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That placebos can cure everything from dandruff to leprosy is well kno

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That placebos can cure everything from dandruff to leprosy is well kno  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 02 Jan 2020, 08:16
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 11, Date : 06-FEB-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


That placebos can cure everything from dandruff to leprosy is well known. They have a long history of use by witch doctors, faith healers, and even modern physicians, all of whom refuse to admit their efficacy. Modern distribution techniques can bring this most potent of medicines to the aid of everyone, not just those lucky enough to receive placebos in a medical testing program.

Every drug tested would prove effective if special steps were not taken to neutralize the placebo effect. This is why drug tests give half the patients the new medication and half a harmless substitute. These tests prove the value of placebos because approximately five percent of the patients taking them are cured even though the placebos are made from substances that have been carefully selected to be useless.

Most people feel that the lucky patients in a drug test get the experimental drug because the real drug provides them a chance to be cured. (1) Yet analysis shows that patients getting the placebo may be the lucky ones because they may be cured without risking any adverse effects the new drug may have. Furthermore, the drug may well be found worthless and to have severe side effects. No harmful side effects result from placebos.

Placebos regularly cure more than five percent of the patients and would cure considerably more if the doubts associated with the tests were eliminated. Cures are principally due to the patient’s faith, (2) yet the patient must have doubts knowing that he may or may not be given the new drug, which itself may or may not prove to be an effective drug. Since he knows the probability of being given the true drug is about fifty percent, the placebo cure rate would be more than doubled by removing these doubts if cures are directly related to faith.

The actual curing power of placebos probably stems from the faith of the patient in the treatment. This suggests that cure rates in the ten percent range could be expected if patients are given placebos under the guise of a proven cure, even when patients know their problems are incurable. It may take a while to reach the ten percent level of cure because any newly established program will not have cultivated the word-of-mouth advertising needed to insure its success. One person saying “I was told that my problem was beyond medical help, but they cured me,” can direct countless people to the treatment with the required degree of faith. Furthermore, when only terminal illnesses are treated, those not cured tell no one of the failure.

Unfortunately, placebo treatment centers cannot operate as nonprofit businesses. The nonprofit idea was ruled out upon learning that the first rule of public medicine is never to give free medicine. Public health services know that medicine not paid for by patients is often not taken or not effective because the recipient feels the medicine is worth just what it cost him. (3) Even though the patients would not know they were taking sugar pills, the placebos cost so little that the patients would have no faith in the treatment. Therefore, though it is against higher principles, treatment centers must charge high fees for placebo treatments. This sacrifice of principles, however, is a small price to pay for the greater good of the patients.

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

(A) Placebo treatment is a proven tool of modern medicine and its expanded use would benefit society’s health.
(B) Because modern technology allows for distribution of drugs on a massive scale, the proven efficacy of the placebo is no longer limited to a privileged few.
(C) The curative power of the placebo is so strong that it should replace proven drugs because the patients receiving the placebo will then be cured without risking any adverse side effects.
(D) The price of placebo treatment must be kept artificially high because patients have little faith in inexpensive treatments.
(E) Semi-placebos—drugs that contain only a small amount of the usual dosage—are even more effective curatives than either the placebo or the full-strength drug.


2. Which one of the following is most analogous to the idea presented in the last paragraph?

(A) Buying a television at a discount house
(B) Making an additional pledge to charity
(C) Choosing the most expensive dishwasher in a manufacturer’s line
(D) Waiting until a book comes out in paperback
(E) Contributing one dollar to the Presidential Campaign fund on your tax return


3. According to the passage, when testing a new drug medical researchers give half of the subjects the test drug and half a placebo because

(A) proper statistical controls should be observed.
(B) this method reduces the risk of maiming too many subjects if the drug should prove to be harmful.
(C) all drugs which are tested would prove to be effective otherwise.
(D) most drugs would test positively otherwise.
(E) the cost of dispensing drugs to all the patients is prohibitive.


4. It can be inferred from the passage that the author might

(A) believe that the benefits of a placebo treatment program which leads patients to believe they were getting a real drug would outweigh the moral issue of lying.
(B) support legislation outlawing the use of placebos.
(C) open up a medical clinic that would treat patients exclusively through placebo methods.
(D) believe that factors other than faith are responsible for the curative power of the placebo.
(E) believe that placebo treatment centers should be tax-exempt because they are nonprofit businesses.


5. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the material presented in the passage?

(A) A general proposition is stated; then evidence for its support is given.
(B) Two types of drug treatment—placebo and non-placebo—are compared and contrasted.
(C) A result is stated, its cause is explained, and an application is suggested.
(D) A dilemma is presented and a possible solution is offered.
(E) A series of examples is presented; then a conclusion is drawn from them.


6. Which one of the following most accurately characterizes the author’s attitude toward placebo treatment?

(A) reserved advocacy
(B) feigned objectivity
(C) summary dismissal
(D) perplexed by its effectiveness
(E) zealous promotion



Source: Nova GMAT 2013 (385)
Difficulty Level: 700

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Originally posted by SajjadAhmad on 06 Sep 2018, 12:18.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 02 Jan 2020, 08:16, edited 2 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (327).
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Re: That placebos can cure everything from dandruff to leprosy is well kno  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Feb 2019, 06:31
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1
Official Explanation


1. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

Explanation

As we found by previewing the topic sentences, the passage is about the efficacy of placebo treatment. Careful reading shows that the passage also promotes expanded use of placebos. Hence the answer is (A).

The other choices can be quickly dismissed. (B) is the second-best choice: the author does mention that modern distribution techniques can bring the curative power of placebos to everyone, but he does not fully develop that idea. This answer-choice is tempting because it is contained in the topic paragraph. As to (C), it overstates the author’s claim. Although in the third paragraph, the author states that those who receive the placebos may be the lucky ones, this is referring to new, unproven drugs, not to established drugs. As to (D), it, like (B), is mentioned in the passage but is not fully developed. It’s tempting because it appears in the last paragraph— a natural place for the conclusion. Finally, (E) is neither mentioned nor implied by the passage.


2. Which one of the following is most analogous to the idea presented in the last paragraph?

Explanation

The information needed to answer this question is heralded by the pivotal phrase “Even though”. The implication of that sentence is “you get what you pay for.” This would motivate one to buy the most expensive item in a manufacturer’s line. Hence the answer is (C).


3. According to the passage, when testing a new drug medical researchers give half of the subjects the test drug and half a placebo because

Explanation

Since this is a description question, you must refer to the passage to answer it. The opening sentence to paragraph two contains the needed information. That sentence states “Every drug would prove effective if special steps were not taken to neutralize the placebo effect.” Hence the answer is (C).
Choice (D) illustrates why you must refer directly to the passage to answer a description question: unless you have a remarkable memory, you will be unsure whether the statement was that all or that most drugs would prove effective.


4. It can be inferred from the passage that the author might

Explanation

The answer is (A). One of the first clues to the author’s view on this issue is contained in the pivotal clause “yet the patient . . . effective drug” . Later, in paragraph six, the author nearly advocates that the patient should not be told that he or she might be receiving a placebo. Finally, the closing line of the passage cinches it. There, the author implies that certain principles can be sacrificed for the greater good of the patients.


5. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the material presented in the passage?

Explanation

In the first paragraph the author claims that placebos can cure everything from dandruff to leprosy—this is a result. Then in paragraphs two, three, four, and five, he explains the causes of the result. Finally, he alludes to an application—the placebo treatment centers. The answer is (C).


6. Which one of the following most accurately characterizes the author’s attitude toward placebo treatment?

Explanation

This question is a little tricky. Only choices (A) and (B) have any real merit. Although the passage has a detached, third-person style, the author nonetheless does present his opinions—namely that placebos work and that their use should be expanded. However, that advocacy is reserved, so the answer is (A). The other choices can be quickly eliminated:


Hope it helps
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Re: That placebos can cure everything from dandruff to leprosy is well kno  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Mar 2019, 01:17
Every drug tested would prove effective if special steps were not taken to neutralize the placebo effect. This is why drug tests give half the patients the new medication and half a harmless substitute.

Answer word matching for Question 3 ??
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Re: That placebos can cure everything from dandruff to leprosy is well kno  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Mar 2019, 03:03
1
3. According to the passage, when testing a new drug medical researchers give half of the subjects the test drug and half a placebo because

Explanation

Since this is a description question, you must refer to the passage to answer it. The opening sentence to paragraph two contains the needed information. That sentence states “Every drug would prove effective if special steps were not taken to neutralize the placebo effect.” Hence the answer is (C).
Choice (D) illustrates why you must refer directly to the passage to answer a description question: unless you have a remarkable memory, you will be unsure whether the statement was that all or that most drugs would prove effective.


diljeetsingh wrote:
Every drug tested would prove effective if special steps were not taken to neutralize the placebo effect. This is why drug tests give half the patients the new medication and half a harmless substitute.

Answer word matching for Question 3 ??

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Re: That placebos can cure everything from dandruff to leprosy is well kno  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2019, 19:14
SajjadAhmad wrote:
Official Explanation




4. It can be inferred from the passage that the author might

Explanation

The answer is (A). One of the first clues to the author’s view on this issue is contained in the pivotal clause “yet the patient . . . effective drug” . Later, in paragraph six, the author nearly advocates that the patient should not be told that he or she might be receiving a placebo. Finally, the closing line of the passage cinches it. There, the author implies that certain principles can be sacrificed for the greater good of the patients.



Hope it helps


Dear SajjadAhmad

would you please ckarify further?
I cross off A because i didnot figure out anything about " moral issue of lying", so i picked up C, which i think is best of choice.

please help
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Re: That placebos can cure everything from dandruff to leprosy is well kno  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2019, 02:21
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zoezhuyan wrote:
SajjadAhmad wrote:
Official Explanation




4. It can be inferred from the passage that the author might

Explanation

The answer is (A). One of the first clues to the author’s view on this issue is contained in the pivotal clause “yet the patient . . . effective drug” . Later, in paragraph six, the author nearly advocates that the patient should not be told that he or she might be receiving a placebo. Finally, the closing line of the passage cinches it. There, the author implies that certain principles can be sacrificed for the greater good of the patients.



Hope it helps


Dear SajjadAhmad

would you please ckarify further?
I cross off A because i didnot figure out anything about " moral issue of lying", so i picked up C, which i think is best of choice.

please help


Hey zoezhuyan,

While giving an attempt at this passage, I too was stuck between option A and option C, however, I chose option A as my answer because of a very simple fact, that the author is for placebo especially when it comes to terminal diseases, mentioned in the passage (Para 5, towards the end). C encompasses all kinds of illnesses be it terminal or non-terminal. It's too extreme a choice, hence it can be deemed incorrect.

Hope this clarifies your doubt!
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Re: That placebos can cure everything from dandruff to leprosy is well kno  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2019, 04:03
6. Which one of the following most accurately characterizes the author’s attitude toward placebo treatment?

Explanation

This question is a little tricky. Only choices (A) and (B) have any real merit. Although the passage has a detached, third-person style, the author nonetheless does present his opinions—namely that placebos work and that their use should be expanded. However, that advocacy is reserved, so the answer is (A). The other choices can be quickly eliminated:


Thanks for a great question!

Could you please explain how the advocacy is reserved? to me, it seems like he is very openly advocating the placebos. And consequently, believe (E) should be the answer. Could you help me out here?
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Re: That placebos can cure everything from dandruff to leprosy is well kno  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Dec 2019, 23:27
In question 6 how can we say that the author's advocacy is reserved? If anything the author is quite zealous in his advocacy. This can be seen by the fact that author prefers placebo treatment at the expense of one's moral principles. Can someone share more thought on this please ?
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Re: That placebos can cure everything from dandruff to leprosy is well kno  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Dec 2019, 05:25
Could you please explain Q6?
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New post 02 Jan 2020, 06:04
Can someone explain why answer to Q6 is not E ? Experts please shed some light.
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Re: That placebos can cure everything from dandruff to leprosy is well kno  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2020, 06:17
Can someone help me with Q5…??
I choose (A) but it’s the wrong answer
I don’t think the first sentence of para1(That placebos can cure everything from dandruff to leprosy is well known.)can be a “result” and para2-5 are “causes”…

shouldn’t this be a “general proposition”???also, in later paras, shouldn’t those be the “evidence” which support the proposition???
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New post 07 Jan 2020, 17:23
Hi vaibhav1221
Sorry, I’m still confused about your explanation, for (C) , can’t we just from para6 to infer that this choice to be the correct answer??para6 the author explicitly mention about opening up a clinic, also the author, in whole passage, mention no other method beside this “placebo method”, so it definitely is “exclusively through placebo methods”, how come it has any relationship with “terminal or non-terminal” illness??
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Re: That placebos can cure everything from dandruff to leprosy is well kno   [#permalink] 07 Jan 2020, 17:23
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