insect attack.
C is incorrect because infection process happens after plant attack and resins was able to repel the insect. So we don't know whether plant antiherbivore chemistry/repelling effect helps in preventing or fighting against infection.
Please help to understand the reason to reject C.

3. The author refers to “bacterial infections” (see line 11) most likely in order to
(E) give an example of how confusion has arisen with regard to the nature of resin
E can be rejected because we don't still don't the reason or nature of resin. What's the meaning of "nature of resin"? Is the author referring to "physiological function" or something else?

Thank you for your help!



3. The author refers to “bacterial infections” (see line 11) most likely in order to

(A) describe the physiological function that gum performs in plants

(B) demonstrate that sap is not the only substance that is transported through a plant's tissues

(C) explain how modern chemical analysis has been used to clarify the function of resin

(D) show that gum cannot serve as an effective defense against herbivores

(E) give an example of how confusion has arisen with regard to the nature of resin


Resin is often confused with gum, a substance produced in plants in response to bacterial infections, and with sap, an aqueous solution transported through certain plant tissues. Resin differs from both gum and sap in that scientists have not determined a physiological function for resin.

The author says that people confuse resin with two other substances - gum and sap. He then explains the function of gum and function of sap and says that "a physiological function for resin" has not been determined. Hence, 'bacterial infections' was mentioned to give the function of gum.

Hence (A) is correct.

Note that bacterial infections has nothing to do how confusion arose about resin. People were unable to differentiate between the substances and that is why confusion arose. In fact, bacterial infections is mentioned to clarify the confusion.
Hence (E) is not correct.
User avatar
Non-Human User
Joined: 01 Oct 2013
Posts: 17530
Own Kudos [?]: 869 [0]
Given Kudos: 0
Send PM
Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize [#permalink]
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize [#permalink]
   1   2 
Moderators:
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
6991 posts
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
236 posts
GRE Forum Moderator
14064 posts