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New post Updated on: 06 Oct 2019, 04:41
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Some historians contend that conditions in the United States during the Second World War gave rise to a dynamic wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community, an alliance that advanced the cause of civil rights. They conclude that the postwar demise of this vital alliance constituted a lost opportunity for the civil rights movement that followed the war. Other scholars, however, have portrayed organized labor as defending all along the relatively privileged position of White workers relative to African American workers. Clearly, these two perspectives are not easily reconcilable, but the historical reality is not reducible to one or the other.

Unions faced a choice between either maintaining the prewar status quo or promoting a more inclusive approach that sought for all members the right to participate in the internal affairs of unions, access to skilled and high-paying positions within the occupational hierarchy, and protection against management's arbitrary authority in the workplace. While union representatives often voiced this inclusive ideal, in practice unions far more often favored entrenched interests. The accelerating development of the civil rights movement following the Second World War exacerbated the unions' dilemma, forcing trade unionists to confront contradictions in their own practices.

1. The passage is primarily concerned with

A. providing a context within which to evaluate opposing viewpoints about a historical phenomenon
B. identifying a flawed assumption underlying one interpretation of a historical phenomenon
C. assessing the merits and weaknesses of a controversial theory about a historical phenomenon
D. discussing the historical importance of the development of a wartime alliance
E. evaluating evidence used to support a particular interpretation of a historical phenomenon


2. According to the passage, the historians (at the beginning) and the scholars (highlight) disagree about the

A. contribution made by organized labor to the war effort during the Second World War
B. issues that union members considered most important during the Second World War
C. relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World War
D. effect of the Second World War on the influence of unions in the workplace
E. extent to which African Americans benefited from social and political changes following the Second World War


3.Which of the following best describes the purpose of the first sentence (highlight) in the second paragraph in the passage?

A. To summarize a situation confronted by unions during the Second World War
B. To summarize the role of unions in the workplace during the Second World War
C. To explain the philosophy supported by most unions during the Second World War
D. To assess the effect of the growth of the civil rights movement on unions during the Second World War
E. To present a criticism of the unions' approach to representing workers during the Second World War


4. Which of the following best summarizes the opinion of the author of the passage regarding the two points of view presented in the first paragraph (highlight) ?

A. Neither point of view reflects the views of certain African American historians on trade unions during the Second World War.
B. Neither point of view reflects the full complexity of the historical reality.
C. One point of view is based on more reliable research than is the other.
D. Both points of view have misinterpreted recent research on trade unions during the Second World War.
E. The two points of view can be readily harmonized into a coherent interpretation.


5. The "unions' dilemma" (highlight) mentioned in the highlighted text can best be described as the question of whether or not to

A. pressure management to create more skilled and high-paying positions
B. fight for greater union participation in management decisions
C. include minority workers in their membership
D. extend full rights and benefits to all their members
E. emphasize the recruitment of new members over serving the needs of current members


6. Which of the following best summarizes a point of view attributed to the historians mentioned in the highlighted text? ('Some historians, line 1')

A. Trade unions were weakened during the Second World War by their failure to establish a productive relationship with the African American community.
B. Trade unions and the African American community forged a lasting relationship after the Second World War based on their wartime alliance.
C. The cause of civil rights was not significantly affected by the wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community.
D. The civil rights movement that followed the Second World War forced trade unions to confront contradictions in their practices.
E. The civil rights movement would have benefited from a postwar continuation of the wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community



Source : GMATPREP Default Exam Pack

Source of Passage : JOURNAL ARTICLE
Organized Labor and the Struggle for Black Equality in Mobile during World War II
Bruce Nelson
The Journal of American History
Vol. 80, No. 3 (Dec., 1993), pp. 952-988
Published by: Oxford University Press on behalf of Organization of American Historians
DOI: 10.2307/2080410
https://www.jstor.org/stable/2080410
Page Count: 37

Some historians contend that conditions in the United States during the Second World War gave rise to a Line dynamic wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community, an alliance that advanced the cause of civil rights. They conclude that the postwar demise of this vital alliance constituted a lost opportunity for the civil rights movement that followed the war. Other scholars, however, have portrayed organized labor as defending all along the relatively privileged position of White workers relative to African American workers. Clearly, these two perspectives are not easily reconcilable, but the historical reality is not reducible to one or the other.

Unions faced a choice between either maintaining the prewar status quo or promoting a more inclusive approach that sought for all members the right to participate in the internal affairs of unions, access to skilled and high-paying positions within the occupational hierarchy, and protection against management's arbitrary authority in the workplace. While
union representatives often voiced this inclusive ideal, in practice unions far more often favored entrenched interests. The accelerating development of the civil rights movement
following the Second World War exacerbated the union's dilemma, forcing trade unionists to confront contradictions in their own practices.
According to the passage, the historians mentioned in the first highlighted portion of text and the scholars mentioned in the second highlighted portion disagree about the
(A) contribution made by organized labor to the war effort during the Second World War
(B) issues that union members considered most important during the second World war.
(C) relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World War.
(D) effect of the Second World War on the influence of unions in the workplace
(E) extent to which African Americans benefited from social and political changes following the Second World War.

OA=C


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Originally posted by eyunni on 06 Dec 2007, 21:12.
Last edited by hazelnut on 06 Oct 2019, 04:41, edited 5 times in total.
Updated complete topic (35).
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New post 06 Dec 2007, 21:59
2
The first passage can be interpreted as "there was a union during the war, but it fell apart immediately after" while the second passage is saying there never was a union, before or after the war. They're both agreeing that there was no union and no advancement after WWII.

I see what you're saying and it does look like a viable option, but I'm sticking with C on this one.
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New post 07 Dec 2007, 07:11
3
eyunni wrote:
I forgot to highlight the relevant parts for this question. I was only used to highlighting SC. This one is special. :-D


aaah. I was wondering whether something was missing. I'm still sticking with C however.

A. passage doesn't talk about any contribution to the war effort at all.
B. it's not talking about issues the members consider important, just the relationship between African Americans and the unions.
C. the historians say there was a relationship during the war, the scholars say there never was. this is the disagreement
D. doesn't say anything about the influence of unions in the workplace
E. while the disagree about any relationship during the war, both historians and scholars seem to agree that African Americans were no better off following the war
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New post 26 Jun 2008, 18:37
2
eyunni wrote:
Some historians contend that conditions
in the United States during the
Second World War gave rise to a
Line dynamic wartime alliance between
(5) trade unions and the African American
community, an alliance that advanced
the cause of civil rights. They conclude
that the postwar demise of this
vital alliance constituted a lost oppor-
(10) tunity for the civil rights movement that
followed the war. Other scholars,
however, have portrayed organized
labor as defending all along the relatively
privileged position of White
(15) workers relative to African American
workers. Clearly, these two perspectives
are not easily reconcilable, but
the historical reality is not reducible
to one or the other.

(20) Unions faced a choice between
either maintaining the prewar status
quo or promoting a more inclusive
approach that sought for all members
the right to participate in the internal
(25) affairs of unions, access to skilled
and high-paying positions within the
occupational hierarchy, and protection
against management’s arbitrary
authority in the workplace. While
(30) union representatives often voiced
this inclusive ideal, in practice unions
far more often favored entrenched
interests. The accelerating development
of the civil rights movement
(35) following the Second World War
exacerbated the unions’ dilemma,
forcing trade unionists to confront
contradictions in their own practices.




The "unions' dilemma" (underlined 2nd para) mentioned in the text can best be described as the question of whether or not to

A). pressure management to create more skilled and high-paying positions
B). fight for greater union participation in management decisions
C). include minority workers in their membership
D). extend full rights and benefits to all their members
E). emphasize the recruitment of new members over the serving needs of the current members

Can someone explain which is the correct answer and why the rest are wrong? Thanks!
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New post Updated on: 29 Jun 2008, 10:14
1
rpmodi wrote:
Some historians contend that conditions
in the United States during the
Second World War gave rise to a
dynamic wartime alliance between
(5) trade unions and the African American
community, an alliance that advanced
the cause of civil rights. They conclude
that the postwar demise of this
vital alliance constituted a lost oppor-
(10) tunity for the civil rights movement that
followed the war. Other scholars,
however, have portrayed organized
labor as defending all along the relatively
privileged position of White
(15) workers relative to African American
workers. Clearly, these two perspectives
are not easily reconcilable, but
the historical reality is not reducible
to one or the other.
(20) Unions faced a choice between
either maintaining the prewar status
quo or promoting a more inclusive

approach that sought for all members
the right to participate in the internal
(25) affairs of unions, access to skilled
and high-paying positions within the
occupational hierarchy, and protection
against management’s arbitrary
authority in the workplace. While
(30) union representatives often voiced
this inclusive ideal, in practice unions
far more often favored entrenched
interests. The accelerating development
of the civil rights movement
(35) following the Second World War
exacerbated the unions’ dilemma,
forcing trade unionists to confront
contradictions in their own practices.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q7:
According to the passage, the historians mentioned in line 1 and the scholars mentioned
in line 11 disagree about the
A. contribution made by organized labor to the war effort during the Second World
War
B. issues that union members considered most important during the Second World
War
C. relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World
War
D. effect of the Second World War on the influence of unions in the workplace
E. extent to which African Americans benefited from social and political changes
following the Second World War


Some historians: Alliance between Trade Unions and African Americans /Civil rights during WW2
Others:Organised labor was used to promote the White Labourers rights during WW2.
Conclusion of para 1: Unions had to make a choice

A. contribution made by organized labor to the war effort during the Second World
War
>>>address only the statement made by "others"
B. issues that union members considered most important during the Second World
War
>>>OOS
C. relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World
War
>>>>>>address only the statement made by "Some historians"
D. effect of the Second World War on the influence of unions in the workplace
>>>discusses the Unions in general

E. extent to which African Americans benefited from social and political changes
following the Second World War
>>>>>>>>>address only the statement made by "Some historians"

Originally posted by goalsnr on 29 Jun 2008, 10:13.
Last edited by goalsnr on 29 Jun 2008, 10:14, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 04 Aug 2009, 09:41
1
1. b
a. contradicts the fact
b. answer
c. no reference in para
d.similar to the copy point...but doesn't talk abt difficulty
e.point is about setting a new standard of service, not on par

2.e
a. not an exceptional case.
b. doesn't mention abt urgency of investment in other areas
c. no analysis info is mentioned
d. it does the reverse.
e. answer

3.b
a.it's not odd.
b.answer
c.no reference to the attribute types.
d.no..the merit is singled out from the demerits.
e.no time discussion mentioned
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New post 25 Nov 2011, 22:43
2
To attack a passage, one can use help from using Headline Highlights.

P1: Hist: US condition in WW2 led to alliance (UNION + Af-Am comm.)
Alliance disappeared - bad to civil right movement
Sch: UNION is pro white all along

P2: UNION has 2 choices: stay same or inclusion ideal
UNION rep say inclusion ideal but practices the other
Movement after WWII forced union to straight out dilemma

Disagreement lies on whether UNION helps AF-AM community or the White

Answer choices:
A) contribution to WWII not mentioned
B) most important issues? Not mentioned nor argued upon
D) effect of WWII, the passage is about UNION
E) changes after WWII and its effect on Af-am community... Not disputed...

Is the union helping Af am or not? C is the closest...
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New post 14 Jun 2012, 07:51
3
1
The reasoning behind the answer being C is as follows:

1) Based on lines 1-11, the historians mentioned in line 1 believe that during WW2, the trade unions had a great relationship with the African-American community.
2) Based on lines 11-16, the scholars mentioned in line 11 instead believe that the trade unions never had a good relationship with African-Americans, and instead chose to stymie their movement toward equal rights even during WW2.
1+2 = 3) Therefore, the historians in line 1 and the scholars in line 11 are at odds regarding the relationship between trade unions and African-Americans during the course of WW2.

Within the passage, there is no mention of the opinion of either of these groups about the effect of WW2 on the civil rights movement. Instead, we only have the author's opinion. That is why D isn't the answer.

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New post 25 Feb 2013, 22:42
According to the passage, the historians mentioned in the first highlighted portion of text and the scholars mentioned in the second highlighted portion disagree about the

The historians and scholars disagree about the contribution made by unions to civil rights movement.

(A) contributions to war effort... Is not the issue...

(B) most important to both... We don't know...

(C) unions formed alliance with afr. Americans while scholars believed this as not the case...

(D) effect of war on workplace ... Not mentioned...

(E) post war is not what they disagree about but during war conditions...

Answer: C
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New post 25 Feb 2013, 22:56
venmic wrote:
I need to understand why is A not the right answer is it not talking about perspectives
The passage mentions viewpoints so why is A wrong

then in that case how do we really read the primary puporse


Some historians contend that conditions in the
United States during the Second World War gave rise
to a dynamic wartime alliance between trade unions
and the African American community, an alliance that
advanced the cause of civil rights. They conclude that
the postwar demise of this vital alliance constituted a
lost opportunity for the civil rights movement that
followed the war. Other scholars, however, have
portrayed organized labor as defending all along the
relatively privileged position of White workers relative
to African American workers. Clearly, these two
perspectives are not easily reconcilable, but the
historical reality is not reducible to one or the other.
Unions faced a choice between either maintaining the
prewar status quo or promoting a more inclusive
approach that sought for all members the right to
participate in the internal affairs of unions, access to
skilled and high-paying positions within the
occupational hierarchy, and protection against
management's arbitrary authority in the workplace.
While union representatives often voiced this inclusive
ideal, in practice unions far more often favored
entrenched interests. The accelerating development
of the civil rights movement following the Second
World War exacerbated the unions' dilemma, forcing
trade unionists to confront contradictions in their own
practices.

The passage is primarily concerned with
(A) providing a context within which to evaluate
opposing viewpoints about a historical
phenomenon
(B) identifying a flawed assumption underlying one
interpretation of a historical phenomenon
(C) assessing the merits and weaknesses of a
controversial theory about a historical
phenomenon
(D) discussing the historical importance of the
development of a wartime alliance
(E) evaluating evidence used to support a particular
interpretation of a historical phenomenon


The author stated two opposing views by historians and scholars. He mentioned that it is not the first nor is the second view correct. Then he presented a his view. The author is more on identifying the flaw rather than evaluating the two views. This makes A wrong.

C is wrong because he gave no merit to the two views in the first paragraph.

D is wrong because this is not about the importance of war alliance.

E. there are no evidence for the two opposing views. The author presented his argument instead.

Answer to me is B. what's the OA? I think it's b because the assumption is that the historians or the scholar is right, at least one of them or their views are reconcilable which according the the author is not the case.
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New post 09 Aug 2016, 23:25
3
Aves wrote:
Can someone explain question 2?


2. According to the passage, the historians (at the beginning) and the scholars (highlight) disagree about the
A. contribution made by organized labor to the war effort during the Second World War
passage did not mention anything about contribution
B. issues that union members considered most important during the Second World War
nothing said about issues either
C. relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World War
Yes. Histories contend: African Americans should make alliance with trade unions. Scholars concider organized labor as defending all along the relatively privileged position of White workers relative to African American workers. Obviously, Scholars don't want an alliance between AA and trade unions.
D. effect of the Second World War on the influence of unions in the workplace
the historians did not disagree on that
E. extent to which African Americans benefited from social and political changes following the Second World War
Nowhere in the passage it states that AA benefited from social and political changes following the Second World War
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New post 10 Aug 2016, 00:03
2
To answer a first question, let's fist find the Conclusion of the passage: Clearly, these two perspectives are not easily reconcilable, but the historical reality is not reducible to one or the other.

Two perspectives = opposing viewpoints. The fist paragraph gives information about two opposing theories. The second paragraph provides evidences about the challenges that trade unions faced after WWII.

1. The passage is primarily concerned with

A. providing a context within which to evaluate opposing viewpoints about a historical phenomenon
I would not say it is the best answer, rather it is the closest one. The passage talks about two opposing theorie and provides evidences to evaluate them.
B. identifying a flawed assumption underlying one interpretation of a historical phenomenon
There are two distinct theories, not a historical phenomenon.
C. assessing the merits and weaknesses of a controversial theory about a historical phenomenon
The passage merely says that the theories were contradictory, without assessing of their merits and weaknesses
D. discussing the historical importance of the development of a wartime alliance
The war alliance between U.S., Britain, France, USSR was important, but it is not mentioned in the passage
E. evaluating evidence used to support a particular interpretation of a historical phenomenon
There were two distinct theories, not a historical phenomenon.
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New post 04 Oct 2016, 16:40
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. providing a context within which to evaluate opposing viewpoints about a historical phenomenon
B. identifying a flawed assumption underlying one interpretation of a historical phenomenon
C. assessing the merits and weaknesses of a controversial theory about a historical phenomenon
D. discussing the historical importance of the development of a wartime alliance
E. evaluating evidence used to support a particular interpretation of a historical phenomenon

Can someone please explain why D is NOT the answer. I can see why A is the answer but I can not see why D is not the answer. The passage does talk about a wartime alliance between Trade unions and African american community and discusses in the first paragraph 2 views that relate to its importance to the civil rights movement. I can see how A is a better answer but am trying to find strong reasons to reject D.
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New post 25 Oct 2016, 04:30
4
oasis90 wrote:
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. providing a context within which to evaluate opposing viewpoints about a historical phenomenon
B. identifying a flawed assumption underlying one interpretation of a historical phenomenon
C. assessing the merits and weaknesses of a controversial theory about a historical phenomenon
D. discussing the historical importance of the development of a wartime alliance
E. evaluating evidence used to support a particular interpretation of a historical phenomenon

Can someone please explain why D is NOT the answer. I can see why A is the answer but I can not see why D is not the answer. The passage does talk about a wartime alliance between Trade unions and African american community and discusses in the first paragraph 2 views that relate to its importance to the civil rights movement. I can see how A is a better answer but am trying to find strong reasons to reject D.




Hello ,

For your help, First lets understand how can we derive a main point -
from the para 1, Author gives two contradicting views on a historical phenomenon(the alliance of trade union and African Americans).
but in the last line Author mentions - the historical reality is not reducible to one(view point of some historians) or the other(view point of other scholars).
from para 2 , Author here gives his opinion about actually what happened.
Trade Union's dilemma (why the contradiction between two viewpoints mentioned in the para 1 happened.!)
Now you can form a main point about the passage by combining the two main points of para 1 and para 2.

presenting the two viewpoints about alliance and then evaluating the phenomenon. (the option A)

option D is wrong because it contains the partial scope (only represent a detail in paragraph one.)
another thing is
discussing the historical importance of the development of a wartime alliance.
the bold part is really not the point author wants to convey us.
I do not see that the "importance of the development of the alliance between TU and AA" is the main purpose why author wrote the Passage.

I hope it helps.
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New post 02 Dec 2017, 10:19
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Took almost 11 mins to answer 6 questions , including 3 mins to read the passage . All correct though .

1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. providing a context within which to evaluate opposing viewpoints about a historical phenomenon -- the 2 views are of some historians and other scholars as stated in first paragraph.

2. According to the passage, the historians (at the beginning) and the scholars (highlight) disagree about the
C. relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World War
-- View 1 (of historians) - dynamic wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community, an alliance that advanced the cause of civil rights. They conclude that the postwar demise of this vital alliance constituted a lost opportunity for the civil rights movement that followed the war.
-- View 2(scholars) -- organized labor as defending all along the relatively privileged position of White workers relative to African American workers

3.Which of the following best describes the purpose of the first sentence (highlight) in the second paragraph in the passage?
A. To summarize a situation confronted by unions during the Second World War --Unions faced a choice between either maintaining the prewar status quo or promoting a more inclusive approach that sought for all members.....


4. Which of the following best summarizes the opinion of the author of the passage regarding the two points of view presented in the first paragraph (highlight) ?

B. Neither point of view reflects the full complexity of the historical reality. --Clearly, these two perspectives are not easily reconcilable, but the historical reality is not reducible to one or the other.

5. The "unions' dilemma" (highlight) mentioned in the highlighted text can best be described as the question of whether or not to
D. extend full rights and benefits to all their members --refer first few lines of para 2

6. Which of the following best summarizes a point of view attributed to the historians mentioned in the highlighted text? ('Some historians, line 1')
E. The civil rights movement would have benefited from a postwar continuation of the wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community --They conclude that the postwar demise of this vital alliance constituted a lost opportunity for the civil rights movement that followed the war.
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New post 16 Dec 2018, 19:48
Quote:
Unions faced a choice between either maintaining the prewar status quo or promoting a more inclusive approach that sought for all members the right to participate in the internal affairs of unions, access to skilled and high-paying positions within the occupational hierarchy, and protection against management's arbitrary authority in the workplace.

5. The "unions' dilemma" (highlight) mentioned in the highlighted text can best be described as the question of whether or not to

B. fight for greater union participation in management decisions

D. extend full rights and benefits to all their members


HI GMATNinja, mikemcgarry, RonPurewal, DmitryFarber, MagooshExpert (Carolyn), ccooley, GMATGuruNY

In the above question protection against management's arbitrary authority in the workplace doesn't mean B?
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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States during th  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Dec 2018, 21:45
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NandishSS wrote:
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Unions faced a choice between either maintaining the prewar status quo or promoting a more inclusive approach that sought for all members the right to participate in the internal affairs of unions, access to skilled and high-paying positions within the occupational hierarchy, and protection against management's arbitrary authority in the workplace.

5. The "unions' dilemma" (highlight) mentioned in the highlighted text can best be described as the question of whether or not to

B. fight for greater union participation in management decisions

D. extend full rights and benefits to all their members


HI GMATNinja, mikemcgarry, RonPurewal, DmitryFarber, MagooshExpert (Carolyn), ccooley, GMATGuruNY

In the above question protection against management's arbitrary authority in the workplace doesn't mean B?

No , that is one of the benefits which the members of the union receive.

Dilemma is "Unions faced a choice between either maintaining the prewar status quo or promoting a more inclusive approach that sought for all members"

Benefits which members of the union receive are "the right to participate in the internal affairs of unions, access to skilled and high-paying positions within the occupational hierarchy, and protection against management's arbitrary authority in the workplace."
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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States during th   [#permalink] 16 Dec 2018, 21:45
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