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That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer

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The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 12th Edition, 2009

Practice Question
Question No.: SC57
Page: 668

That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault: Alvin Toffler, one of the most prominent students of the future, did not even mention microcomputers in Future Shock, published in 1970.

(A) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault

(B) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said to be at fault

(C) It can hardly be said that it is the fault of educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology

(D) It can hardly be said that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology

(E) The fact that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said

Similar Question : LINK

https://www.nytimes.com/1982/04/25/education/schools-enter-the-computer-age.html

Thus far most efforts by educators to come to grips with the computer revolution have been modest and tentative. This is understandable when one recognizes that the microcomputer — the relatively small, inexpensive machine that has made computing feasible in schools and homes — is barely seven years old. In his 1970 book, ''Future Shock,'' Alvin Toffler did not even mention microcomputers!

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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2012, 00:24
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A - That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault

That something has happened can hardly be said that it is their fault.
something = educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology

The second that is problematic.

If we change the construction to - That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said to be their fault, I don't see any grammatical lapses, the construction is inelegant and awkward. I would look for a better construction.

B - That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said to be at fault

That something has happened can hardly be said to be at fault.
something = educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology

What does it even mean? Who is at fault? An event cannot be at fault.

C - It can hardly be said that it is the fault of educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology

who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology is just a modifier modifying educators. So the sentence in essence reads - It can hardly be said that it is the fault of a certain kind of educators.

certain kind - those educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology

Now what is the fault of educators? it has no referent.

E - The fact that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said.

Something can hardly be said - Okay

Something - The fact that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology

- Changes meaning. it is not a fact that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology. In fact this very thing is debatable.

D - It can hardly be said that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology - Perfect.
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2013, 07:56
That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault : Alvin Toffler, one of the most prominent students of the future, did not even mention microcomputers in Future Shock, published in 1970


(A) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault
(B)That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said to be at fault
(C)It can hardly be said that it is the fault of educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology
(D)It can hardly be said that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology
(E)The fact that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said.


HI all i am opening this thread again because i dint got the previous explanation quite convincing....so will request the experts also to share their thoughts.

as per my understanding i was able to eliminate A ,B but was stuck in C D E...
Please suggest.

thanks
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2013, 23:00
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shaileshmishra wrote:
That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault : Alvin Toffler, one of the most prominent students of the future, did not even mention microcomputers in Future Shock, published in 1970


(A) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault
(B)That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said to be at fault
(C)It can hardly be said that it is the fault of educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology
(D)It can hardly be said that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology
(E)The fact that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said.


HI all i am opening this thread again because i dint got the previous explanation quite convincing....so will request the experts also to share their thoughts.

as per my understanding i was able to eliminate A ,B but was stuck in C D E...
Please suggest.


Hi shaileshmishra

(C)It can hardly be said that it is the fault of educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology
Wrong. "who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology" modifies educators ==> C changes meaning because it says: educator who have not anticipated..... are not at fault. But the intended meaning is: educators are not at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology.

(D)It can hardly be said that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology
Correct.

(E)The fact that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said.
Wrong. The structure of E is: the fact ..........can hardly be said ==> Wrong. The fact is the fact, why it cannot be said?

Hope it helps.
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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Here is a blog for sentences that begin with that!

http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/substantiv ... -the-gmat/
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2014, 15:13
Hi experts,

I understand that opening sentence is Dependent clause followed by ";", followed by Independent clause and we need to somehow convert dependent clause to independent clause.

Can you please explain why each of the answer choices are wrong here ? Especially what is the difference between C and D
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2014, 03:36
freakygeek wrote:
Hi experts,

I understand that opening sentence is Dependent clause followed by ";", followed by Independent clause and we need to somehow convert dependent clause to independent clause.

Can you please explain why each of the answer choices are wrong here ? Especially what is the difference between C and D


Hi there,

Before we respond to your question, we would like to see your analysis of this question. This way, we can give you a more effective response based on your understanding of the question. Please attempt an analysis based on the three-step process.

I look forward to your response. :)

Thanks,
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2014, 23:32
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That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault: Alvin Toffler, one of the most prominent students of the future, did not even mention microcomputers in Future Shock, published in 1970.

(A) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault

(B) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said to be at fault

(C) It can hardly be said that it is the fault of educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology

(D) It can hardly be said that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology

(E) The fact that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer
technology can hardly be said

Meaning : It can hardly be said that the educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology. Alvin Toffler, one of the most prominent students of the future, did not even mention microcomputers in Future Shock, published in 1970.

POE:

Option A) The Sentence starts with "that" and kind of inverted.

It can hardly be said That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology. And also “it is their fault”. The usage is educators are at fault.

Option B) Not sure who is at fault.

Option C) “it is the fault”. What does “it” signify?
We can say
“It can hardly be said that educators are at fault.”

Option D) Looks good.

Option E) Only issue I can find is the predicate of the sentence “The fact can hardly be said” is very far away and we lose track of it.

D) Looks good as per POE.

Please share your thoughts.
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 20 May 2014, 06:40
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Hi @freakygeek,

This one slipped my attention - very sorry about that. :-/ Thanks @bagdbmba for the reminder.

Thanks @freakygeek for providing your detailed analysis as suggested. I really like how you've paid attention to the structure of your sentence, particularly for your analysis of option A: you are right that two DCs don't make an IC, and you can use that justification to eliminate option A. Having said that, I wouldn’t use sentence structure as the primary focus when eliminating options for this question. Each of the incorrect options has a meaning issue here. Let’s see how.

Option A: Incorrect, as you’ve pointed out.

Option B: Completely distorts the intended meaning. “That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology” is the subject of the verb “can hardly be said”. Logically, this statement can’t be said to be at fault. It’s the educators who aren’t at fault.

Option C: “Educators who have not anticipated” restricts the meaning to those educators who haven’t anticipated the impact of microcomputers. However, the intended meaning is that educators in general can’t be faulted, not that a certain group of educators can’t be faulted.

Let’s see how the meaning gets restricted here. Look at these examples:

• The teacher distributed the notebooks among the students who had completed their homework.
=> Meaning: Only some students had done their homework. Only these students were given the notebooks.
• The teacher distributed the notebooks among the students, who had completed their homework.
=> Meaning: All the students referred to in the sentence had done their homework.

While these examples don't exactly correspond to the structure of this choice, I hope the meaning change is clear. "Educators, who have not..." means "all educators have not..." "Educators who have not..." means "some educators have not..."

Option D: Correct.

Option E: Again, this choice completely distorts the intended meaning. “The fact that educators are at fault” is misleading, since the point made by the sentence is that educators are NOT at fault. Moreover, ‘that fact’ is the subject of the verb ‘can hardly be said’. So, this choice says that “the fact… can hardly be said.” This meaning is illogical. If something is a fact, it’s already happened. So in other words, this choice is saying that the fact that educators are at fault has already happened, but it can hardly be said. There’s a serious meaning discrepancy here.

bagdbmba wrote:

C narrows down the educators' set to only those who have not anticipated the impact. So, it could be that there are other educators as well who are not involved here...But the intended meaning is not the same, the sentence actually refers to the (all)educators without narrowing down the set...and D makes it clear.

Now, please share e-GMAT's awesome analysis and explanation :-)


@bagdbmba: I agree with your analysis of the meaning of option C: this option distorts the intended meaning of the original sentence, which refers to educators in general and not to a specific group.

I hope this analysis helps!

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2014, 02:31
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x2suresh wrote:
OG 50)
That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault: Alvin Toffler, one of the most prominent students of the future, did not even mention microcomputers in Future Shock, published in 1970.

(A) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault

(B) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said to be at fault

(C) It can hardly be said that it is the fault of educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology

(D) It can hardly be said that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology

(E) The fact that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said


In GMAT world that primarily has two usages either a connector or act as a subject (please read the e-gmat's post on that). When that acts a connector, it will connect two clauses, each having it's own subject and verb. That as a subject will have a verb and will be modifying a noun.

Option A and B seems to have it's own subject and verb which means it's role should be of a connector but there are no clauses to connect hence incorrect.
C-Change in the meaning and wordy (changes the scope from Educators to Educators who have not anticipated)
D-Correct
E-Wordy.

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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2016, 00:09
Request the moderators from egmat or OptimusPrep help understand the logic for eliminating C.
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2016, 04:47
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nishith17 wrote:
Request the moderators from egmat or OptimusPrep help understand the logic for eliminating C.


nishith17

Ask the question: What can hardly be said?

The answer is the clause: it is the fault of educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology.

Now think of this clause independently.

First eliminate the modifier who have not.....technology referring to educators.

The clause becomes: it is the fault of the educators. ........ this is an incomplete clause.

The clause should have continued in the following way:
It is the fault of the educators that they did or did not XXXX.

Here the pronoun it acts as a placeholder that is used in place of the whole phrase that they did or did not XXXX.
Without the phrase that they did or did not XXXX, the pronoun it is incomplete .

This is the reason that option C is wrong... incomplete clause because of absence of an antecedent for the placeholder it.
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2016, 07:06
But I thought the present perfect tense should be used here. The action 'anticipate' occurred in the past, furthermore, the sentence has one of the example which also occurred in the past.

Pls help. I always have problem understanding questions regarding tenses.
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2016, 19:28
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gianghoang217 wrote:
But I thought the present perfect tense should be used here. The action 'anticipate' occurred in the past, furthermore, the sentence has one of the example which also occurred in the past.

Pls help. I always have problem understanding questions regarding tenses.


As you have anticipated, the usage of present perfect for "anticipate" would be correct. However the options (A, B and C) using present perfect have other serious grammatical issues.

In option D, using simple present for the verb "are" is correct since the educators are still at fault - the fact is a general truth.
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New post 30 Mar 2016, 08:59
sayantanc2k wrote:
gianghoang217 wrote:
But I thought the present perfect tense should be used here. The action 'anticipate' occurred in the past, furthermore, the sentence has one of the example which also occurred in the past.

Pls help. I always have problem understanding questions regarding tenses.


As you have anticipated, the usage of present perfect for "anticipate" would be correct. However the options (A, B and C) using present perfect have other serious grammatical issues.

In option D, using simple present for the verb "are" is correct since the educators are still at fault - the fact is a general truth.


Thank you very much. Per my understanding, we should eliminate other serious grammar mistakes first and left the tenses for last, is it right? I often see the grammar mistake to be very hard to recognize.
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Mar 2016, 09:51
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gianghoang217 wrote:
But I thought the present perfect tense should be used here. The action 'anticipate' occurred in the past, furthermore, the sentence has one of the example which also occurred in the past.

Pls help. I always have problem understanding questions regarding tenses.


hi,
there is one verb ARE which is correct as we are talking of todays educator..
But I think where you are going wrong is taking anticipate as a verb..
'anticipating' here is a GERUND and "not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said. " is an OBJECT of preposition FOR..
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Mar 2016, 12:00
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I think choice A and B are wrong not because of the use clauses as subjects, but because of other reasons. Uses of clauses that have their own verbs are acceptable in Grammar. See the following link for an understanding of this theme.
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/f ... subjpp.htm


That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault: Alvin Toffler, one of the most prominent students of the future, did not even mention microcomputers in Future Shock, published in 1970.

(A) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault --- That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology--- is a subject clause and can hardly be said is the verb; So nothing wrong about that. However, what does the word ‘stand’ for? There is no precise referent for the pronoun ‘it’

(B) that educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said to be at fault --- Although this removes the problematic ‘it’, still we cannot say that a phenomenon of some people not anticipating is at fault.

(C) It can hardly be said that it is the fault of educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology -- yet again the problem of a referent-less second ‘it’

(D) It can hardly be said that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology --- Good enough

(E) The fact that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said -- the same problem as in B., in addition, the ending is weird.
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Mar 2016, 20:30
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When I review this question with students, I find the best way to think about it is to think of the following structure as an idiom:

"It's surprising that __________"

"It can hardly be said that ________"

"It's unfortunate but true that __________"

This construction is a particular type of English idiom that's used to avoid putting a very long, complicated clause at the beginning of a sentence. Given the choice, most of us native English speakers should prefer (1) to (2) below:

(1) It's unfortunate that Jordan and Lee unexpectedly divorced after five seemingly happy years of marriage. - Good
(2) That Jordan and Lee unexpectedly divorced after five seemingly happy years of marriage is unfortunate. - Weird

You might want to cross off (1) because the 'it' doesn't seem to refer to anything. However, that's because in this particular idiom, there's a 'hollow it' that doesn't refer to anything at all, and that's okay. The 'hollow it' shows up in other English sentences too, like "It's raining" or "It's going to be beautiful outside today."

Really, what I think is being tested in options (A) and (B) is whether you recognize the 'it can hardly be said that ______' idiom, and whether you know that it's better to keep an idiom in its normal form than to move the bits around.
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Mar 2016, 21:16
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gianghoang217 wrote:
But I thought the present perfect tense should be used here. The action 'anticipate' occurred in the past, furthermore, the sentence has one of the example which also occurred in the past.

Context and meaning determine the tense usage. Hopefully it is clear that anticipate means predict/expect. From the sentence, it is very clear that educators were proven wrong because microcomputer technology did have a significant impact (which is something that educators did not anticipate). So, anticipation and proving wrong of that anticipation, all happened in the past. Hence, present perfect is not a valid tense.

Let’s look at an analogy that will hopefully ring bells.

Would we say:

i) Economists did not predict the great depression of 1930s (simple past)

Or would we say:

ii) Economists have not predicted the great depression of 1930s (present perfect)

It should be clear that ii) does not make any sense, since the prediction as well as the failure of that prediction (in this case great depression) all happened in the past. Hence, simple past should be used, not present perfect.
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Re: That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Apr 2016, 11:28
gianghoang217 wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
gianghoang217 wrote:
But I thought the present perfect tense should be used here. The action 'anticipate' occurred in the past, furthermore, the sentence has one of the example which also occurred in the past.

Pls help. I always have problem understanding questions regarding tenses.


As you have anticipated, the usage of present perfect for "anticipate" would be correct. However the options (A, B and C) using present perfect have other serious grammatical issues.

In option D, using simple present for the verb "are" is correct since the educators are still at fault - the fact is a general truth.


Thank you very much. Per my understanding, we should eliminate other serious grammar mistakes first and left the tenses for last, is it right? I often see the grammar mistake to be very hard to recognize.


Tense errors are serious grammatical mistakes - it would not be appropriate to prioritize them low. Have you tried to understand the tense issues using a time line? The timeline approach helps clarify the concept of tense.
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