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That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer

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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2016, 04:39
HI ... I just have a quick question -
Answer D does seem right although one of the grammar rules I learnt was that a pronoun always needs an antecedent. In answer D, the pronoun 'It' has no antecedent.

What am I missing? Please help.

Ref:
(D) It can hardly be said that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology



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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2016, 19:42
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1. No. One can’t take the antecedence rule that rigidly. As may be seen, the antecedent always precedes the pronoun. However, in Choice D, the pronoun is starting a sentence. Obviously, we cannot have an antecedent. Can we therefore logically claim that all sentences that start with a pronoun are wrong? That is why we have to say that a pronoun must have either an antecedent or a postcedent, meaning that the referred noun appears later in the clause.

2. Again, there is a factor known as placeholder pronouns. Some pronouns that are used to start a sentence sometimes serve the purpose of filling up the flow of the clause, without any real value. This is an accepted norm in formal English.
Consider the following. It was reported in the TV that India would have sumptuous rains this year. – Here the word it has no particular antecedent or postcedent. Still, it is not a faulty sentence.
Another example will be: it is polled that the controversial presidential candidate is losing ground due to his antics in public platforms. What is the 'it' standing for? It has neither antecedence nor postcedence.

Similarly, the 'it' in choice D is a placeholder it. However, when the same pronoun is used in the middle of the sentence or at the end, then one has to be careful. The second it mostly will be required to have some reference in the form of a noun, either in the front or in the back.
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2016, 21:26
1
Sentence Construction
Subject Verb

That //that used as pronoun and refers to the line "educators...."
    educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology
can hardly be said
that it is their fault : //that used as a connector. "it" refers to the line "educators...."
Alvin Toffler,
    one of the most prominent students of the future,
did not even mention microcomputers in Future Shock,
    published in 1970

(A) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault
- do not find any big issues other than sounding awkward and using too many pronouns
(B) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said to be at fault
- simplified sentence "That... can hardly be said to be at fault", "at" should be "their" in this context for the correct meaning
(C) It can hardly be said that it is the fault of educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology
– changes meaning, puts onus on educators to anticipate the impact which is incorrect
(D) It can hardly be said that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology
- Concise. Only one pronoun "it" used
(E) The fact that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said.
– changes meaning from “hardly (not) being at fault” to “responsible for being at fault”

Thanks.
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2017, 13:06
Its a silly question but can someone tell me what does "it" refer to in option d?
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2017, 13:54
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santro789 wrote:
Its a silly question but can someone tell me what does "it" refer to in option d?



Hello santro789,

I will be glad to help you out with this one. :-)

The pronoun it does not refer to any noun in Choice D because it is not meant to do so. In Choice D, pronoun it has been used as a placeholder.

So yes, apart from referring to a logical noun entity, certain pronouns are also used as placeholders.

As suggested by the name itself, the placeholder pronouns just hole the subject or the object place in a sentence without referring to any noun.

For example:

1. It rained all night.

2. The teacher made it very clear that the project must be submitted with 48 hours.

In the above-mentioned sentences, pronoun it does not refer to any noun. Similar is the usage of it in the relevant official question.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2018, 04:26
That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault: Alvin Toffler, one of the most prominent students of the future, did not even mention microcomputers in Future Shock, published in 1970.

(A) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault --
Marty Murray's explanation -->

That Jim did not know how to skate became quickly apparent.

That Jim did not know how to skate is a noun clause and is subject of the sentence.

So in the original version, That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology is the subject, and can hardly be said is the verb.

So the original would be a well constructed sentence except for the fact that after the verb there is an issue. said that it is their fault does not make sense. The point is not that there is someone who said that it is their fault. The point is that that educators have not anticipated the impact can hardly be SAID TO BE their fault.

(B) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said to be at fault --meaning changed -- we don't know who is at fault

(C) It can hardly be said that it is the fault of educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology -- does the usage of educators who changes the meaning here by reducing educators to a subset

(D) It can hardly be said that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology

(E) The fact that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said -If we replaced the full noun again with "this fact," the sentence would read: "This fact can hardly be said." This meaning is unclear. The focus is not that this fact literally can't be said; the focus is that there are no grounds for saying the educators are at fault.



AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , egmat , sayantanc2k , DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert , mikemcgarry , daagh -- please enlighten

1. In option C , does the usage of educators who changes the meaning here by reducing educators to a subset ?
2. Placeholders pronouns -
In option C , each instance of IT acts as a placeholder ?
It can hardly be said that it is the fault of educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology

Can you please provide some guidelines for placeholder pronoun ? I think only the word IT can act as a placeholder ?
Placeholders always start a clause ?
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Mar 2018, 22:05
Skywalker18 wrote:
1. In option C , does the usage of educators who changes the meaning here by reducing educators to a subset ?
2. Placeholders pronouns -
In option C , each instance of IT acts as a placeholder ?
It can hardly be said that it is the fault of educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology

Can you please provide some guidelines for placeholder pronoun ? I think only the word IT can act as a placeholder ?
Placeholders always start a clause ?
1. Yes, C has a different meaning, and it is unlikely that it is the intended meaning.

2. The first it points to that it is the fault of educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology (the whole that clause). The second it is a normal pronoun. The problem with the second it is that there is nothing in the sentence for it to refer to (what is the fault the sentence is talking about?).

3. Some examples of dummy pronouns:
(a) It was you who raised the alarm. (the it lets us postpone the you)
(b) It is easy to trigger the alarm accidentally. (it refers to an infinitive)
(c) It was you who said that it is easy to trigger the alarm. (it refers to a that clause)
(d) There is a way to avoid triggering the alarm. (there lets us postpone a way)
(e) It is cold outside. (this it doesn't really refer to anything within the sentence and is used just to help form the sentence)
(f) How cold does it get during winters? (in this case the it may or may not be referring to an actual place or thing)

4. For all practical purposes, yes. If the sentence is phrased as a question, then no.
(a) Was it you who triggered the alarm?
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2018, 07:12
Had

Option (A) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault

been

(A) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault,

was it correct?
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2018, 19:32
jack0997 wrote:
Had

Option (A) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault

been

(A) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault,

was it correct?
No. We cannot say X can hardly be said their fault. This is because can be said is passive, and the thing that is being said (or not said) has already been mentioned (X).

We cannot say X. (active)
X cannot be said. (passive)

X cannot be said Y. (wrong)
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer &nbs [#permalink] 26 Sep 2018, 19:32

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