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Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan

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Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan  [#permalink]

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Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhance alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, can cause users to develop tolerance and even addiction.

(A) pain and fatigue and enhance alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, can cause users to develop tolerance and even addiction

(B) pain, fatigue, and enhanced alertness; if used continuously for long periods, though, users can develop tolerance and even addiction to them

(C) pain, fatigue, and enhance alertness; people having used them continuously for long periods, though, can develop tolerance and even addiction to them

(D) pain and fatigue while enhancing alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, users can develop tolerance and even addiction to them

(E) pain and fatigue, and also enhancing alertness; however, people using them continuously for long periods can develop tolerance and even addiction

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Originally posted by blueseas on 09 Jul 2013, 15:35.
Last edited by hazelnut on 15 Oct 2017, 06:25, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2013, 18:42
Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhance alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, can cause users to develop tolerance and even addiction.

a) pain and fatigue and enhance alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, can cause users to develop tolerance and even addiction
Very tricky option in that the error is subtle.
"Stimulants can cause users to develop tolerance and even addiction" - Indirect way to say. Stimulants do not cause USER but the use of stimulants that cause problems X &Y
"Users can develop tolerance and even addiction to them" - Direct way to say.
Incorrect


b) pain, fatigue, and enhanced alertness; if used continuously for long periods, though, users can develop tolerance and even addiction to them
Use of Semicolon creates a fragment. Incorrect

c) pain, fatigue, and enhance alertness; people having used them continuously for long periods, though, can develop tolerance and even addiction to them
"Having used" changes the meaning of the sentence as it means if anyone used stimulants even once, the effect will present forever. Incorrect

d) pain and fatigue while enhancing alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, users can develop tolerance and even addiction to them
Clearly conveys the meaning. Correct

e) pain and fatigue, and also enhancing alertness; however, people using them continuously for long periods can develop tolerance and even addiction
Gerund Enhancing is not parallel to verb Eliminate. Incorrect
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Re: Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2013, 21:49
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AMITAGARWAL2 wrote:
how while enhancing is better over and enhancing... is it because it has comma before and...?


here is OE

The sentence juxtaposes certain positive and negative effects of stimulants. There are two positive effects cited—(a) the elimination of pain and fatigue, and (b) the enhancement of alertness. On the other hand, negative effects—the development of tolerance and/or addiction—are also cited.

The two positive effects should appear in a parallel structure. The sentence should also use a proper transition to express the contrast between the positive and negative effects. Finally, the sentence must use modifiers accurately; specifically, “if used continuously…” must properly refer to the stimulants themselves, not to their users.

(A) CORRECT. This choice may at first appear to have an unusual structure—specifically, it may appear to be of the form x or y or z—but, on closer inspection, that’s not the construction at work here. Instead, this choice properly places two positive effects of stimulants—eliminate pain and fatigue and enhance alertness—in parallel. The first “and” connects pain and fatigue within the first of the two parallel structures, while the second “and” connects the two parallel structures themselves; therefore, both instances of “and” are necessary.

The modifier if used… properly refers to the subject of the clause, i.e., stimulants. Finally, can cause… is the second half of a compound verb (can eliminate… but… can cause…), whose subject is stimulants as required by context.

(B) In this choice, pain, fatigue, and enhanced alertness are all placed in parallel. This construction is nonsense, as it suggests that stimulants can eliminate all three of these phenomena. (In context, it is clear that stimulants produce, rather than eliminate, enhanced alertness.) Additionally, the modifier if used continuously for long periods… illogically describes the subject of the following clause, which is users. In context, that modifier should describe stimulants, not users.

(C) The nouns pain and fatigue are not parallel to the verb enhance. Additionally, the modifier having used… is illogical here. It is the process of using the stimulants themselves—not the retrospective fact of having used them—that leads to tolerance or addiction.

(D) The modifier if used continuously for long periods… illogically describes the subject of the following clause, which is users. In context, that modifier should describe stimulants, not users.

(E) Eliminate and enhancing are not parallel.

HOPE IT HELPS
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Re: Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2013, 22:23
Took me 2:25 mins to arrive at the correct answer - option A - :(

Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhance alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, can cause users to develop tolerance and even addiction.

a)pain and fatigue and enhance alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, can cause users to develop tolerance and even addiction

b)pain, fatigue, and enhanced alertness; if used continuously for long periods, though, users can develop tolerance and even addiction to them - "addiction to them" is unidiomatic. Also, them can refer to long periods or Stimulants. Seems to be a case of pronoun ambiguity.

c)pain, fatigue, and enhance alertness; people having used them continuously for long periods, though, can develop tolerance and even addiction to them - Same as B

d)pain and fatigue while enhancing alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, users can develop tolerance and even addiction to them - Same as B. This option modifies the meaning - "while enhancing alertness" - The original sentence does not say that the 2 effects are in parallel.

e)pain and fatigue, and also enhancing alertness; however, people using them continuously for long periods can develop tolerance and even addiction - Lack of parallelism in the first part before the semicolon - can eliminate is not parallel to "enhancing <..>"
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Re: Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2013, 03:00
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The answer will be "A".

Option "B" and "C" are eliminated because of the same reason:-
They used "pain, fatigue, and enhance alertness" which means "Stimulants can-eliminate pain, eliminate fatigue and eliminate enhance alertness" which is obviously wrong.

Option "D" is eliminated because it uses "pain and fatigue while enhancing alertness" which means "elimination and enhancement" are always simultaneous effects.

Option "E" is eliminated because it uses "and also enhancing alertness" which produces redundancy.
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Re: Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Feb 2015, 02:04
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[quote="satansanti"]This is from MGCAT.

Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhance alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, can cause users to develop tolerance and even addiction.

A pain and fatigue and enhance alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, can cause users to develop tolerance and even addiction
B pain, fatigue, and enhanced alertness; if used continuously for long periods, though, users can develop tolerance and even addiction to them
C pain, fatigue, and enhance alertness; people having used them continuously for long periods, though, can develop tolerance and even addiction to them
D pain and fatigue while enhancing alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, users can develop tolerance and even addiction to them
E pain and fatigue, and also enhancing alertness; however, people using them continuously for long periods can develop tolerance and even addiction

A is correct answer


hi,
firstly, the choices leave with no option but to mark A as the answer..
now onto your question.. If you look into the question stem, you realize the modifying clause refers directly to stimulants.
there is nothing between the clause and stimulants, to which clause can refer back..
so Yes it can refer to something slightly away if it unambigiously refers to that noun...
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Re: Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2015, 04:25
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chetan2u wrote:
satansanti wrote:
This is from MGCAT.

Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhance alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, can cause users to develop tolerance and even addiction.

A pain and fatigue and enhance alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, can cause users to develop tolerance and even addiction
B pain, fatigue, and enhanced alertness; if used continuously for long periods, though, users can develop tolerance and even addiction to them
C pain, fatigue, and enhance alertness; people having used them continuously for long periods, though, can develop tolerance and even addiction to them
D pain and fatigue while enhancing alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, users can develop tolerance and even addiction to them
E pain and fatigue, and also enhancing alertness; however, people using them continuously for long periods can develop tolerance and even addiction

A is correct answer


hi,
firstly, the choices leave with no option but to mark A as the answer..
now onto your question.. If you look into the question stem, you realize the modifying clause refers directly to stimulants.
there is nothing between the clause and stimulants, to which clause can refer back..
so Yes it can refer to something slightly away if it unambigiously refers to that noun...


In option A, we have this
Stimulants can eliminate ...., but, if used continuously for long periods, (stimulants) can cause
hence 'if used continuously for long periods' is modifying (stimulants).

However in option D,
Stimulants can eliminate ..., but, if used continuously for long periods, users can
here stimulants is not repeating and thus 'if used continuously for long periods' is modifying users.

Hope this understanding is correct
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Re: Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2016, 22:37
Hi Experts / chetan2u / daagh,

First, I would like to share explanation given by MGMAT
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The sentence juxtaposes certain positive and negative effects of stimulants. There are two positive effects cited—(a) the elimination of pain and fatigue, and (b) the enhancement of alertness. On the other hand, negative effects—the development of tolerance and/or addiction—are also cited.

The two positive effects should appear in a parallel structure. The sentence should also use a proper transition to express the contrast between the positive and negative effects. Finally, the sentence must use modifiers accurately; specifically, “if used continuously…” must properly refer to the stimulants themselves, not to their users.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1) how could the "development of tolerance" be the negative effect. IMO its positive effect
If a person has good tolerance power than I think it a good thing..... Please correct my reasoning if wrong.

I would like to discuss between A and D
I opted for wrong option D

A. pain and fatigue and enhance alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, can cause users to develop tolerance and even addiction.
D. pain and fatigue while enhancing alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, users can develop tolerance and even addiction to them.

After opted for wrong option D, I realized that word eliminate and enhance must be parallel. So we are only left with option A and C.

Apart from this I want to discuss the usage of can develop VS to develop
I eliminated A because of usage to develop

to develop---> shows INTENTION. It means users are drinking coffee for long periods as they WANT to develop tolerance and even addiction.
IMO, this should not be the intended meaning of sentence, that's why I eliminated A.

Please assist, why to develop is correct.
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Re: Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2016, 03:02
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Hi

To develop tolerance is not a positive factor. Tolerance here does not mean patience or forgiveness. In medical terms, tolerance means immunity or resistance. Therefore developing tolerance is a negative factor.
Secondly, causing something to develop does not mean intention. It is simply a cause and effect. So we should not disconnect to develop from the causal agent. Further, development of a negative trait cannot logically be by an intention. It is a side effect that occurs in tandem, whether one wants it or not. For example, consider this: If people consume high-fat food, it may lead them to suffer a heart attack. – This does not mean that people consume high-fat food in order to undergo a heart attack.

Therefore, I feel ‘to develop’ is correct in this context.

As regards D, in addition to parallelism, a fatal flaw is that the modifier - if used continuously for long periods,- modifies the users, meaning as though the users are used long periods.

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New post 04 Mar 2016, 06:03
Hi daagh,

Thank for quick reply. However I still want to discuss one more thing. If in medical terms, tolerance means immunity or resistance than also it should be a good thing.
Eg- Eating basil leaves improves immunity.

If a person's immunity = tolerance is getting developed than it should be good.

Please assist.
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Re: Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2016, 07:01
Perceptions will differ, but we should take MGMAT's thinking as the final.
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Re: Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2016, 09:03
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PrakharGMAT wrote:
Hi daagh,

Thank for quick reply. However I still want to discuss one more thing. If in medical terms, tolerance means immunity or resistance than also it should be a good thing.
Eg- Eating basil leaves improves immunity.

If a person's immunity = tolerance is getting developed than it should be good.

Please assist.

Hi Prakhar,

i) Immunity to/from a good thing - Bad news (For example, immunity to antibiotics - Bad news)
ii) Immunity to/from a bad thing - Good news (For example, immunity to disease - Good news)

Here, the sentence is talking about Immunity to a good thing (caffeine: good because it eliminates pain and fatigue and enhances alertness). Hence here, immunity is bad news and not good.
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Re: Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2016, 09:10
PrakharGMAT wrote:
After opted for wrong option D, I realized that word eliminate and enhance must be parallel.

Not really. There is no enhance in D. It uses enhancing and that's fine.

However, as daagh has already mentioned, the big issue with D is that the Participial phrase if used continuously for long periods modifies users, erroneously implying that users are used continuously for long periods!
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Re: Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2016, 22:31
In choice A

,but, if used continuously for long periods, can cause users to develop tolerance and even addiction

Isn't that wrong?

comma and 'but' should be followed by independent clause but I don't see the subject there.
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Re: Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Apr 2016, 23:17
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Aves wrote:
In choice A

,but, if used continuously for long periods, can cause users to develop tolerance and even addiction

Isn't that wrong?

comma and 'but' should be followed by independent clause but I don't see the subject there.


Hi,

Yes, you are correct IC, but IC. However, the above mentioned case is not wrong because the structure is being followed.

IC - Stimulants can eliminate pain .... ,

but

IC - If used ... (Stimulants = implied subject) can cause users ...

Hope it helps.
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Re: Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2018, 11:26
Specter wrote:
Aves wrote:
In choice A

,but, if used continuously for long periods, can cause users to develop tolerance and even addiction

Isn't that wrong?

comma and 'but' should be followed by independent clause but I don't see the subject there.


Hi,

Yes, you are correct IC, but IC. However, the above mentioned case is not wrong because the structure is being followed.

IC - Stimulants can eliminate pain .... ,

but

IC - If used ... (Stimulants = implied subject) can cause users ...

Hope it helps.


Hello Specter . Could you please post any OG questions with a similar structure: IC, but IC (second independent clause with an implied subject).

Thanks a lot!
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Re: Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jan 2019, 08:10
blueseas wrote:
Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhance alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, can cause users to develop tolerance and even addiction.

(A) pain and fatigue and enhance alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, can cause users to develop tolerance and even addiction

(B) pain, fatigue, and enhanced alertness; if used continuously for long periods, though, users can develop tolerance and even addiction to them

(C) pain, fatigue, and enhance alertness; people having used them continuously for long periods, though, can develop tolerance and even addiction to them

(D) pain and fatigue while enhancing alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, users can develop tolerance and even addiction to them

(E) pain and fatigue, and also enhancing alertness; however, people using them continuously for long periods can develop tolerance and even addiction


Isn't the usage of 'comma+ but' in option A incorrect?

Comma+ FANBOYS is used to separate two independent clauses.

1. I went home, and then I slept- Correct
2. I went home, then I slept - Run-on
3. I went home and slept - Correct; here 2 verbs are added, not two clauses
4. I went home, and slept - Incorrect

OA- A seems analogous to case 4 above.

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Re: Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jan 2019, 23:38
Skywalker18 wrote:
Isn't the usage of 'comma+ but' in option A incorrect?

Comma+ FANBOYS is used to separate two independent clauses.

1. I went home, and then I slept- Correct
2. I went home, then I slept - Run-on
3. I went home and slept - Correct; here 2 verbs are added, not two clauses
4. I went home, and slept - Incorrect

OA- A seems analogous to case 4 above.

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyMurray , DmitryFarber , daagh , generis , other experts - please enlighten
Some people would consider the use of a comma in I went home, and slept incorrect. This is not a strict rule and such commas are used frequently by even the best writers.

Because the GMAT does not test it, we should avoid applying this "rule".
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Re: Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhan  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jan 2019, 03:23
Skywalker18 wrote:
blueseas wrote:
Stimulants, such as caffeine, can eliminate pain and fatigue and enhance alertness, but, if used continuously for long periods, can cause users to develop tolerance and even addiction.

Isn't the usage of 'comma+ but' in option A incorrect?

Comma+ FANBOYS is used to separate two independent clauses.

1. I went home, and then I slept- Correct
2. I went home, then I slept - Run-on
3. I went home and slept - Correct; here 2 verbs are added, not two clauses
4. I went home, and slept - Incorrect

OA- A seems analogous to case 4 above.


As AjiteshArun correctly notes, almost every comma "rule" can be violated.

In general, the more stuff we cram into a sentence, the more useful it might be to include some commas to make things clearer to a reader. Consider a simple example: "Zoe loves her pet poodle but would rather not clean up after him." This is conventional usage, as I'm not introducing a list or a new clause, but ultimately, the question of whether to include a comma after "poodle" is up to the writer's discretion. To me, this sentence seems clear enough as it is.

But now take a more complicated version of the same sentence: "Zoe loves her pet poodle and pet cockatiel and enjoys pitting them against each other in games of Twister, but hates cleaning up after them." There's no rule dictating that I absolutely NEED that comma after "Twister," but because I've included another object (the cockatiel) and another verb (enjoys), the sentence is just harder to read without the comma, which allows the reader to take a much-needed pause.

The takeaway: there are very few ironclad rules involving commas, and the GMAT rarely uses punctuation as a decision point, so try to find more definitive reasons for eliminating answer choices.

I hope that helps!
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