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Studies have shown that pedestrians are struck by cars when crossing

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Studies have shown that pedestrians are struck by cars when crossing  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2018, 05:52
1
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A
B
C
D
E

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  85% (hard)

Question Stats:

41% (01:16) correct 59% (01:26) wrong based on 299 sessions

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Studies have shown that pedestrians are struck by cars when crossing streets in crosswalks more often than they are struck when crossing outside of crosswalks. This is because crosswalks give many pedestrians an overly strong sense of security that oncoming cars will follow the signals, and these pedestrians are less likely to look both ways before crossing the street.

Which one of the following, if true, most undermines the explanation proposed above?


A. The overwhelming majority of pedestrians in high-traffic areas cross streets in crosswalks.

B. The number of pedestrians struck by cars has increased in recent years.

C. Pedestrians tend to underestimate the chances that the signals at a crosswalk will malfunction.

D. Drivers are generally most alert to pedestrians who are in or near crosswalks.

E. Measures intended to promote safety tend to make people less cautious.
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Re: Studies have shown that pedestrians are struck by cars when crossing  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2018, 06:07
Any one explain how to decide b/w A & C
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Re: Studies have shown that pedestrians are struck by cars when crossing  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2018, 08:20
I cannot understand how to eliminate the options. Can you provide an explanation for every option?
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Re: Studies have shown that pedestrians are struck by cars when crossing  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2018, 08:41
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tejyr wrote:
Any one explain how to decide b/w A & C


Choice C says that Pedestrians tend to underestimate that signals may malfunction. This is quite similar to what the author states that the pedestrians might overlook certain aspects of crossing the roads. Thus it’s not a great weakener.

However, choice A states that the quantum of traffic where people cross on the crosswalks is much more than when people cross outside of crosswalks. This gives a reason different from what the author states. The accidents are not because the pedestrians are less conscious. But the traffic plays a role in creating those accidents.

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Re: Studies have shown that pedestrians are struck by cars when crossing  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2018, 23:42
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IMO, this question belongs to very common category of CR GMAT questions.


For example,

#1 Statistics show that more car accidents happen within mile of driver's residence.
Why? because there most driving happens. No other silly reasons.
(This is taken from post of Magoosh expert Mike, I am not getting proper link)

#2 Report says Holiday season shows dramatic increase in no. of airplane accidents.
why? Because more flights are there during holidays.

#3 Another example (and I could find a link now)
https://gmatclub.com/forum/qotd-in-the- ... 56661.html

More Accidents/injuries happening == More use of things.

back to original question here,
I think the question fits this category, as overwhelming majority of pedestrians are on crossways in traffic.
so most accidents happen on crossways. Hence A.

please correct me if I am wrong.


Hope it helps!
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Re: Studies have shown that pedestrians are struck by cars when crossing  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2018, 10:07
I have a doubt about A though...it seems to give another reason why this general case is common in'high traffic areas' whereas the stimulus states a general case ( doesn't specify high or low traffic) . I don't think option C and the explanation in the stimulus are saying the same thing. The author says (paraphrased) people assume drivers will follow traffic rules, that means that people also assume the traffic lights will function well. Option C says what if the traffic lights malfunction? They are saying 2 different things. Pls help me out if my reasoning is wrong. Thanks.

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Re: Studies have shown that pedestrians are struck by cars when crossing  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2018, 20:25
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Kem12 wrote:
I have a doubt about A though...it seems to give another reason why this general case is common in'high traffic areas' whereas the stimulus states a general case ( doesn't specify high or low traffic) . I don't think option C and the explanation in the stimulus are saying the same thing. The author says (paraphrased) people assume drivers will follow traffic rules, that means that people also assume the traffic lights will function well. Option C says what if the traffic lights malfunction? They are saying 2 different things. Pls help me out if my reasoning is wrong. Thanks.

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If we want to look at the question in a very generalised way (just for the sake of understanding), let's say this:

The author blames pedestrians (blames is too strong a word and I am just using it for the sake of understanding) that they have an overly strong sense of security at the crosswalk.

Option C states that the pedestrians tend to underestimate that signals at the crosswalk will malfunction. This attitude of the pedestrians "may/may not" be because of "that" STRONG sense of security mentioned in the argument. Anyway, option C maintains that somehow, Pedestrians are responsible for what happens to them.

But if you look at Option A, it passes on the blame to HEAVY TRAFFIC. So maybe, pedestrians are doing nothing wrong. Maybe they don't have a strong sense of security, but still the accidents are happening. And because this option gives us another reason for pedestrians' accidents on the crosswalk, it makes sense.
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Re: Studies have shown that pedestrians are struck by cars when crossing  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2018, 11:39
Studies have shown that pedestrians are struck by cars when crossing streets in crosswalks more often than they are struck when crossing outside of crosswalks. This is because crosswalks give many pedestrians an overly strong sense of security that oncoming cars will follow the signals, and these pedestrians are less likely to look both ways before crossing the street.

Which one of the following, if true, most undermines the explanation proposed above?

A. The overwhelming majority of pedestrians in high-traffic areas cross streets in crosswalks.
Correct weakener, more number of people cross the road on crosswalk in high traffic.

B. The number of pedestrians struck by cars has increased in recent years.
too broad,out of scope.

C. Pedestrians tend to underestimate the chances that the signals at a crosswalk will malfunction.
does not fit in, there are better options available.so no the best weakener.

D. Drivers are generally most alert to pedestrians who are in or near crosswalks.
this strengthens

E. Measures intended to promote safety tend to make people less cautious.
too broad, better options available.
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Re: Studies have shown that pedestrians are struck by cars when crossing  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2018, 12:19
AshutoshB wrote:
Studies have shown that pedestrians are struck by cars when crossing streets in crosswalks more often than they are struck when crossing outside of crosswalks. This is because crosswalks give many pedestrians an overly strong sense of security that oncoming cars will follow the signals, and these pedestrians are less likely to look both ways before crossing the street.

Which one of the following, if true, most undermines the explanation proposed above?

A. The overwhelming majority of pedestrians in high-traffic areas cross streets in crosswalks.

B. The number of pedestrians struck by cars has increased in recent years.

C. Pedestrians tend to underestimate the chances that the signals at a crosswalk will malfunction.

D. Drivers are generally most alert to pedestrians who are in or near crosswalks.

E. Measures intended to promote safety tend to make people less cautious.


When we say something happens more often than another, it doesn't necessarily mean that the number of people that get hit at crosswalks is more than that who get hit away from crosswalks. It can also mean that the same person, when crossing on a crosswalks gets hit 5 times in a life time compared to say when he crosses without a crosswalk. The wording of the question can be improved.
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Re: Studies have shown that pedestrians are struck by cars when crossing  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2018, 04:41
Answer choice (A) provides this alternative explanation and so undermines the argument.

INCORRECT ANSWERS
(B) brings up something concerning, but doesn't tell us where the increased number of fatalities are occurring (in crosswalks or outside them), nor does it offer any hints as to why this is occurring--leaving the argument's explanation as a contending reason for why these fatalities are occurring.
(C) strengthens the argument that pedestrians have an overly strong sense of security crossing in crosswalks.
(D) strengthens the argument by eliminating a competing explanation for the higher fatality rate within crosswalks. If drivers were paying less attention at crosswalks (maybe they're distracted by so many things to be aware of at one time) that could explain the greater number of fatalities, but since drivers are paying attention at crosswalks, this alternative explanation is ruled out.
(E) strengthens the argument by suggesting that pedestrians are possibly made less cautious by the crosswalk, which is a measure promoting the safety of pedestrians.
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Re: Studies have shown that pedestrians are struck by cars when crossing &nbs [#permalink] 24 Sep 2018, 04:41
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