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Since the inception of quantum mechanics, the many counter-intuitive

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Since the inception of quantum mechanics, the many counter-intuitive [#permalink]

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Since the inception of quantum mechanics, the many counter-intuitive aspects and results of the theory have provoked strong philosophical debates and many interpretations. Even fundamental issues, such as Max Born's basic rules concerning probability amplitudes and probability distributions, took decades to be appreciated by society and many leading scientists. Indeed, the renowned physicist Richard Feynman once said, "I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics."

The Copenhagen interpretation - due largely to the Danish theoretical physicist Niels Bohr - remains the quantum mechanical formalism that is currently most widely accepted amongst physicists, some 75 years after its enunciation in the first quarter of the 20th century. According to this interpretation, the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is not a temporary feature that will eventually be replaced by a deterministic theory, but instead must be considered a final renunciation of the classical idea of "causality". It is also believed therein that any well-defined application of the quantum mechanical formalism must always make reference to the experimental arrangement, due to the complementarity nature of evidence obtained under different experimental situations.

Albert Einstein, himself one of the founders of quantum theory, disliked this loss of determinism in measurement. Einstein held that there should be a local hidden variable theory (also known as the local realism idea) underlying quantum mechanics and, consequently, that the present theory was incomplete. He produced a series of objections to the theory, the most famous of which has become known as the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. John Bell showed that this "EPR" paradox led to experimentally testable differences between quantum mechanics and local realistic theories. Experiments have been performed confirming the accuracy of quantum mechanics, thereby demonstrating that the physical world cannot be described by any local realistic theory. The Bohr-Einstein debates and the experiments that followed provide a vibrant critique of the Copenhagen Interpretation from an epistemological point of view.


1. According to the passage, Einstein’s position regarding determinism in quantum mechanics was ___________________.

(A) unverifiable
(B) incomplete
(C) promising
(D) incorrect
(E) unfounded


[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


2. According to the passage, all of the following are true about the Copenhagen interpretation except:

(A) It puts an important emphasis on the experimental arrangement
(B) It redefines the interpretation of cause and effect
(C) It was critiqued by both Einstein and Bohr
(D) It is well regarded in the scientific community
(E) It is difficult to understand


[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


3. Which of the following can be inferred about the local hidden variable theory?

(A) It replaced most components of quantum theory
(B) It was mostly in line with John Bell’s discoveries
(C) It was proven by the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen parado
(D) It predicted more determinism in measurement than quantum theory
(E) It agreed mainly with the predictions of Niels Bohr


[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


4. The primary purpose of the passage above is to:

(A) Show that Einstein was wrong about quantum mechanics
(B) Discuss an important debate on one of the most challenging scientific theories of the 20th century
(C) Highlight the importance of quantum mechanics in the field of physics
(D) Illustrate how perplexing quantum mechanics is for scientists
(E) Argue that the Copenhagen interpretation is correct


[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA

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Re: Since the inception of quantum mechanics, the many counter-intuitive [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jun 2015, 05:51
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Hi AVRonaldo,

Please do you have OE for question 1 and Ques 3.

Question 1: Answer should B. Einstein's theory is incomplete rather than incorrect.


AVRonaldo wrote:
Since the inception of quantum mechanics, the many counter-intuitive aspects and results of the theory have provoked strong philosophical debates and many interpretations. Even fundamental issues, such as Max Born's basic rules concerning probability amplitudes and probability distributions, took decades to be appreciated by society and many leading scientists. Indeed, the renowned physicist Richard Feynman once said, "I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics."

The Copenhagen interpretation - due largely to the Danish theoretical physicist Niels Bohr - remains the quantum mechanical formalism that is currently most widely accepted amongst physicists, some 75 years after its enunciation in the first quarter of the 20th century. According to this interpretation, the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is not a temporary feature that will eventually be replaced by a deterministic theory, but instead must be considered a final renunciation of the classical idea of "causality". It is also believed therein that any well-defined application of the quantum mechanical formalism must always make reference to the experimental arrangement, due to the complementarity nature of evidence obtained under different experimental situations.

Albert Einstein, himself one of the founders of quantum theory, disliked this loss of determinism in measurement. Einstein held that there should be a local hidden variable theory (also known as the local realism idea) underlying quantum mechanics and, consequently, that the present theory was incomplete. He produced a series of objections to the theory, the most famous of which has become known as the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. John Bell showed that this "EPR" paradox led to experimentally testable differences between quantum mechanics and local realistic theories. Experiments have been performed confirming the accuracy of quantum mechanics, thereby demonstrating that the physical world cannot be described by any local realistic theory. The Bohr-Einstein debates and the experiments that followed provide a vibrant critique of the Copenhagen Interpretation from an epistemological point of view.


1. According to the passage, Einstein’s position regarding determinism in quantum mechanics was ___________________.

(A) unverifiable
(B) incomplete
(C) promising
(D) incorrect
(E) unfounded

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


2. According to the passage, all of the following are true about the Copenhagen interpretation except:

(A) It puts an important emphasis on the experimental arrangement
(B) It redefines the interpretation of cause and effect
(C) It was critiqued by both Einstein and Bohr
(D) It is well regarded in the scientific community
(E) It is difficult to understand

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


3. Which of the following can be inferred about the local hidden variable theory?

(A) It replaced most components of quantum theory
(B) It was mostly in line with John Bell’s discoveries
(C) It was proven by the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen parado
(D) It predicted more determinism in measurement than quantum theory
(E) It agreed mainly with the predictions of Niels Bohr

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


4. The primary purpose of the passage above is to:

(A) Show that Einstein was wrong about quantum mechanics
(B) Discuss an important debate on one of the most challenging scientific theories of the 20th century
(C) Highlight the importance of quantum mechanics in the field of physics
(D) Illustrate how perplexing quantum mechanics is for scientists
(E) Argue that the Copenhagen interpretation is correct

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


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Re: Since the inception of quantum mechanics, the many counter-intuitive [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2015, 10:41
can somebody give explanations for the answers..

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Re: Since the inception of quantum mechanics, the many counter-intuitive [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2015, 20:16
very hard. I post to follow discussion.
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Since the inception of quantum mechanics, the many counter-intuitive [#permalink]

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ashish8814 wrote:
can somebody give explanations for the answers..


Q1 - Answer D.

Reasons:

Einstein did not accept the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics. According to the Copenhagen interpretation (para 2) (line 4) "the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is not a temporary feature that will eventually be replaced by a deterministic theory, but instead must be considered a final renunciation of the classical idea of "causality".

But Einstein felt that - (para 3) "Albert Einstein, himself one of the founders of quantum theory, disliked this loss of determinism in measurement. Einstein held that there should be a local hidden variable theory (also known as the local realism idea) underlying quantum mechanics and, consequently, that the present theory was incomplete."

Same Para -3, Line 8 - "Experiments have been performed confirming the accuracy of quantum mechanics, thereby demonstrating that the physical world cannot be described by any local realistic theory."

Clearly the experiments have proved that Einstein was wrong in postulating a local hidden variable theory(aka local realism idea). So yes, Choice D - incorrect- is the correct answer.


------------------------------------


Choice A - unverifiable - is wrong because EPR paradox was verified by John Bell and it led to " testable differences between quantum mechanics and local realistic theories. "

Choice B - incomplete - is wrong, because nowhere is it stated or implied that his objections were incomplete. Rather they were proven wrong.

Choice C - promising - is wrong because Einstein was proven wrong. (Penultimate Sentence of the Last Para - "Experiments have been performed confirming the accuracy of quantum mechanics, thereby demonstrating that the physical world cannot be described by any local realistic theory."

Choice E - unfounded - is wrong because Einstein was proven wrong - Also we cannot say his objections were unfounded - there was some basis for his objections.
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Last edited by HarishLearner on 17 Jun 2015, 02:18, edited 3 times in total.

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Since the inception of quantum mechanics, the many counter-intuitive [#permalink]

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Question - 2. Answer C.

Choice A - supported by Para 2, Last sentence - "It is also believed therein that any well-defined application of the quantum mechanical formalism must always make reference to the experimental arrangement, due to the complementarity nature of evidence obtained under different experimental situations."

Choice B - supported by Para 2, 2nd sentence - "According to this interpretation, the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is not a temporary feature that will eventually be replaced by a deterministic theory, but instead must be considered a final renunciation of the classical idea of "causality". "

Choice C - not supported - in fact Bohr and Einstein were opponents - so it is the correct answer.

Choice D - supported by Para 2, 1st sentence - "The Copenhagen interpretation - due largely to the Danish theoretical physicist Niels Bohr - remains the quantum mechanical formalism that is currently most widely accepted amongst physicists, some 75 years after its enunciation in the first quarter of the 20th century. "

Choice E - supported by Para 1, last sentence - "Indeed, the renowned physicist Richard Feynman once said, "I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics."
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Last edited by HarishLearner on 03 Aug 2015, 01:33, edited 1 time in total.

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Since the inception of quantum mechanics, the many counter-intuitive [#permalink]

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Q3 - Answer - D.

What is the local hidden variable theory and how was it born?

"According to this interpretation, the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is not a temporary feature that will eventually be replaced by a deterministic theory, but instead must be considered a final renunciation of the classical idea of "causality".

Einstein had difficulty in accepting the loss of determinism in quantum mechanics - "Albert Einstein, himself one of the founders of quantum theory, disliked this loss of determinism in measurement. Einstein held that there should be a local hidden variable theory (also known as the local realism idea) underlying quantum mechanics and, consequently, that the present theory was incomplete." Essentially, Einstein did not believe that probabilistic interpretation was a temporary feature, but held that there was a local hidden variable theory.

This this pits probabilistic nature and loss of determinism of QM against the local hidden variable theory, therefore, the implication is the local hidden variable theory or local realism will bring back the determinism. Hence Choice D is correct.


_____________________________________________


Choice A - is wrong because Hidden Variable Theory (HTV) was only supposed to put an end to (replace) the probabilistic nature of QM and not replace most components.

Choice B - is wrong because it is the exact opposite answer - It was not in line with John Bell's discoveries -"Experiments have been performed confirming the accuracy of quantum mechanics, thereby demonstrating that the physical world cannot be described by any local realistic theory."

Choice C - is wrong because it is the exact opposite answer - it was not proven by EPR Paradox - "John Bell showed that this "EPR" paradox led to experimentally testable differences between quantum mechanics and local realistic theories." - clearly proving that EPR Paradox did not get rid of probability of QM (which was the aim of HTV).

Choice E - is wrong because it is the exact opposite answer - "According to this interpretation, the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is not a temporary feature that will eventually be replaced by a deterministic theory....."
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Last edited by HarishLearner on 17 Jun 2015, 02:27, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Since the inception of quantum mechanics, the many counter-intuitive [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2015, 02:12
Q.4 - Answer B.

I think this can be easily established by eliminating all others.

Its too much to say the primary purpose was to prove Einstein wrong, as he makes his appearance only in the last paragraph, and only as a contender of QM's probabilistic nature.Hence Choice A is wrong.

Choice C is wrong because no attempt is being made to highlight the importance of QM within the domain of physics.

Choice D is wrong because there is only quote by Richard Feynmann which talks about the perplexity of QM.

Choice E is wrong because no attempt is made to establish the correctness of Copenhagen Interpretation vis-a-vis other interpretations.
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Re: Since the inception of quantum mechanics, the many counter-intuitive [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2015, 07:47
HarishLearner wrote:
Question - 2. Answer C.

Choice A - supported by Para 2, Last sentence - "It is also believed therein that any well-defined application of the quantum mechanical formalism must always make reference to the experimental arrangement, due to the complementarity nature of evidence obtained under different experimental situations."

Choice B - supported by Para 2, 2nd sentence - "According to this interpretation, the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is not a temporary feature that will eventually be replaced by a deterministic theory, but instead must be considered a final renunciation of the classical idea of "causality". "

Choice C - not supported - in fact Bohr and Einstein were opponents - so it is the correct answer.

Choice D - supported by Para 2, 1st sentence - "The Copenhagen interpretation - due largely to the Danish theoretical physicist Niels Bohr - remains the quantum mechanical formalism that is currently most widely accepted amongst physicists, some 75 years after its enunciation in the first quarter of the 20th century. "

Choice E - supported by Para 1, last sentence - "Indeed, the renowned physicist Richard Feynman once said, "I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics."
And also the general debates between Einstein and Bohr is further proof of the difficulty in grasping it.


daagh WaterFlowsUp

could you please explain option E. in 1st para information is about quantum mechanics and in 2nd para we are talking about Copenhagen interpretation. and nothing is mentioned that it is difficult to understand.

Please clarify

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Re: Since the inception of quantum mechanics, the many counter-intuitive [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2015, 01:32
PathFinder007 wrote:
HarishLearner wrote:
Question - 2. Answer C.

Choice A - supported by Para 2, Last sentence - "It is also believed therein that any well-defined application of the quantum mechanical formalism must always make reference to the experimental arrangement, due to the complementarity nature of evidence obtained under different experimental situations."

Choice B - supported by Para 2, 2nd sentence - "According to this interpretation, the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is not a temporary feature that will eventually be replaced by a deterministic theory, but instead must be considered a final renunciation of the classical idea of "causality". "

Choice C - not supported - in fact Bohr and Einstein were opponents - so it is the correct answer.

Choice D - supported by Para 2, 1st sentence - "The Copenhagen interpretation - due largely to the Danish theoretical physicist Niels Bohr - remains the quantum mechanical formalism that is currently most widely accepted amongst physicists, some 75 years after its enunciation in the first quarter of the 20th century. "

Choice E - supported by Para 1, last sentence - "Indeed, the renowned physicist Richard Feynman once said, "I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics."
And also the general debates between Einstein and Bohr is further proof of the difficulty in grasping it.


daagh WaterFlowsUp

could you please explain option E. in 1st para information is about quantum mechanics and in 2nd para we are talking about Copenhagen interpretation. and nothing is mentioned that it is difficult to understand.

Please clarify

Thanks


The last sentence in the first paragraph (quote by Richard Feynman) proves that it is difficult to understand. The second point I made - debates between Einstein and Bohr - I admit is not proof of difficulty, rather proof that it remains a controversial theory.

I will remove the sentence "And also the general debates between Einstein and Bohr is further proof of the difficulty in grasping it."
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Re: Since the inception of quantum mechanics, the many counter-intuitive [#permalink]

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Re: Since the inception of quantum mechanics, the many counter-intuitive [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2017, 17:35
HarishLearner wrote:
Question - 2. Answer C.

Choice A - supported by Para 2, Last sentence - "It is also believed therein that any well-defined application of the quantum mechanical formalism must always make reference to the experimental arrangement, due to the complementarity nature of evidence obtained under different experimental situations."

Choice B - supported by Para 2, 2nd sentence - "According to this interpretation, the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is not a temporary feature that will eventually be replaced by a deterministic theory, but instead must be considered a final renunciation of the classical idea of "causality". "

Choice C - not supported - in fact Bohr and Einstein were opponents - so it is the correct answer.

Choice D - supported by Para 2, 1st sentence - "The Copenhagen interpretation - due largely to the Danish theoretical physicist Niels Bohr - remains the quantum mechanical formalism that is currently most widely accepted amongst physicists, some 75 years after its enunciation in the first quarter of the 20th century. "

Choice E - supported by Para 1, last sentence - "Indeed, the renowned physicist Richard Feynman once said, "I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics."



Hi
How do you eliminate C. Refer the last para, their(Einstein-Bohr) debates were vibrant critique of the CI

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Re: Since the inception of quantum mechanics, the many counter-intuitive   [#permalink] 14 Dec 2017, 17:35
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