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Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize

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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: RC 467 ~ 470

Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilized resin is called amber. Although Pliny in the first century recognized that amber was produced from “marrow discharged by trees,” amber has been widely misunderstood to be a semiprecious gem and has even been described in mineralogy textbooks. Confusion also persists surrounding the term “resin,” which was defined before rigorous chemical analyses were available. Resin is often confused with gum, a substance produced in plants in response to bacterial infections, and with sap, an aqueous solution transported through certain plant tissues. Resin differs from both gum and sap in that scientists have not determined a physiological function for resin.

In the 1950s, entomologists posited that resin may function to repel or attract insects. Fraenkel conjectured that plants initially produced resin in nonspecific chemical responses to insect attack and that, over time, plants evolved that produced resin with specific repellent effects. But some insect species, he noted, might overcome the repellent effects, actually becoming attracted to the resin. This might induce the insects to feed on those plants or aid them in securing a breeding site. Later researchers suggested that resin mediates the complex interdependence, or “coevolution,” of plants and insects over time. Such ideas led to the development of the specialized discipline of chemical ecology, which is concerned with the role of plant chemicals in interactions with other organisms and with the evolution and ecology of plant antiherbivore chemistry (plants' chemical defenses against attack by herbivores such as insects).

(Book Question: 467)
According to the passage, which of the following is true of plant antiherbivore chemistry?

(A) Changes in a plant's antiherbivore chemistry may affect insect feeding behavior.

(B) A plant's repellent effects often involve interactions between gum and resin.

(C) A plant's antiherbivore responses assist in combating bacterial infections.

(D) Plant antiherbivore chemistry plays only a minor role in the coevolution of plants and insects.

(E) Researchers first studied repellent effects in plants beginning in the 1950s.


The Simple Story

Resin (or amber, in fossilized form) is a particular plant substance that isn’t understood very well. People have confused it with gems, gum, and sap, but it is different from these other substances. Some scientists have hypothesized that the purpose of resin may be to attract or repel insects. It could, for example, repel insects that want to eat the plant. These ideas have led to the development of chemical ecology, the study of how plants use chemicals to interact with other organisms, including as defense mechanisms against attack.

Sample Passage Map

Here is one way to map this passage. (Note: abbreviate as desired!)

P1 Fossil R = amber

≠ gem

≠ gum, sap

R diff b/c function not known

P2 50s: R repel/attract bugs?

plant/bug interdep à chem eco

Step 1: Identify the Question

This is an unusual question stem. It asks for an example of something that would be most likely to fit something described in the passage. Since you will have to extrapolate from the passage information, this is an Inference question.

Step 2: Find the Support

Chemical ecology is mentioned in the second half of the second paragraph.

“Later researchers suggested that resin mediates the complex interdependence, or “coevolution,” of plants and insects over time. Such ideas led to the development of the specialized discipline of chemical ecology, which is concerned with the role of plant chemicals in interactions with other organisms and with the evolution and ecology of plant antiherbivore chemistry (plants’ chemical defenses against attack by herbivores such as insects).”

Step 3: Predict an Answer

The resin hypothesis is used as an example of the “coevolution” of plants and insects over time. That idea in turn led to the development of chemical ecology, the study of how plants use chemicals to interact with other organisms. An appropriate topic, then, will have to do with some kind of relatively complex interaction between plants and insects (or other organisms), and that interaction will have some kind of chemical component.

Step 4: Eliminate and Find a Match

(A) This choice does describe a complex interaction between insects and plants but it does not include a chemical component to that interaction.

(B) This choice describes a relatively simple relationship between insects and plants; it does not include a chemical component of that relationship.

(C) This choice describes a relatively simple relationship between insects and plants; it does not include a chemical component of that relationship.

(D) This choice does describe a chemical issue (herbicides) with respect to plants but it does not include anything about insects or other organisms.

(E) CORRECT. This choice does describe a complex interaction between insects and plants: First the insect makes a change in feeding behavior (develop a tolerance), and later the plant species has some resultant changes. The chemical component is satisfied by the fact that the plant had previously been toxic to the insects.

(Book Question: 468)
Of the following topics, which would be most likely to be studied within the discipline of chemical ecology as it is described in the passage?

(A) Seeds that become attached to certain insects, which in turn carry away the seeds and aid in the reproductive cycle of the plant species in question

(B) An insect species that feeds on weeds detrimental to crop health and yield, and how these insects might aid in agricultural production

(C) The effects of deforestation on the life cycles of subtropical carnivorous plants and the insect species on which the plants feed

(D) The growth patterns of a particular species of plant that has proved remarkably resistant to herbicides

(E) Insects that develop a tolerance for feeding on a plant that had previously been toxic to them, and the resultant changes within that plant species


(Book Question: 469)
The author refers to “bacterial infections” (see line 11) most likely in order to

(A) describe the physiological function that gum performs in plants

(B) demonstrate that sap is not the only substance that is transported through a plant's tissues

(C) explain how modern chemical analysis has been used to clarify the function of resin

(D) show that gum cannot serve as an effective defense against herbivores

(E) give an example of how confusion has arisen with regard to the nature of resin


(Book Question: 470)
The author of the passage refers to Pliny most probably in order to

(A) give an example of how the nature of amber has been misunderstood in the past

(B) show that confusion about amber has long been more pervasive than confusion about resin

(C) make note of the first known reference to amber as a semiprecious gem

(D) point out an exception to a generalization about the history of people's understanding of amber

(E) demonstrate that Pliny believed amber to be a mineral



JOURNAL ARTICLE
Plant Resins
Jean H. Langenheim
American Scientist
Vol. 78, No. 1 (January-February 1990), pp. 16-24
Published by: Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Honor Society
Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/29773859
Page Count: 9

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Originally posted by hazelnut on 13 Jun 2017, 05:08.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 05 Aug 2019, 02:35, edited 1 time in total.
Updated complete topic (76).
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Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2017, 08:31
22
1. According to the passage, which of the following is true of plant antiherbivore chemistry?
(A) Changes in a plant's antiherbivore chemistry may affect insect feeding behavior. - CORRECT. "plants' chemical defenses against attack by herbivores such as insects" This clearly tells us that the chemicals will have an impact on the nature of interaction between insect and plant.
(B) A plant's repellent effects often involve interactions between gum and resin. -Irrelevant
(C) A plant's antiherbivore responses assist in combating bacterial infections. -Responses, if any, occur POST the infection
(D) Plant antiherbivore chemistry plays only a minor role in the coevolution of plants and insects. -Theory is concerned with plant & insect interaction
(E) Researchers first studied repellent effects in plants beginning in the 1950s. -Irrelevant

2. Of the following topics, which would be most likely to be studied within the discipline of chemical ecology as it is described in the passage?
Chemical ecology talks about the interaction between chemical and insect.
(A) Seeds that become attached to certain insects, which in turn carry away the seeds and aid in the reproductive cycle of the plant species in question -Seeds are not chemicals. Incorrect.
(B) An insect species that feeds on weeds detrimental to crop health and yield, and how these insects might aid in agricultural production -Insect aid in agriculture? Irrelevant
(C) The effects of deforestation on the life cycles of subtropical carnivorous plants and the insect species on which the plants feed -Effect of deforestation? Irrelevant
(D) The growth patterns of a particular species of plant that has proved remarkably resistant to herbicides -Growth pattern? Irrelevant
(E) Insects that develop a tolerance for feeding on a plant that had previously been toxic to them, and the resultant changes within that plant species -CORRECT. Correctly develops a relationship between the toxic chemical and insect.

3. The author refers to “bacterial infections” (see line 11) most likely in order to
(A) describe the physiological function that gum performs in plants -CORRECT. "Resin differs from both gum and sap in that scientists have not determined a physiological function for resin" -This line is followed by the line that defines the function of gum. Thus we can infer that "bacterial infections" is referring to the physiological function of gum
(B) demonstrate that sap is not the only substance that is transported through a plant's tissues -Out of scope
(C) explain how modern chemical analysis has been used to clarify the function of resin -Incorrect
(D) show that gum cannot serve as an effective defense against herbivores -Out of scope
(E) give an example of how confusion has arisen with regard to the nature of resin -The passage does explain the term gum to define the confusion between the two, but "bacterial infections" doesn't describe the confusion. It merely explains the function of gum

4. The author of the passage refers to Pliny most probably in order to
"AlthoughPliny in the first century recognized that amber was produced from “marrow discharged by trees,” amber has been widely misunderstood to be a semiprecious gem and has even been described in mineralogy textbooks"
(A) give an example of how the nature of amber has been misunderstood in the past -It's the opposite of the statement made by the author
(B) show that confusion about amber has long been more pervasive than confusion about resin -The passage doesn't say so
(C) make note of the first known reference to amber as a semiprecious gem -First known reference is nowhere depicted in the passage.
(D) point out an exception to a generalization about the history of people's understanding of amber -CORRECT. The passage states that Pliny thought of the amber as a product of marrow discharged by the trees.
(E) demonstrate that Pliny believed amber to be a mineral -It is the opposite of what passage states
General Discussion
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Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2017, 06:24
Quote:
Question 4

(Book Question: 470)
The author of the passage refers to Pliny most probably in order to

(A) give an example of how the nature of amber has been misunderstood in the past

(B) show that confusion about amber has long been more pervasive than confusion about resin

(C) make note of the first known reference to amber as a semiprecious gem

(D) point out an exception to a generalization about the history of people's understanding of amber

(E) demonstrate that Pliny believed amber to be a mineral


Quote:
Although Pliny in the first century recognized that amber was produced frommarrow discharged by trees,” amber has been widely misunderstood to be a semiprecious gem and has even been described in mineralogy textbooks.


The passage states generally that amber has been widely misunderstood but cites Pliny as noting correctly, in the first century, that amber resulted from a substance discharged by trees.

GMATNinja Could you help to explain why (A) is incorrect?
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Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2017, 10:36
hazelnut wrote:
Quote:
Question 4

(Book Question: 470)
The author of the passage refers to Pliny most probably in order to

(A) give an example of how the nature of amber has been misunderstood in the past

(B) show that confusion about amber has long been more pervasive than confusion about resin

(C) make note of the first known reference to amber as a semiprecious gem

(D) point out an exception to a generalization about the history of people's understanding of amber

(E) demonstrate that Pliny believed amber to be a mineral


Quote:
Although Pliny in the first century recognized that amber was produced frommarrow discharged by trees,” amber has been widely misunderstood to be a semiprecious gem and has even been described in mineralogy textbooks.


The passage states generally that amber has been widely misunderstood but cites Pliny as noting correctly, in the first century, that amber resulted from a substance discharged by trees.

GMATNinja Could you help to explain why (A) is incorrect?


The sentence starts with the word Although, Pliny was the first known exception to the wide misconception of what Amber is.
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Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2017, 08:30
4
hazelnut wrote:
Quote:
Question 4

(Book Question: 470)
The author of the passage refers to Pliny most probably in order to

(A) give an example of how the nature of amber has been misunderstood in the past

(B) show that confusion about amber has long been more pervasive than confusion about resin

(C) make note of the first known reference to amber as a semiprecious gem

(D) point out an exception to a generalization about the history of people's understanding of amber

(E) demonstrate that Pliny believed amber to be a mineral


Quote:
Although Pliny in the first century recognized that amber was produced frommarrow discharged by trees,” amber has been widely misunderstood to be a semiprecious gem and has even been described in mineralogy textbooks.


The passage states generally that amber has been widely misunderstood but cites Pliny as noting correctly, in the first century, that amber resulted from a substance discharged by trees.

GMATNinja Could you help to explain why (A) is incorrect?


hazelnut, if you take the statement "A" to be correct, then statement "E" should also be correct; both the statements are referring to the same meaning.
Pay close attention to the word "Although". It just changes the meaning of the entire statement.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2017, 18:09
2
1
hazelnut wrote:
Quote:
Question 4

(Book Question: 470)
The author of the passage refers to Pliny most probably in order to

(A) give an example of how the nature of amber has been misunderstood in the past

(B) show that confusion about amber has long been more pervasive than confusion about resin

(C) make note of the first known reference to amber as a semiprecious gem

(D) point out an exception to a generalization about the history of people's understanding of amber

(E) demonstrate that Pliny believed amber to be a mineral


Quote:
Although Pliny in the first century recognized that amber was produced frommarrow discharged by trees,” amber has been widely misunderstood to be a semiprecious gem and has even been described in mineralogy textbooks.


The passage states generally that amber has been widely misunderstood but cites Pliny as noting correctly, in the first century, that amber resulted from a substance discharged by trees.

GMATNinja Could you help to explain why (A) is incorrect?

Thanks praneet87 and gmatexam439!

Indeed, Pliny correctly recognized that amber was produced from “marrow discharged by trees,” so, in the example with Pliny, amber is NOT misunderstood. In general, amber has been widely misunderstood, so the Pliny example is an exception.
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Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2017, 02:04
1
The author refers to “bacterial infections” (see line 11) most likely in order to

(A) describe the physiological function that gum performs in plants

(B) demonstrate that sap is not the only substance that is transported through a plant's tissues

(C) explain how modern chemical analysis has been used to clarify the function of resin

(D) show that gum cannot serve as an effective defense against herbivores

(E) give an example of how confusion has arisen with regard to the nature of resin

The answer to this question is A
E is a trap answer .
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New post 07 Aug 2017, 06:00
gmatexam439 wrote:
1. According to the passage, which of the following is true of plant antiherbivore chemistry?
(A) Changes in a plant's antiherbivore chemistry may affect insect feeding behavior. - CORRECT. "plants' chemical defenses against attack by herbivores such as insects" This clearly tells us that the chemicals will have an impact on the nature of interaction between insect and plant.
(B) A plant's repellent effects often involve interactions between gum and resin. -Irrelevant
(C) A plant's antiherbivore responses assist in combating bacterial infections. -Responses, if any, occur POST the infection
(D) Plant antiherbivore chemistry plays only a minor role in the coevolution of plants and insects. -Theory is concerned with plant & insect interaction
(E) Researchers first studied repellent effects in plants beginning in the 1950s. -Irrelevant

2. Of the following topics, which would be most likely to be studied within the discipline of chemical ecology as it is described in the passage?
Chemical ecology talks about the interaction between chemical and insect.
(A) Seeds that become attached to certain insects, which in turn carry away the seeds and aid in the reproductive cycle of the plant species in question -Seeds are not chemicals. Incorrect.
(B) An insect species that feeds on weeds detrimental to crop health and yield, and how these insects might aid in agricultural production -Insect aid in agriculture? Irrelevant
(C) The effects of deforestation on the life cycles of subtropical carnivorous plants and the insect species on which the plants feed -Effect of deforestation? Irrelevant
(D) The growth patterns of a particular species of plant that has proved remarkably resistant to herbicides -Growth pattern? Irrelevant
(E) Insects that develop a tolerance for feeding on a plant that had previously been toxic to them, and the resultant changes within that plant species -CORRECT. Correctly develops a relationship between the toxic chemical and insect.

3. The author refers to “bacterial infections” (see line 11) most likely in order to
(A) describe the physiological function that gum performs in plants -CORRECT. "Resin differs from both gum and sap in that scientists have not determined a physiological function for resin" -This line is followed by the line that defines the function of gum. Thus we can infer that "bacterial infections" is referring to the physiological function of gum
(B) demonstrate that sap is not the only substance that is transported through a plant's tissues -Out of scope
(C) explain how modern chemical analysis has been used to clarify the function of resin -Incorrect
(D) show that gum cannot serve as an effective defense against herbivores -Out of scope
(E) give an example of how confusion has arisen with regard to the nature of resin -The passage does explain the term gum to define the confusion between the two, but "bacterial infections" doesn't describe the confusion. It merely explains the function of gum

4. The author of the passage refers to Pliny most probably in order to
"AlthoughPliny in the first century recognized that amber was produced from “marrow discharged by trees,” amber has been widely misunderstood to be a semiprecious gem and has even been described in mineralogy textbooks"
(A) give an example of how the nature of amber has been misunderstood in the past -It's the opposite of the statement made by the author
(B) show that confusion about amber has long been more pervasive than confusion about resin -The passage doesn't say so
(C) make note of the first known reference to amber as a semiprecious gem -First known reference is nowhere depicted in the passage.
(D) point out an exception to a generalization about the history of people's understanding of amber -CORRECT. The passage states that Pliny thought of the amber as a product of marrow discharged by the trees.
(E) demonstrate that Pliny believed amber to be a mineral -It is the opposite of what passage states



3. The author refers to “bacterial infections” (see line 11) most likely in order to
(A) describe the physiological function that gum performs in plants -CORRECT. "Resin differs from both gum and sap in that scientists have not determined a physiological function for resin" -This line is followed by the line that defines the function of gum. Thus we can infer that "bacterial infections" is referring to the physiological function of gum
(B) demonstrate that sap is not the only substance that is transported through a plant's tissues -Out of scope
(C) explain how modern chemical analysis has been used to clarify the function of resin -Incorrect
(D) show that gum cannot serve as an effective defense against herbivores -Out of scope
(E) give an example of how confusion has arisen with regard to the nature of resin -The passage does explain the term gum to define the confusion between the two, but "bacterial infections" doesn't describe the confusion. It merely explains the function of gum

for this question it is confusing that
1. gum is a product or result of 'physiological function=bacterial infections' ....passage says "Resin is often confused with gum, a substance produced in plants in response to bacterial infections"

or

2. gum is a performer of 'physiological function=bacterial infections'....ans option says "bacterial infections describe the physiological function that gum performs."

can anyone shed some light on these two conflicting points.
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Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2017, 06:54
jokschmer wrote:
3. The author refers to “bacterial infections” (see line 11) most likely in order to
(A) describe the physiological function that gum performs in plants -CORRECT. "Resin differs from both gum and sap in that scientists have not determined a physiological function for resin" -This line is followed by the line that defines the function of gum. Thus we can infer that "bacterial infections" is referring to the physiological function of gum
(B) demonstrate that sap is not the only substance that is transported through a plant's tissues -Out of scope
(C) explain how modern chemical analysis has been used to clarify the function of resin -Incorrect
(D) show that gum cannot serve as an effective defense against herbivores -Out of scope
(E) give an example of how confusion has arisen with regard to the nature of resin -The passage does explain the term gum to define the confusion between the two, but "bacterial infections" doesn't describe the confusion. It merely explains the function of gum

for this question it is confusing that
1. gum is a product or result of 'physiological function=bacterial infections' ....passage says "Resin is often confused with gum, a substance produced in plants in response to bacterial infections"

or

2. gum is a performer of 'physiological function=bacterial infections'....ans option says "bacterial infections describe the physiological function that gum performs."

can anyone shed some light on these two conflicting points.

A bacterial infection is not the physiological function. The physiological function is the mechanism by which a plant reacts to a bacterial infection (by producing gum).

The author refers to “bacterial infections” in order to describe the plant's physiological response to the bacterial infection. This physiological response is to produce gum.

Does that answer your question?
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Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Apr 2018, 15:58
GMATNinja

In Q4, i see you explained why D is right

But why is A wrong ?
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New post 18 Apr 2018, 10:05
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jabhatta@umail.iu.edu wrote:
GMATNinja

In Q4, i see you explained why D is right

But why is A wrong ?


Hello,

If I may, I would like to extend help regarding your doubt..

If you read A in the following way-

The author of the passage refers to Pliny most probably in order to give an example of how the nature of amber has been misunderstood in the past

you should be skeptical about it as to have a question - how is Pliny an example of the 'widely misunderstood nature of amber' when Pliny was not one among those people who misunderstood the part.. She, in fact, is an exception who correctly understood the concept. The option A says the absolute opposite of what's intended.
Pliny, thus, can not be an example to represent those who misunderstood the concept.

I hope that rings the bell. :)
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Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2018, 13:45
Folks, how long did this take you to finish?

I did this passage as part of a larger 35 Q set, and the passage took me 2:45 to read and 8 min to answer the question so 10:45 in total.

Although all answers were correct, am looking to reduce this by around 3 minutes, any tips? I find it particularly tricky with long science passages as I constantly have to refer back to the passage to answer the questions about details especially (according to the passage)
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Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2018, 18:35
gmatexam439 wrote:
1. According to the passage, which of the following is true of plant antiherbivore chemistry?
(A) Changes in a plant's antiherbivore chemistry may affect insect feeding behavior. - CORRECT. "plants' chemical defenses against attack by herbivores such as insects" This clearly tells us that the chemicals will have an impact on the nature of interaction between insect and plant.
(B) A plant's repellent effects often involve interactions between gum and resin. -Irrelevant
(C) A plant's antiherbivore responses assist in combating bacterial infections. -Responses, if any, occur POST the infection
(D) Plant antiherbivore chemistry plays only a minor role in the coevolution of plants and insects. -Theory is concerned with plant & insect interaction
(E) Researchers first studied repellent effects in plants beginning in the 1950s. -Irrelevant

2. Of the following topics, which would be most likely to be studied within the discipline of chemical ecology as it is described in the passage?
Chemical ecology talks about the interaction between chemical and insect.
(A) Seeds that become attached to certain insects, which in turn carry away the seeds and aid in the reproductive cycle of the plant species in question -Seeds are not chemicals. Incorrect.
(B) An insect species that feeds on weeds detrimental to crop health and yield, and how these insects might aid in agricultural production -Insect aid in agriculture? Irrelevant
(C) The effects of deforestation on the life cycles of subtropical carnivorous plants and the insect species on which the plants feed -Effect of deforestation? Irrelevant
(D) The growth patterns of a particular species of plant that has proved remarkably resistant to herbicides -Growth pattern? Irrelevant
(E) Insects that develop a tolerance for feeding on a plant that had previously been toxic to them, and the resultant changes within that plant species -CORRECT. Correctly develops a relationship between the toxic chemical and insect.

3. The author refers to “bacterial infections” (see line 11) most likely in order to
(A) describe the physiological function that gum performs in plants -CORRECT. "Resin differs from both gum and sap in that scientists have not determined a physiological function for resin" -This line is followed by the line that defines the function of gum. Thus we can infer that "bacterial infections" is referring to the physiological function of gum
(B) demonstrate that sap is not the only substance that is transported through a plant's tissues -Out of scope
(C) explain how modern chemical analysis has been used to clarify the function of resin -Incorrect
(D) show that gum cannot serve as an effective defense against herbivores -Out of scope
(E) give an example of how confusion has arisen with regard to the nature of resin -The passage does explain the term gum to define the confusion between the two, but "bacterial infections" doesn't describe the confusion. It merely explains the function of gum

4. The author of the passage refers to Pliny most probably in order to
"AlthoughPliny in the first century recognized that amber was produced from “marrow discharged by trees,” amber has been widely misunderstood to be a semiprecious gem and has even been described in mineralogy textbooks"
(A) give an example of how the nature of amber has been misunderstood in the past -It's the opposite of the statement made by the author
(B) show that confusion about amber has long been more pervasive than confusion about resin -The passage doesn't say so
(C) make note of the first known reference to amber as a semiprecious gem -First known reference is nowhere depicted in the passage.
(D) point out an exception to a generalization about the history of people's understanding of amber -CORRECT. The passage states that Pliny thought of the amber as a product of marrow discharged by the trees.
(E) demonstrate that Pliny believed amber to be a mineral -It is the opposite of what passage states


gmatexam439
In Q4 can you please brief how option A is oppositei of the statement it is clearly mentioned that people misunderstood and later it was recognized
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Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2018, 11:42
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teaserbae wrote:
gmatexam439 wrote:
4. The author of the passage refers to Pliny most probably in order to
"AlthoughPliny in the first century recognized that amber was produced from “marrow discharged by trees,” amber has been widely misunderstood to be a semiprecious gem and has even been described in mineralogy textbooks"
(A) give an example of how the nature of amber has been misunderstood in the past -It's the opposite of the statement made by the author
(B) show that confusion about amber has long been more pervasive than confusion about resin -The passage doesn't say so
(C) make note of the first known reference to amber as a semiprecious gem -First known reference is nowhere depicted in the passage.
(D) point out an exception to a generalization about the history of people's understanding of amber -CORRECT. The passage states that Pliny thought of the amber as a product of marrow discharged by the trees.
(E) demonstrate that Pliny believed amber to be a mineral -It is the opposite of what passage states


gmatexam439
In Q4 can you please brief how option A is oppositei of the statement it is clearly mentioned that people misunderstood and later it was recognized


Hi Bro,

As you can see the question is about Pliny. Now read the passage again; the starting word is "Although" and the first half of the sentence is "Pliny recognized something about amber in the starting of the century" and the second half is "amber has been misunderstood". This means that Pliny knew something that was correct.

Now read statement A. Did Pliny misunderstood the nature of amber? No. That's why A is opposite of what is given in the passage.

Pay attention to the transition word "although". I have highlighted that for the same reason.

Hope that helps!!
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New post 25 Jul 2018, 15:59
teaserbae

Mr P introduced to tell about his discovery. He was not making efforts for changing people's perception. But when author was writing this content, author used it tell point out two views. Mr. P was not introduced to give an example of how the nature of amber has been misunderstood in the past. that is a separate thing. Also what you mean by "nature of amber". and is Mr P even said anything about nature. I think this choice is too wide in meaning.
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New post 05 Dec 2018, 23:16
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Hey,

I guess the problem is that you were trying to read the entire passage and process all the information - This is generally time-consuming and is not really needed to answer the questions from the passage. It is enough if you can read approximately 20% of the passage to answer 80% of the questions. This would mean focussing on what is important and neglecting what is not.

You can watch the video here, where we teach you how to read better.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCEXDuCIXTQ

Let us know how you felt about it.

All the best :)

Thanks,

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Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Dec 2018, 18:18
dcummins wrote:
This was a tough paragraph to stomach.

I read it at a slow pace in its entirety, but I still found myself going back to the paragraph extensively to answer the questions.

Anyone know to to better tackle this?

Ended up with 1 wrong (last question) - didn't understand the answer choice.

dcummins, you also might want to check out the Ultimate RC Guide for Beginners for more tips on how to efficiently tackle a passage. Good luck, and let us know if you have any specific questions!
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New post 06 Dec 2018, 19:53
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GMATNinja wrote:
dcummins wrote:
This was a tough paragraph to stomach.

I read it at a slow pace in its entirety, but I still found myself going back to the paragraph extensively to answer the questions.

Anyone know to to better tackle this?

Ended up with 1 wrong (last question) - didn't understand the answer choice.

dcummins, you also might want to check out the Ultimate RC Guide for Beginners for more tips on how to efficiently tackle a passage. Good luck, and let us know if you have any specific questions!



Thanks Charles. I found that a lot of the tips mentioned were actually covered in one of your more detailed videos I viewed on youtube, so cheers.

I've concluded that no one RC reading method works for everyone. I've tried both the Economist's method, Empower's and the methods mentioned in the RC sticky thread. I'm a perfectionist, which is a detriment in this test, so If I read the whole passage it'll kill my time and this has been made evident in my last 3 practice CATs (V38 scores, but consistently having to rush through 1 passage and somehow always getting 5 RC wrong). I'll continue to flex my style and take in the tips. At the end of the day RC is something I practice the least, so I think I need to hold myself accountable in that regard.
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Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2019, 13:30
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dcummins wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
dcummins wrote:
This was a tough paragraph to stomach.

I read it at a slow pace in its entirety, but I still found myself going back to the paragraph extensively to answer the questions.

Anyone know to to better tackle this?

Ended up with 1 wrong (last question) - didn't understand the answer choice.

dcummins, you also might want to check out the Ultimate RC Guide for Beginners for more tips on how to efficiently tackle a passage. Good luck, and let us know if you have any specific questions!



Thanks Charles. I found that a lot of the tips mentioned were actually covered in one of your more detailed videos I viewed on youtube, so cheers.

I've concluded that no one RC reading method works for everyone. I've tried both the Economist's method, Empower's and the methods mentioned in the RC sticky thread. I'm a perfectionist, which is a detriment in this test, so If I read the whole passage it'll kill my time and this has been made evident in my last 3 practice CATs (V38 scores, but consistently having to rush through 1 passage and somehow always getting 5 RC wrong). I'll continue to flex my style and take in the tips. At the end of the day RC is something I practice the least, so I think I need to hold myself accountable in that regard.

Thank you for the kind words! Glad to hear that the videos are helping. (And sorry for my ludicrously slow response. I sorta switched continents during the holidays, and life is just starting to return to normal...)

And you’re 100% correct: no single reading method – or note-taking method – will ever work for everybody. Whenever a test-prep company tries to sell you some magical, rigid note-taking system that will turn you into a 99th-percentile verbal scorer, please run in the other direction, and double-check to make sure that you still have your wallet.

The reality is that improving your reading skills is HARD, and everybody’s minds work in different ways. Sure, there are general principles that apply to everybody on RC, but those principles are incredibly broad: basically, read for purpose and structure, work hard to avoid misreading, and don’t fall in love with an answer choice before you’ve found reasons to eliminate four other options. Beyond that, success comes from lots of practice, lots of self-reflection, and plenty of time spent learning what works best for YOU.

So I like the way you’re thinking about this! More practice is good, but perfectionism probably isn’t a good thing. Ideally, when you read an RC passage, you’re trying to understand only as much as you really need to understand. If you absorb TOO many details, you’ll waste time – and you might even miss the broader ideas in the passage.

So maybe you need to learn to let go a bit, and figure out how much to dial back the intensity of your reading? Just a thought.

I hope this helps, and enjoy the journey of self-discovery that is the GMAT verbal section… ;)
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Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2019, 21:44
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In the first question, agree that (A) is correct. But can someone please explain why is (E) incorrect?
(E) Researchers first studied repellent effects in plants beginning in the 1950s.
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Re: Resin is a plant secretion that hardens when exposed to air; fossilize   [#permalink] 09 Jul 2019, 21:44

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