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Some historians contend that conditions in the United States during th

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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States during th [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2009, 14:30
OAs for the second passage are: E C D

guys, please write the explanation in atleast one statement for your selection of the answer choices. This would help others to understand the answers..
thanks for your support and interest.. :)

Next passage coming soon..

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New post 04 Aug 2009, 07:58
The fact that superior service can generate a competitive
advantage for a company does not mean that every attempt
at improving service will create such an advantage. Investments
in service, like those in production and distribution,
(5) must be balanced against other types of investments on the
basis of direct, tangible benefits such as cost reduction and
increased revenues. If a company is already effectively on a
par with its competitors because it provides service that
avoids a damaging reputation and keeps customers from
(10) leaving at an unacceptable rate, then investment in higher
service levels may be wasted, since service is a deciding
factor for customers only in extreme situations.
This truth was not apparent to managers of one regional
bank, which failed to improve its competitive position
(15) despite its investment in reducing the time a customer had
to wait for a teller. The bank managers did not recognize
the level of customer inertia in the consumer banking
industry that arises from the inconvenience of switching
banks. Nor did they analyze their service improvement to
(20) determine whether it would attract new customers by producing
a new standard of service that would excite customers
or by proving difficult for competitors to copy. The
only merit of the improvement was that it could easily be
described to customers.


1. The passage suggests that bank managers failed to
consider whether or not the service improvement
mentioned in line 19
(A) was too complicated to be easily described to
prospective customers
(B) made a measurable change in the experiences of
customers in the bank’s offices
(C) could be sustained if the number of customers
increased significantly
(D) was an innovation that competing banks could
have imitated
(E) was adequate to bring the bank’s general level of
service to a level that was comparable with that of
its competitors

2. The discussion of the regional bank (line 13-24) serves
which of the following functions within the passage as a
whole?
(A) It describes an exceptional case in which
investment in service actually failed to produce a
competitive advantage.
(B) It illustrates the pitfalls of choosing to invest in
service at a time when investment is needed
more urgently in another area.
(C) It demonstrates the kind of analysis that managers
apply when they choose one kind of service
investment over another
(D) It supports the argument that investments in
certain aspects of service are more advantageous
than investments in other aspects of service.
(E) It provides an example of the point about
investment in service made in the first paragraph.


3. The author uses the word “only” in line 23 most likely
in order to
(A) highlight the oddity of the service improvement
(B) emphasize the relatively low value of the
investment in service improvement
(C) distinguish the primary attribute of the service
improvement from secondary attributes
(D) single out a certain merit of the service
improvement from other merits
(E) point out the limited duration of the actual service
improvement

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New post 04 Aug 2009, 09:41
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1. b
a. contradicts the fact
b. answer
c. no reference in para
d.similar to the copy point...but doesn't talk abt difficulty
e.point is about setting a new standard of service, not on par

2.e
a. not an exceptional case.
b. doesn't mention abt urgency of investment in other areas
c. no analysis info is mentioned
d. it does the reverse.
e. answer

3.b
a.it's not odd.
b.answer
c.no reference to the attribute types.
d.no..the merit is singled out from the demerits.
e.no time discussion mentioned

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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States during th [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2009, 12:55
gmaggi wrote:
1. b
a. contradicts the fact
b. answer
c. no reference in para
d.similar to the copy point...but doesn't talk abt difficulty
e.point is about setting a new standard of service, not on par

2.e
a. not an exceptional case.
b. doesn't mention abt urgency of investment in other areas
c. no analysis info is mentioned
d. it does the reverse.
e. answer

3.b
a.it's not odd.
b.answer
c.no reference to the attribute types.
d.no..the merit is singled out from the demerits.
e.no time discussion mentioned

Nice explanations gmaggie..
+1 kudos for u..
OAs are D E B..
By lines 20 - 22 u can infer that D is correct. actually i also selected B for the first time but D is the correct answer for 1st question..

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New post 17 Aug 2009, 13:11
I got C on question 2 of the first passage. Can someone explain why it is incorrect?


Atomy,

Thanks for posting the passages. It's very helpful since there is a shortage of RC on the forum. Can you please post each passage on a separate thread? It's very hard to respond and keep the discussion on topic when you have so many different quesitons to respond to. Also, I've seen the third passage in the OG. If you can post the source it will be helpful to users.

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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States during th [#permalink]

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New post 21 Apr 2011, 11:39
2 more questions for this text


1. Which of the following best summarizes a point of view attributed to the historians mentioned in the highlighted text? ('Some historians, line 1')
(A)Trade unions were weakened during the Second World War by their failure to establish a productive relationship with the African American community.
(B)Trade unions and the African American community forged a lasting relationship after the Second World War based on their wartime alliance.
(C) The cause of civil rights was not significantly affected by the wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community.
(D) The civil rights movement that followed the Second World War forced trade unions to confront contradictions in their practices.
(E) The civil rights movement would have benefited from a postwar continuation of the wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community.


2. The passage is primarily concerned with
(A)providing a context within which to evaluate opposing viewpoints about a historical phenomenon
(B)identifying a flawed assumption underlying one interpretation of a historical phenomenon
(C) assessing the merits and weaknesses of a controversial theory about a historical phenomenon
(D) discussing the historical importance of the development of a wartime alliance
(E) evaluating evidence used to support a particular interpretation of a historical phenomenon

OA is not given, but my opinion that is
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E, A

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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States during th [#permalink]

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New post 18 Oct 2011, 02:14
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singalong wrote:
Can someone tell me why E is wrong?


I assume you are talking about the original question and not the other questions posted by different members later....

Historians: there was an alliance between unions and african-americans, but it didnt last after the war. had it lasted it would have helped the civil war consideraby.
Scholars: There never was a true alliance between unions & african-americans; the unions always promoted the rise of their white members over their coloured counterparst.

E is wrong because the scholars dont even put forward an opinion about the effects of the supposed alliance on the civil wars that followed later. The debate is between 'alliance' or 'not-a-true-alliance'

hope this makes sense....

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To attack a passage, one can use help from using Headline Highlights.

P1: Hist: US condition in WW2 led to alliance (UNION + Af-Am comm.)
Alliance disappeared - bad to civil right movement
Sch: UNION is pro white all along

P2: UNION has 2 choices: stay same or inclusion ideal
UNION rep say inclusion ideal but practices the other
Movement after WWII forced union to straight out dilemma

Disagreement lies on whether UNION helps AF-AM community or the White

Answer choices:
A) contribution to WWII not mentioned
B) most important issues? Not mentioned nor argued upon
D) effect of WWII, the passage is about UNION
E) changes after WWII and its effect on Af-am community... Not disputed...

Is the union helping Af am or not? C is the closest...

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The reasoning behind the answer being C is as follows:

1) Based on lines 1-11, the historians mentioned in line 1 believe that during WW2, the trade unions had a great relationship with the African-American community.
2) Based on lines 11-16, the scholars mentioned in line 11 instead believe that the trade unions never had a good relationship with African-Americans, and instead chose to stymie their movement toward equal rights even during WW2.
1+2 = 3) Therefore, the historians in line 1 and the scholars in line 11 are at odds regarding the relationship between trade unions and African-Americans during the course of WW2.

Within the passage, there is no mention of the opinion of either of these groups about the effect of WW2 on the civil rights movement. Instead, we only have the author's opinion. That is why D isn't the answer.

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New post 03 Jul 2012, 04:13
I assume that the correct answer is C since
both of them did not considered relationship between unions and African Americans as opportunity for civil rights movement
they are disagree with it

Some historians contend that conditions
in the United States during the
Second World War gave rise to a
dynamic wartime alliance between
(5) trade unions and the African American
community, an alliance that advanced
the cause of civil rights. They conclude
that the postwar demise of this
vital alliance constituted a lost oppor-
(10) tunity for the civil rights movement that
followed the war
. Other scholars,
however, have portrayed organized
labor as defending all along the relatively
privileged position of White
(15) workers relative to African American
workers
. Clearly, these two perspectives
are not easily reconcilable, but
the historical reality is not reducible
to one or the other.
(20) Unions faced a choice between
either maintaining the prewar status
quo or promoting a more inclusive

approach that sought for all members
the right to participate in the internal
(25) affairs of unions, access to skilled
and high-paying positions within the
occupational hierarchy, and protection
against management’s arbitrary
authority in the workplace. While
(30) union representatives often voiced
this inclusive ideal, in practice unions
far more often favored entrenched
interests. The accelerating development
of the civil rights movement
(35) following the Second World War
exacerbated the unions’ dilemma,
forcing trade unionists to confront
contradictions in their own practices.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q7:
According to the passage, the historians mentioned in line 1 and the scholars mentioned
in line 11 disagree about the
A. contribution made by organized labor to the war effort during the Second World
War
B. issues that union members considered most important during the Second World
War
C. relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World
War
D. effect of the Second World War on the influence of unions in the workplace
E. extent to which African Americans benefited from social and political changes
following the Second World War

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New post 29 Aug 2012, 08:21
I need to understand why is A not the right answer is it not talking about perspectives
The passage mentions viewpoints so why is A wrong

then in that case how do we really read the primary puporse


Some historians contend that conditions in the
United States during the Second World War gave rise
to a dynamic wartime alliance between trade unions
and the African American community, an alliance that
advanced the cause of civil rights. They conclude that
the postwar demise of this vital alliance constituted a
lost opportunity for the civil rights movement that
followed the war. Other scholars, however, have
portrayed organized labor as defending all along the
relatively privileged position of White workers relative
to African American workers. Clearly, these two
perspectives are not easily reconcilable, but the
historical reality is not reducible to one or the other.
Unions faced a choice between either maintaining the
prewar status quo or promoting a more inclusive
approach that sought for all members the right to
participate in the internal affairs of unions, access to
skilled and high-paying positions within the
occupational hierarchy, and protection against
management's arbitrary authority in the workplace.
While union representatives often voiced this inclusive
ideal, in practice unions far more often favored
entrenched interests. The accelerating development
of the civil rights movement following the Second
World War exacerbated the unions' dilemma, forcing
trade unionists to confront contradictions in their own
practices.

The passage is primarily concerned with
(A) providing a context within which to evaluate
opposing viewpoints about a historical
phenomenon
(B) identifying a flawed assumption underlying one
interpretation of a historical phenomenon
(C) assessing the merits and weaknesses of a
controversial theory about a historical
phenomenon
(D) discussing the historical importance of the
development of a wartime alliance
(E) evaluating evidence used to support a particular
interpretation of a historical phenomenon

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New post 18 Nov 2012, 09:28
1. Which of the following best summarizes a point of view attributed to the historians mentioned in the highlighted text? ('Some historians, line 1')
(A)Trade unions were weakened during the Second World War by their failure to establish a productive relationship with the African American community.
(B)Trade unions and the African American community forged a lasting relationship after the Second World War based on their wartime alliance.
(C) The cause of civil rights was not significantly affected by the wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community.
(D) The civil rights movement that followed the Second World War forced trade unions to confront contradictions in their practices.
(E) The civil rights movement would have benefited from a postwar continuation of the wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community.


For this question how come the ans is c when it is clearly mentioned in the passage that the wartime alliance advanced the cause of civil rights ?

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New post 25 Feb 2013, 22:42
According to the passage, the historians mentioned in the first highlighted portion of text and the scholars mentioned in the second highlighted portion disagree about the

The historians and scholars disagree about the contribution made by unions to civil rights movement.

(A) contributions to war effort... Is not the issue...

(B) most important to both... We don't know...

(C) unions formed alliance with afr. Americans while scholars believed this as not the case...

(D) effect of war on workplace ... Not mentioned...

(E) post war is not what they disagree about but during war conditions...

Answer: C
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New post 25 Feb 2013, 22:56
venmic wrote:
I need to understand why is A not the right answer is it not talking about perspectives
The passage mentions viewpoints so why is A wrong

then in that case how do we really read the primary puporse


Some historians contend that conditions in the
United States during the Second World War gave rise
to a dynamic wartime alliance between trade unions
and the African American community, an alliance that
advanced the cause of civil rights. They conclude that
the postwar demise of this vital alliance constituted a
lost opportunity for the civil rights movement that
followed the war. Other scholars, however, have
portrayed organized labor as defending all along the
relatively privileged position of White workers relative
to African American workers. Clearly, these two
perspectives are not easily reconcilable, but the
historical reality is not reducible to one or the other.
Unions faced a choice between either maintaining the
prewar status quo or promoting a more inclusive
approach that sought for all members the right to
participate in the internal affairs of unions, access to
skilled and high-paying positions within the
occupational hierarchy, and protection against
management's arbitrary authority in the workplace.
While union representatives often voiced this inclusive
ideal, in practice unions far more often favored
entrenched interests. The accelerating development
of the civil rights movement following the Second
World War exacerbated the unions' dilemma, forcing
trade unionists to confront contradictions in their own
practices.

The passage is primarily concerned with
(A) providing a context within which to evaluate
opposing viewpoints about a historical
phenomenon
(B) identifying a flawed assumption underlying one
interpretation of a historical phenomenon
(C) assessing the merits and weaknesses of a
controversial theory about a historical
phenomenon
(D) discussing the historical importance of the
development of a wartime alliance
(E) evaluating evidence used to support a particular
interpretation of a historical phenomenon


The author stated two opposing views by historians and scholars. He mentioned that it is not the first nor is the second view correct. Then he presented a his view. The author is more on identifying the flaw rather than evaluating the two views. This makes A wrong.

C is wrong because he gave no merit to the two views in the first paragraph.

D is wrong because this is not about the importance of war alliance.

E. there are no evidence for the two opposing views. The author presented his argument instead.

Answer to me is B. what's the OA? I think it's b because the assumption is that the historians or the scholar is right, at least one of them or their views are reconcilable which according the the author is not the case.
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Passage-05 [url=http://gmatclub.com/forum/all-gmat-prep-rcs-collection-176232.html]GMATPrep RCs-Collection(Main article)[/url]
Some historians contend that conditions in the United States during the Second World War gave rise to a dynamic wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community, an alliance that advanced the cause of civil rights. They conclude that the postwar demise of this vital alliance constituted a lost opportunity for the civil rights movement that followed the war. Other scholars, however, have portrayed organized labor as defending all along the relatively privileged position of White workers relative to African American workers. Clearly, these two perspectives are not easily reconcilable, but the historical reality is not reducible to one or the other.

Unions faced a choice between either maintaining the prewar status quo or promoting a more inclusive approach that sought for all members the right to participate in the internal affairs of unions, access to skilled and high-paying positions within the occupational hierarchy, and protection against management's arbitrary authority in the workplace. While union representatives often voiced this inclusive ideal, in practice unions far more often favored entrenched interests. The accelerating development of the civil rights movement following the Second World War exacerbated the unions' dilemma, forcing trade unionists to confront contradictions in their own practices.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. providing a context within which to evaluate opposing viewpoints about a historical phenomenon
B. identifying a flawed assumption underlying one interpretation of a historical phenomenon
C. assessing the merits and weaknesses of a controversial theory about a historical phenomenon
D. discussing the historical importance of the development of a wartime alliance
E. evaluating evidence used to support a particular interpretation of a historical phenomenon

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


2. According to the passage, the historians (at the beginning) and the scholars (highlight) disagree about the
A. contribution made by organized labor to the war effort during the Second World War
B. issues that union members considered most important during the Second World War
C. relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World War
D. effect of the Second World War on the influence of unions in the workplace
E. extent to which African Americans benefited from social and political changes following the Second World War

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C



3.Which of the following best describes the purpose of the first sentence (highlight) in the second paragraph in the passage?
A. To summarize a situation confronted by unions during the Second World War
B. To summarize the role of unions in the workplace during the Second World War
C. To explain the philosophy supported by most unions during the Second World War
D. To assess the effect of the growth of the civil rights movement on unions during the Second World War
E. To present a criticism of the unions' approach to representing workers during the Second World War

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


4. Which of the following best summarizes the opinion of the author of the passage regarding the two points of view presented in the first paragraph (highlight) ?
A. Neither point of view reflects the views of certain African American historians on trade unions during the Second World War.
B. Neither point of view reflects the full complexity of the historical reality.
C. One point of view is based on more reliable research than is the other.
D. Both points of view have misinterpreted recent research on trade unions during the Second World War.
E. The two points of view can be readily harmonized into a coherent interpretation.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


5. The "unions' dilemma" (highlight) mentioned in the highlighted text can best be described as the question of whether or not to
A. pressure management to create more skilled and high-paying positions
B. fight for greater union participation in management decisions
C. include minority workers in their membership
D. extend full rights and benefits to all their members
E. emphasize the recruitment of new members over serving the needs of current members

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


6. Which of the following best summarizes a point of view attributed to the historians mentioned in the highlighted text? ('Some historians, line 1')
A. Trade unions were weakened during the Second World War by their failure to establish a productive relationship with the African American community.
B. Trade unions and the African American community forged a lasting relationship after the Second World War based on their wartime alliance.
C. The cause of civil rights was not significantly affected by the wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community.
D. The civil rights movement that followed the Second World War forced trade unions to confront contradictions in their practices.
E. The civil rights movement would have benefited from a postwar continuation of the wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


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Last edited by PiyushK on 16 Aug 2014, 02:59, edited 3 times in total.
OA added

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New post 13 Aug 2014, 21:40
OA added to above passage.

A C A B D E
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New post 20 Aug 2014, 08:27
the answer is A not C as in first para the context has been provided ,the context defines two views and in 2nd para the opposite view is evaluated.
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Drop me a pm. I will help u understand the passage.
U shud also try to read few mgmat guidelines to understand and internalize passages better.

Posted from my mobile device
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Passage-05 GMATPrep RCs-Collection(Main article)
Some historians contend that conditions in the United States during the Second World War gave rise to a dynamic wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community, an alliance that advanced the cause of civil rights. They conclude that the postwar demise of this vital alliance constituted a lost opportunity for the civil rights movement that followed the war. Other scholars, however, have portrayed organized labor as defending all along the relatively privileged position of White workers relative to African American workers. Clearly, these two perspectives are not easily reconcilable, but the historical reality is not reducible to one or the other.

Unions faced a choice between either maintaining the prewar status quo or promoting a more inclusive approach that sought for all members the right to participate in the internal affairs of unions, access to skilled and high-paying positions within the occupational hierarchy, and protection against management's arbitrary authority in the workplace. While union representatives often voiced this inclusive ideal, in practice unions far more often favored entrenched interests. The accelerating development of the civil rights movement following the Second World War exacerbated the unions' dilemma, forcing trade unionists to confront contradictions in their own practices.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. providing a context within which to evaluate opposing viewpoints about a historical phenomenon
B. identifying a flawed assumption underlying one interpretation of a historical phenomenon
C. assessing the merits and weaknesses of a controversial theory about a historical phenomenon
D. discussing the historical importance of the development of a wartime alliance
E. evaluating evidence used to support a particular interpretation of a historical phenomenon
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


2. According to the passage, the historians (at the beginning) and the scholars (highlight) disagree about the
A. contribution made by organized labor to the war effort during the Second World War
B. issues that union members considered most important during the Second World War
C. relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World War
D. effect of the Second World War on the influence of unions in the workplace
E. extent to which African Americans benefited from social and political changes following the Second World War
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C



3.Which of the following best describes the purpose of the first sentence (highlight) in the second paragraph in the passage?
A. To summarize a situation confronted by unions during the Second World War
B. To summarize the role of unions in the workplace during the Second World War
C. To explain the philosophy supported by most unions during the Second World War
D. To assess the effect of the growth of the civil rights movement on unions during the Second World War
E. To present a criticism of the unions' approach to representing workers during the Second World War
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


4. Which of the following best summarizes the opinion of the author of the passage regarding the two points of view presented in the first paragraph (highlight) ?
A. Neither point of view reflects the views of certain African American historians on trade unions during the Second World War.
B. Neither point of view reflects the full complexity of the historical reality.
C. One point of view is based on more reliable research than is the other.
D. Both points of view have misinterpreted recent research on trade unions during the Second World War.
E. The two points of view can be readily harmonized into a coherent interpretation.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


5. The "unions' dilemma" (highlight) mentioned in the highlighted text can best be described as the question of whether or not to
A. pressure management to create more skilled and high-paying positions
B. fight for greater union participation in management decisions
C. include minority workers in their membership
D. extend full rights and benefits to all their members
E. emphasize the recruitment of new members over serving the needs of current members
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


6. Which of the following best summarizes a point of view attributed to the historians mentioned in the highlighted text? ('Some historians, line 1')
A. Trade unions were weakened during the Second World War by their failure to establish a productive relationship with the African American community.
B. Trade unions and the African American community forged a lasting relationship after the Second World War based on their wartime alliance.
C. The cause of civil rights was not significantly affected by the wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community.
D. The civil rights movement that followed the Second World War forced trade unions to confront contradictions in their practices.
E. The civil rights movement would have benefited from a postwar continuation of the wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E



Please explain Question 1 and 2.
Unable to get correct answers

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New post 17 Sep 2015, 02:01
I like this passage

the passage is not very hard to read but the questions are hard to answer.

the ability to infer to answer questions is quite difference from ability to read the passage.
we need 2 skills. the skill to read require big amount of time, the skill to answer require a few weeks to acquire.
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Kudos [?]: 158 [0], given: 916

Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States during th   [#permalink] 17 Sep 2015, 02:01

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