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Re: Several studies have found that the coronary patients who exercise mos [#permalink]
Hi experts,

Would you please help to explain why option A is wrong? I read some comments about sentiment meaning of 'chance' vs 'likely', but they seems not convincing for an OG question. Is there any other error in A? Thank you.
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Re: Several studies have found that the coronary patients who exercise mos [#permalink]
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tinbq wrote:
Hi experts,

Would you please help to explain why option A is wrong? I read some comments about sentiment meaning of 'chance' vs 'likely', but they seems not convincing for an OG question. Is there any other error in A? Thank you.


Hello tinbq,

We hope this finds you well.

Having gone through the question and your query, we believe that we can help resolve your doubts.

In addition to the error you mentioned, Option A incorrectly uses the construction “A as B” rather than the correct, idiomatic construction “less A than B” to compare the chances of dying of a heart attack that the patients who exercise most actively have and the chances of dying of a heart attack that the patients who are sedentary have; please remember, "less A than B" is the correct usage; A and B must be comparable and parallel. Further, Option A uses the needlessly wordy phrase “half or less than half”, leading to awkwardness.

We hope this helps.
All the best!
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Re: Several studies have found that the coronary patients who exercise mos [#permalink]
AndrewN, can you please explain what are the main factors to eliminate B?
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Re: Several studies have found that the coronary patients who exercise mos [#permalink]
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tkorzhan1995 wrote:
AndrewN, can you please explain what are the main factors to eliminate B?

Hello, tkorzhan1995. How about we look at (B) in the context of the sentence?

Quote:
Several studies have found that the coronary patients who exercise most actively have half or less than half the chance of dying of a heart attack as those who are sedentary.

(B) have half the chance, or less, of dying of a heart attack than those who are sedentary do

Okay, the first thing that stands out to me is the comparative than. We see this used in greater than, less than, more than, and so on, but have half the chance than? That is flat-out wrong, and I would not bother analyzing the option any further. Still, in the interest of supplying a more robust answer to your query, I am also left scratching my head about the substitute verb do at the end. You want to use such a substitute when the comparison involves two actions—e.g., He drives faster than she does—and here, the verb is have: dying is a noun, the object of the preposition of, and chance is also a noun. So, what exactly is do standing in for? The best I can come up with is the phrase have of dying of a heart attack. That is a lot for a substitute verb to carry. A more logical comparison in this sentence is created between two groups of people, those who exercise (ditch the extra modifiers) and those who are sedentary; as such, a noun-to-noun comparison, minus a verb or substitute, makes sense. Finally, there is a diction issue. As I touched on in an earlier post, have half the chance of is a functional if somewhat off-putting way of expressing are fifty percent less likely, as we see in answer choice (E), or are half as likely. I would call this the least objectionable issue of the three I have outlined, though. Understanding comparisons is far more important, in my view.

Thank you for calling my attention to the question. Good luck with your studies.

- Andrew
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Re: Several studies have found that the coronary patients who exercise mos [#permalink]
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tkorzhan1995 wrote:
AndrewN, can you please explain what are the main factors to eliminate B?


Hello tkorzhan1995,

We hope this finds you well.

Having gone through the question and your query, we believe we can resolve your doubt.

Option B incorrectly uses the construction “A than B” rather than the correct construction “less A than B” to compare the chances of dying of a heart attack that coronary patients who exercise most actively have and the chances of dying of a heart attack that the coronary patients who do not do so have; please remember, "less A than B" is the correct usage; A and B must be comparable and parallel. Further, Option B uses the needlessly wordy phrase “half the chance, or less,”, leading to awkwardness.

We hope this helps.
All the best!
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Re: Several studies have found that the coronary patients who exercise mos [#permalink]
at least or at most is preferred on GMAT rather than "have half or less than half", and that's why Option A, B & C are wrong. Option D is wrong as we need less than and not less as.
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Re: Several studies have found that the coronary patients who exercise mos [#permalink]
As per solution - B and C are wrong because it wrongly uses "do" in the end, can you please help me understand this

Also, I eliminated B and C because "or less" since it is between two commas is used as non-essential modifier but this leads to wrong meaning
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Re: Several studies have found that the coronary patients who exercise mos [#permalink]
Quote:
Several studies have found that the coronary patients who exercise most actively have half or less than half the chance of dying of a heart attack as those who are sedentary.


(A) have half or less than half the chance of dying of a heart attack as those who are sedentary

(B) have half the chance, or less, of dying of a heart attack than those who are sedentary do

(C) have half the chance that they will die of a heart attack, or less, than those who are sedentary do

(D) are at least fifty percent less likely to die of a heart attack as those who are sedentary

(E) are at least fifty percent less likely than those who are sedentary to die of a heart attack


simplify:

patients who exercise have less chance as those who are sedentary.
or,

active patients have less chance as sedentary patients.

than should be used instead of as -> A & D are out
we are comparing chance -> helping verb not needed ->B & C are out.

E is the answer.
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Re: Several studies have found that the coronary patients who exercise mos [#permalink]
Is a comma not required after sedentary. I chose option B. Can some o compare B vs E. Thanks
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Re: Several studies have found that the coronary patients who exercise mos [#permalink]
Harshjha001 wrote:
doesn't "those who are sedentary to die of a heart attack" sounds weird ?
Shouldn't "than those who are sedentary" and "die of a heart attack " be separated by a comma ?

Can anyone suggest ?

The prepositional phrase 'to die of a heart attack " is okay, but I understand your issue. Option E is not an ideal construct. The comparison should be placed between the two compared entities. Here it is put toward the end. Ideally, it should be XX people are 50% less likely to die of a heart attack than - people who are sedentary.
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Re: Several studies have found that the coronary patients who exercise mos [#permalink]
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Generally, if we're down to "this one needs a comma" as our reason for eliminating, we should look for something else. There aren't that many situations in which the lack of a comma is going to knock out an answer. Let's look at some simpler versions of E:

Women are 50% less likely to die.


This isn't much of a sentence meaning-wise, since we don't have our comparison or a cause of death, but it's fine in terms of grammar. No comma needed yet!


Women are 50% less likely than men to die of a heart attack.


Okay, now we've clarified the comparison, and we know which kind of death we're talking about. (Surely, we all have to die of something, at least until we solve that problem.) Does that mean we need a comma? No--we're just modifying "likely" with "than men." When we add a modifier to a term, there's no rule that says we need to follow this new longer term with a comma. As for the new part at the end, it's just a prepositional phrase modifying the verb "die," so we don't want a comma there.

So what if we make the middle modifier longer still?


Women in their 30s are 50% less likely than men in their 40's to die of a heart attack.


All we've done is write a longer modifier. That doesn't change the underlying structure, so there's still no reason to add a comma. We just have to follow the structure and we're fine. At this point, we have something equivalent to the original answer, and the same logic applies.
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Re: Several studies have found that the coronary patients who exercise mos [#permalink]
laxieqv wrote:
antiant wrote:
Several studies have found that the coronary patients who exercise most actively have half or less than half the chance of dying of a heart attack as those who are sedentary


a) have half or less than half the chance of dying of a heart attack as those who are sedentary

b) have half the chance, or less, of dying of a heart attack than those who are sedentary do

c) have half the chance that they will die of a heart attack, or less, than those who are sedentary do

d) are at least fifty percent less likely to die of a heart attack as those who are sedentary

e) are at least fifty percent less likely than those who are sedentary to die of a heart attack


This kind of SC tests the concise combination of ...as...as ....and less/more ....than ..... The correct combination is: ...at least/ at most .....less/ more .....than ......
So i'm left with D and E. Between the two, E uses the correct structure: ...less .....than .... so E is correct.

Go for E.


But in the sentence it is written half or less, shouldn't at most be the correct one?
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Re: Several studies have found that the coronary patients who exercise mos [#permalink]
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Deep32470


Watch your direction. A is describing the chance of dying itself, while E is describing the REDUCTION in likelihood, so they go opposite ways. For instance, if the normal chance is 10%, and my chance is 4%, I have LESS than half the chance of someone else. But the reduction is AT LEAST 50%. 10-->4 is a 60% reduction.
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