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Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of bean plants or oth

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Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of bean plants or oth [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2014, 23:02
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Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of bean plants or other legumes produce fixed nitrogen which is one of the essential plant nutrients and which for non-legume crops, such as wheat, normally must be supplied by applications of nitrogen-based fertilizer. So if biotechnology succeeds in producing wheat strains whose roots will play host to Rhizobium bacteria, the need for artificial fertilizers will be reduced.

The argument above makes which one of the following assumptions?

(A) Biotechnology should be directed toward producing plants that do not require artificial fertilizer.

(B) Fixed nitrogen is currently the only soil nutrient that must be supplied by artificial fertilizer for growing wheat crops.

(C) There are no naturally occurring strains of wheat or other grasses that have Rhizobium bacteria living in their roots.

(D) Legumes are currently the only crops that produce their own supply of fixed nitrogen.

(E) Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of wheat would produce fixed nitrogen.





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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of bean plants or oth [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2014, 08:28
Premise
Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of bean plants or other legumes produce fixed nitrogen which is one of the essential plant nutrients and which for non-legume crops, such as wheat, normally must be supplied by applications of nitrogen-based fertilizer.

Conclusion:
So if biotechnology succeeds in producing wheat strains whose roots will play host to Rhizobium bacteria, the need for artificial fertilizers will be reduced.
The argument above makes which one of the following assumptions?
>>RB would maintain the same behavior in the roots of other plants.

(A) Biotechnology should be directed toward producing plants that do not require artificial fertilizer.
(B) Fixed nitrogen is currently the only soil nutrient that must be supplied by artificial fertilizer for growing wheat crops.
(C) There are no naturally occurring strains of wheat or other grasses that have Rhizobium bacteria living in their roots.
(D) Legumes are currently the only crops that produce their own supply of fixed nitrogen.
(E) Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of wheat would produce fixed nitrogen.
>>Correct.Negating it puts the conclusion in doubt.
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Re: Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of bean plants or oth [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2014, 21:01
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between B and E.
B. Fixed nitrogen is currently the only soil nutrient that must be supplied by artificial fertilizer for growing wheat crops. (conclusion says that it will just reduce need in fertilizer, so this assumption is wrong)
E. Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of wheat would produce fixed nitrogen (it remove the gap between last premise and conclusion, so correct)

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Re: Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of bean plants or oth [#permalink]

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New post 26 May 2015, 22:58
Close call between B and E .

But negate E , If Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of wheat Can not produce fixed nitrogen , then argument falls apart.
So answer is E.
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Re: Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of bean plants or oth [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2017, 09:30
Confused between B and E.
I marked B for the following reasons-

If we negate Option B - artificial fertilizer is used for not only nitrogen supply but also some nutrient X. Assume before the special stain was developed- you used 100 kg of Artificial fertilizer for your land, and now even after special stain is developed you need to use same 100 kg of artificial fertilizer to supply nutrient X. RIGHT?

And if we negate option E- Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of wheat would not produce fixed nitrogen. HERE I UNDERSTOOD FIXED AS IN QUANTITY ( I hope it not a quality of nitrogen). HENCE EVEN IF IT IS NOT PRODUCING FIXED QUANTITY, IT IS PRODUCING SOME QUANTITY and HENCE IT WILL REDUCE THE USE OF ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZERS TO SOME EXTEND.

where am i wrong?? GMATNinja sir Please help!!

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Re: Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of bean plants or oth [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2017, 08:06
pulkitaggi wrote:
Confused between B and E.
I marked B for the following reasons-

If we negate Option B - artificial fertilizer is used for not only nitrogen supply but also some nutrient X. Assume before the special stain was developed- you used 100 kg of Artificial fertilizer for your land, and now even after special stain is developed you need to use same 100 kg of artificial fertilizer to supply nutrient X. RIGHT?

And if we negate option E- Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of wheat would not produce fixed nitrogen. HERE I UNDERSTOOD FIXED AS IN QUANTITY ( I hope it not a quality of nitrogen). HENCE EVEN IF IT IS NOT PRODUCING FIXED QUANTITY, IT IS PRODUCING SOME QUANTITY and HENCE IT WILL REDUCE THE USE OF ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZERS TO SOME EXTEND.

where am i wrong?? GMATNinja sir Please help!!


Hey pulkitaggi

My thoughts on why Option B is incorrect

The passage only talks about nitrogen based fertilizers. So we are not worried about other nutrients. Hence B is incorrect

Quote:
which for non-legume crops, such as wheat, normally must be supplied by applications of nitrogen-based fertilizer

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Re: Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of bean plants or oth [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2017, 22:42
Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of bean plants or other legumes produce fixed nitrogen which is one of the essential plant nutrients and which for non-legume crops, such as wheat, normally must be supplied by applications of nitrogen-based fertilizer. So, if biotechnology succeeds in producing wheat strains whose roots will play host to Rhizobium bacteria, the need for artificial fertilizers will be reduced.

Conclusion: So, if biotechnology succeeds in producing wheat strains whose roots will play host to Rhizobium bacteria, the need for artificial fertilizers will be reduced.

Falsification Situation(s):
1) What if the Rhizobium bacteria have some adverse effects on wheat plants? What if those adverse effects offset the benefit that the wheat plant draws from nitrogen?
2) What if the Rhizobium bacteria fail to survive on wheat plants for some reason X.

Possible Assumptions:
1) There are no adverse effects of Rhizobium bacteria on wheat plants.
2) The Rhizobium bacteria can survive on the roots of wheat plants and are able to produce the nitrogen.


The argument above makes which one of the following assumptions?

(A) Biotechnology should be directed toward producing plants that do not require artificial fertilizer.
That’s a very broad assumption. This cannot be the assumption. If it were true, then why the argument talks about such a specific case?

(B) Fixed nitrogen is currently the only soil nutrient that must be supplied by artificial fertilizer for growing wheat crops.
Negate: Fixed nitrogen is not the only soil nutrient that must be supplied by artificial fertilizer for growing wheat crops.
If this were true, then the need for artificial fertilizers may not come down. This negated statement has the potential to break down the conclusion. This option is a possible assumption.


(C) There are no naturally occurring strains of wheat or other grasses that have Rhizobium bacteria living in their roots.
Negate: There are some naturally occurring strains of wheat or other grasses that have Rhizobium bacteria living in their roots.
1) …or other grasses do not affect conclusion
2) If only 1 in 100 has this feature, then no way this information breaks the conclusion.
This option cannot be an assumption.


(D) Legumes are currently the only crops that produce their own supply of fixed nitrogen.
It does not talk about that non-legumes, therefore it cannot be an assumption.

(E) Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of wheat would produce fixed nitrogen.
Negate: Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of wheat would not produce fixed nitrogen.
This breaks the conclusion. This is an assumption.

Between B and E – what if the other nutrients required are not in significant quantity? Then, the application of the fertilizers can be reduced but if the bacteria are not able to produce the nitrogen at the first place, the whole conclusion breaks. Thus, option E.

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Re: Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of bean plants or oth [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2017, 20:08
vards wrote:
Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of bean plants or other legumes produce fixed nitrogen which is one of the essential plant nutrients and which for non-legume crops, such as wheat, normally must be supplied by applications of nitrogen-based fertilizer. So if biotechnology succeeds in producing wheat strains whose roots will play host to Rhizobium bacteria, the need for artificial fertilizers will be reduced.

The argument above makes which one of the following assumptions?

(A) Biotechnology should be directed toward producing plants that do not require artificial fertilizer.

(B) Fixed nitrogen is currently the only soil nutrient that must be supplied by artificial fertilizer for growing wheat crops.

(C) There are no naturally occurring strains of wheat or other grasses that have Rhizobium bacteria living in their roots.

(D) Legumes are currently the only crops that produce their own supply of fixed nitrogen.

(E) Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of wheat would produce fixed nitrogen.





Thish is an official LSAT question,from aristotle file..please consider KUDOS


Sentence 1 (premise): Rhizobium bacteria grows in beans, and other plants that are characterized as legumes, producing fixed nitrogen which is an essential plant nutrient. Other crops, that are not characterized as legumes, such as wheat must have this fixed nitrogen supplied to it through nitrogen based fertilizer.

Sentence 2 (conclusion): If technology could produce a wheat crop which would naturally play host to rhizobium bacteria then the need for the artificial fertilizers would be reduced.

What is an assumption this argument depends upon?

Okay so let's find some gaps in the reasoning. First of all the author is assuming that if they created a wheat crop that could play host to rhizobium bacteria that they would not have to rely on an equal or greater amount of "artificial fertilizer" in order to introduce the bacteria into the roots of the wheat crop. The second gap I can see is that the author assumes that the production of the wheat crop which could host rhizobium bacteria would not result in the creation of some sort of unpredictable issue in which there is an additional need for a great or equal amount of artificial fertilizer. Let's take a look at the answer choices.

(A) "towards producing plants" The author is only making an argument for a specific type of plant "non-legume crops". This answer choice is too broad to qualify as a necessary assumption. Even if it narrowed it's scope to "non-legume crops such as wheat" it would still not qualify as a necessary assumption, because the author's argument states "if biotech. succeeds in producing wheat strains which can play host to rhizobium . . ." He introduces a conditional logic statement into the conclusion, and does not conclude anything about what biotechnology "must do" but rather a result (need for artificial fertilizers reduced) if biotech. succeeds in producing a wheat strain that can host rhizobium bacteria.
(B) This is tempting. However, remember the arguments conclusion focuses on "the need for artificial fertilizers will be reduced." If you negate this answer choice it reads "Fixed nitrogen is not the only soil nutrient supplied by artificial fertilizers." The negation of this statement is too ambiguous to be able to discern the impact. One can imagine 2 scenarios taking place if this answer choice were negated.
1. There is no reduction in the amount of artificial fertilizer, because artificial fertilizer is still required to supply other nutrients to the wheat crop. or 2. There is a reduction in the amount of artificial fertilizer, because wheat crops are getting their fixed nitrogen from rhizobium bacteria and so depend on a smaller amount of artificial fertilizer.
(C) "There are no naturally occurring strains of wheat . . ." The stimulus only makes the claim that "wheat normally must be supplied by applications of nitrogen based fertilizer." This leaves open the possibility that some wheat strains might be able to produce fixed nitrogen. This answer choice is unsupported and definitely not a necessary assumption. Get rid of it.
(D) ". . . the only crops that produce their own supply of fixed nitrogen. . ." This is also unsupported. We know that legumes do produce fixed nitrogen, but nowhere in the stimulus can you find any support that legumes are the only crops that naturally produced fixed nitrogen. Get rid of this.
(E) This is the correct answer choice. Remember the author conclusion is that "the need for artificial fertilizer will be reduced if wheat strains could host rhizobium bacteria which produce fixed nitrogen." If you negate the answer choice it would read "Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of wheat would not produce fixed nitrogen." If that were the case then the authors argument would be blown out of the water, because he/she could not conclude that there can be any kind of reduction of artificial fertilizer based on the ability of wheat crops to host rhizobium bacteria as the rhizobium in the wheat crops would not be able to produce fixed nitrogen. Let me know if you need further clarification on this.
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Re: Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of bean plants or oth   [#permalink] 14 Dec 2017, 20:08
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