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Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN

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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2017, 20:31
Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN that are resistant to the antibiotic perxicillin has increased substantially. Bacteria can quickly develop resistance to an antibiotic when it is prescribed indiscriminately or when patients fail to take it as prescribed. Since perxicillin has not been indiscriminately prescribed, health officials hypothesize that the increase in perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed.

Which of the following, it true of Aqadestan, provides most support for the health officials' hypothesis:

A) Resistance to several other commonly prescribed antibiotics has not increased since 1990 in Aqadestan

B) A large number of Aqadestanis never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection.

C) When it first became available, perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time.

D) Many patients who take perxicillin experience severe side effects within the first few days of their prescribed regimen

E) Aqadestani health clinics provide antibiotics to their patients at cost

--------------------------------

Can any one explain how E does not support conclusion?

My analysis: If health clinics bear the cost of the antibiotic prescription means that they will not prescribe perxicillin indiscriminately. Thus it should be the only other way the resistance has been taking place. And this analysis strengthens the argument.
The assumption in this analysis: The clinics, bearing the cost of the medicines, will not prescribe those medicines randomly.

In fact for C one can say that GMAT assumes that: much of the people who experience severe side effects within first few days of treatment fail to take the medication as prescribed.

Thus which assumption to choose over the other?

Someone please help!
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2017, 22:34
hii
harshalc4
https://gmatclub.com/forum/antibiotic-r ... 99805.html
please follow the given link. This question has already been discussed. You will get proper explanation for your doubt there.
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2017, 03:23
WillGetIt wrote:
Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN that are resistant to the antibiotic perxicillin has increased substantially. Bacteria can quickly develop resistance to an antibiotic when it is prescribed indiscriminately or when patients fail to take it as prescribed. Since perxicillin has not been indiscriminately prescribed, health officials hypothesize that the increase in perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed.

Which of the following, it true of Aqadestan, provides most support for the health officials' hypothesis:

A) Resistance to several other commonly prescribed antibiotics has not increased since 1990 in Aqadestan

B) A large number of Aqadestanis never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection.

C) When it first became available, perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time.

D) Many patients who take perxicillin experience severe side effects within the first few days of their prescribed regimen

E) Aqadestani health clinics provide antibiotics to their patients at cost



thought I see d is best. I think that d require an assumption, which is patients will stop taking the medicine.

correct choice need an assumption. this is the case whichh makes me uneasy
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New post 14 Oct 2017, 13:54
thangvietnam wrote:
WillGetIt wrote:
Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN that are resistant to the antibiotic perxicillin has increased substantially. Bacteria can quickly develop resistance to an antibiotic when it is prescribed indiscriminately or when patients fail to take it as prescribed. Since perxicillin has not been indiscriminately prescribed, health officials hypothesize that the increase in perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed.

Which of the following, it true of Aqadestan, provides most support for the health officials' hypothesis:

A) Resistance to several other commonly prescribed antibiotics has not increased since 1990 in Aqadestan

B) A large number of Aqadestanis never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection.

C) When it first became available, perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time.

D) Many patients who take perxicillin experience severe side effects within the first few days of their prescribed regimen

E) Aqadestani health clinics provide antibiotics to their patients at cost



thought I see d is best. I think that d require an assumption, which is patients will stop taking the medicine.

correct choice need an assumption. this is the case whichh makes me uneasy





I agree. Isn't it a very big assumption to think that the patients will stop taking the medicine? What if they not? This makes me think , then we can put such an assumption in any other answer choice to make it work, for instance in B) A large number of Aqadestanis never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection. So we can assume they might be using antibiotic perxicillin on their own incorrectly and as a result cause perxicillin resistancy ? or in C , perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections than any other antibiotic used, and may be, we can assume, it became ineffective because people started to use the medicine incorrectly on their own.
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 24 Dec 2017, 21:10
D sounds strange and weird but D is correct.
Using POE, ones can eliminate A,B and E b/c they are out of scope. A and B do not relate to pencixiline; E talks about the cost.
D is much better and C b/c C discusses about other drugs and the comparison.
How D can be correct? It is because D gives a reason for patients to take the drug in wrong ways. Here is a special case of a pattern in gmat. Normally, in a gmat question, there can be many premisesm, but one conclusion. The pattern that gives a cause for a premise is normally wrong; however, in this question, the pattern is correct in D.

Originally posted by chesstitans on 23 Dec 2017, 14:33.
Last edited by chesstitans on 24 Dec 2017, 21:10, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Dec 2017, 03:24
Konstantin1983 wrote:
vikasbansal227 wrote:
Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN that are resistant to the antibiotic
perxicillin has increased substantially. Bacteria can quickly develop resistance to an antibiotic when it is
prescribed indiscriminately or when patients fail to take it as prescribed. Since perxicillin has not been
indiscrimhately prescrIbed, health officials hypothesize that the increase in perxicillin resistant sinus infections is
largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed.
Which of the following, it true of Aqadestan, provides most support for the health oi1icials' hypothesis"

A) Resistance to several other commonly prescribed antibiotics Ins not increased since 1990 in Aoadestan. Other antibiotics are out of scope

B) A large number of Aqadestanis never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection. It is a trap. Maybe Aqadestanis do not cure at all

C) When it list became available, perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections
than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time. Out of scope. Effectivness is not discussed in the argument.

D] Many patients who take perxicillin experience severe side effects within the first few days of their
prescribed regimen. Correct. If antibiotics are not prescribed indiscriminately, then the only explanation of side-effects can be patients' failure to take as prescribed

E) Aqadestani health clinics provide antibiotics to their patients at cost. Doesn't help to explain

Lets look at he answer choices. Hope it helps!

I believe and Know side effects are normal for some drugs. They are even on the drug notice so I don't understand this..
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2018, 10:27
can't we not think for E: at cost, so the antibiotics cost something to the patients and some of them just won't buy?
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2018, 01:15
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
what Ankurgupta03 is saying is here is totally correct( and ankur . I will just like to add on to option B.

B) A large number of Aqadestanis never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection.
This option can go in any of the ways mentioned below
i) Patients take perixicillin
ii) patients dont take perxiccilin but take some other medicine
iii) patients dont take medicine at all.

In all of those situations, it is very tough to make any decision
So B is inconclusive


why not B?
1. It tells about those who do not seek medical help whereas the argument talks about patients who seek help.
2. It talks about Sinus infections, not Bacterial Sinus infections.
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2018, 06:50
1. option a: not resistance to other medi, ( which is not discussed ) -> irrelevant
2.option b: asking for help and not following prescription are different -> not relevnt
3. option c: earlier it was more effective , opens a debate that whtr now it is working or not ? -> not concrete and not touching upon the point, which is ' not following prescription'
4. if facing side effect -> might be a slightest chance that people may stop taking it and resume it later. -> possibility is there
5. even if available at cheap cost, it is not sure people are buying or not. hence not buying and not following are diff
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2018, 20:28
I didn't concentrate enough on this when I solved and selected A. Here's the difference between A and D

Some context on the conclusion I deduced is necessary.
Conclusion: Since Perx has not been indiscriminately prescribed, the increase in perx-resistant sinus must be due to behavioural factors of the patients (the only other cause identified in the stem).

A- If resistance to other meds hasn't increased it implies antibiotics are becoming resistant to Perx. This may or may not be true, but besides that it's actually not relevant, but rather neutral. It doesn't strengthen the theory that patients' behavioral factors are driving up the number of perx-resistant sinus reflections.

B- Patients experience severe side effects thus get deterred from using perx. This behavioral factor reinforces the conclusion. Correct.
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2019, 08:23
WillGetIt wrote:
Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN that are resistant to the antibiotic perxicillin has increased substantially. Bacteria can quickly develop resistance to an antibiotic when it is prescribed indiscriminately or when patients fail to take it as prescribed. Since perxicillin has not been indiscriminately prescribed, health officials hypothesize that the increase in perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed.

Which of the following, it true of Aqadestan, provides most support for the health officials' hypothesis:

(A) Resistance to several other commonly prescribed antibiotics has not increased since 1990 in Aqadestan

(B) A large number of Aqadestanis never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection.

(C) When it first became available, perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time.

(D) Many patients who take perxicillin experience severe side effects within the first few days of their prescribed regimen

(E) Aqadestani health clinics provide antibiotics to their patients at cost


CR06422


We are looking for an option that supports why they went to the doctor, were prescribed medicine but stopped taking it. (B) says they did not even seek medical help, so presumably, they did not take any medicine. This does not support the fact they stopped taking any medicine. (D) gives us a clear reason why someone would stop taking that medicine.
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2019, 05:35
why c was wrong?
C) When it first became available, perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time.

later medicine was not very effecting, causing the patient to stop the medication in the middle or not taking it regularly, personal experience

(D) Many patients who take perxicillin experience severe side effects within the ???rst few days of their prescribed regimen


side effects were there early and even later as well. Nothing has changed in terms of side effects. why patients had not stopped taking the medication earlier
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New post 25 Aug 2019, 05:39
why c was wrong?

C) When it first became available, perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time.

later medicine was not very effective , causing the patient to stop the medication in the middle or not taking it regularly, my personal experience


(D) Many patients who take perxicillin experience severe side effects within the first few days of their prescribed regimen


side effects were there early too when the medicine was launched, and even side effects of medicine were there too later as well. Nothing has changed in terms of side effects with passage of the time. why patients had not stopped taking the medication earlier? what has changed now after 1990 that patients stopped taking medication?
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2019, 08:34
Hey Guys,
Small query.
So, for option (D) we are assuming that since patients suffered from side effects they might have stopped taking medicine. What is all the patients continued to take the medicine.
Premise of arguments that's not just the perxillian but "antibiotics" should not be prescribed indiscriminately.
Can you please clarify?

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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2019, 03:55
vijaisingh2001, quite an inference.
Let's deep-dive!

Conclusion:
Of the two reassons -
    1) indiscriminate prescription
    2) patient's failure to take it as prescribed.
We are zeroing on patient's failure to take the medicine as prescribed -----led to----> the INCREASE in perxicillin resistant sinus INFECTIONS.
    failure to take the medicine( Cause ) ------> INCREASE in perxicillin resistant sinus INFECTIONS( Effect )

Pre-Think:
Any statement indicating that the antibiotic was NOT taken as per the doctors’ prescription will strengthen our belief in the conclusion.

Answer choice analysis:
    (A) Resistance to several OTHER commonly prescribed antibiotics has not increased since 1990 in Aqadestan
      A talks about OTHER commonly prescribed antibiotics. OUT!

    (B) A large number of Aqadestanis NEVER SEEK medical help when they have a sinus infection.
      B talks about people who never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection.
      we NEED to concentrate only on the people who consult doctors and have seeked medical help. OUT!

    (C) When it first became available, perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time.
      Perxicillin WAS more effective than OTHERS when it was introduced.
      A likely inference: Perxicillin is NO longer MORE effective than OTHERS.
      Thus, C highlights that the effectiveness of the medicine has degraded, leading to a 3rd factor for the probable cause of the increase in sinus infections - A weakener. OUT!
        lower effectiveness of the medicine( Cause ) ------> INCREASE in perxicillin resistant sinus INFECTIONS( Effect ) - An alternate cause

    (D) Many patients who take perxicillin experience SEVERE side effects within the first few days of their prescribed regimen
      The side effects are SEVERE( A contextually vital information). Quite likely, the patients would be NOT in favor of continuing the usage of the prescribed medicine.
      This part CAN highlight that the antibiotic was NOT taken as per the doctors’ prescription.
      A contender. Keep it!

    (E) Aqadestani health clinics provide antibiotics to their patients at cost
      It does NOT matter whether the patients are receiving the antibiotics at cost, as long as the patients are receiving the medicine.
      Does NOT explain the rise in increased bacterial sinus infections.

To answer your query:
    Quote:
    why c was wrong?

    C) When it first became available, perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time.

    later medicine was not very effective, causing the patient to stop the medication in the middle or not taking it regularly, my personal experience
      Let's say - the efficiency of the medicine when introduced was 90%.
      Now, efficiency has reduced.

      However, Are we SURE that the reduction in efficiency of the medicined is so discerning that patients would simply boycott taking the medicine?
      The impact of C is dicey at best because the reduced efficiency can be either 80% or a tiny 5%.

    vijaisingh2001 wrote:
    (D) Many patients who take perxicillin experience severe side effects within the first few days of their prescribed regimen

    side effects were there early too when the medicine was launched, and even side effects of medicine were there too later as well. Nothing has changed in terms of side effects with passage of the time. why patients had not stopped taking the medication earlier? what has changed now after 1990 that patients stopped taking medication?
      This is the inference where you did the mistake - side effects were there early too when the medicine was launched.
      How CAN we be sure of this part that the side effects were there early too?
      You have passed on the info of OptionC to OptionD because while reading OptionC, it gave you the context of the change in the side effects( OptionD), just like a change in the efficiency.( OptionC)

      Moreover, OptionD states that Many patients who take perxicillin EXPERIENCE( present-tense ) SEVERE side effects within the first few days of their prescribed regimen.
        The patients currently suffer from SEVERE side effects, a point that highlights their unfavorability to continue the prescribed regimen.

TakeAway:
    vijaisingh2001, you lose this question not because you don't know how a strengthener works( Infact, I believe you very well do!), but because you did an inference mistake of the right answer choice.
    An unintended, yet costly mistake in GMAT.
    Always read the answer choices in isolation and then discern their impact.

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New post 29 Aug 2019, 04:02
Akshay. wrote:
Hey Guys,
Small query.
So, for option (D) we are assuming that since patients suffered from side effects they might have stopped taking medicine. What if all the patients continued to take the medicine?
Premise of arguments that's not just the perxillian but "antibiotics" should not be prescribed indiscriminately.
Can you please clarify?

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    Good point!
    However, akshay., the side effects are SEVERE( A contextually vital information).
    Quite likely, the patients would NOT be in favor of continuing the usage of the prescribed medicine.

    Moreover, OptionD states that Many patients who take perxicillin EXPERIENCE( present-tense ) SEVERE side effects within the first few days of their prescribed regimen.
      The patients currently suffer from SEVERE side effects, a point that highlights their unfavorability to continue the prescribed regimen.

Quote:
What if all the patients continued to take the medicine?
    akshay., it's NOT just some generic side effects. It's the SEVERITY of the side effects, leading to failure in continuing the prescribed regimen.

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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2019, 22:55
In option D we have to make an assumption that the patients stopped taking the medication because of the side effects
We also have to assume that the side effects would happen in the duration of the course. What if the side effects occurred after the course duration was over?

In option C we only have to assume that the patients were taking the medication as prescribed and when it started working (the infection reduced) they discontinued thinking that the infection was resolved

Can someone pls explain me where i am going wrong in this reasoning?
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN   [#permalink] 01 Sep 2019, 22:55

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