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The average hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland has long

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Re: The average hourly wage of television assemblers in  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Dec 2017, 11:06
Hi All,

Would need some help here:

I have understood the explanation but I was stuck between A and D and wanted to test negation on A. But I am not sure about the negation for statement A. Will the quantity be affected or action be reversed?

A. The number of television assemblers in Vernland has increased by at least as much as the number of television assemblers in Borodia has decreased.
Negation - The number of television assemblers in Vernland has not increased by at least as much as the number of television assemblers in Borodia has decreased.

Is the above negation correct?

Would like to understand how to negate statements of above type.

Thank you.

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Re: The average hourly wage of television assemblers in  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Dec 2017, 17:19
Dinesh121 wrote:
Hi All,

Would need some help here:

I have understood the explanation but I was stuck between A and D and wanted to test negation on A. But I am not sure about the negation for statement A. Will the quantity be affected or action be reversed?

A. The number of television assemblers in Vernland has increased by at least as much as the number of television assemblers in Borodia has decreased.
Negation - The number of television assemblers in Vernland has not increased by at least as much as the number of television assemblers in Borodia has decreased.

Is the above negation correct?

Would like to understand how to negate statements of above type.

Thank you.

Regards,
Dinesh

Your negation is fine, but make sure you understand what it actually means. If we negate (A), that means that the increase in assemblers is smaller in Vernland than in Borodia. In other words, for every assembler added in Vernland, we'd have MORE than one assembler added in Borodia. As explained in the post below, this would not impact the author's argument.

There is no formula or step-by-step procedure for properly negating answer choices. Instead, you have to really think about what you are reading and then ask yourself, "If I do NOT assume this is true, what does that mean and would it affect the argument?". I know that is not a satisfying answer, but unfortunately there are no shortcuts. If you want to get stronger, you have to do the heavy lifting!

We also briefly discussed the limitations of negation in our YouTube webinars on strengthen, weaken, and assumption questions. Part 1 is here, part 2 is available here.
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Re: The average hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland has long  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2018, 06:05
Can we also assume that "there is not a lot of inventory of Borodia TVs, which are of high demand, left"?

GMATNinja wrote:
This passage is hard to follow, so let's pick it apart, starting with the conclusion: "Updated trade statistics will probably indicate that the number of televisions Borodia imports annually from Vernland has increased." Now let's think about how the author arrived at that conclusion.

  • "The average hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland has long been significantly lower than that in neighboring Borodia." - So we have people assembling televisions in these two places, and the assemblers in Borodia have, for a long time, earned more money per hour doing so.
  • Three years ago, Borodia dropped all tariffs on Vernlandian televisions. That means that Borodia can import televisions from Vernland without paying any tariffs (taxes on imports).
  • Ever since the tariffs were eliminated, the number of total televisions sold each year in Borodia has not changed. In other words, removing the tariffs did not cause an INCREASE in the number of televisions sold annually in Borodia.
  • Ever since the tariffs were eliminated, the number of television ASSEMBLERS in Borodia has decreased.

The author sees a supply and demand problem. The number of televisions demanded in Borodia (i.e. the number sold annually) has not changed. However, the number of assemblers has decreased. According to the author, if the number of assemblers decreases, then the SUPPLY of televisions produced in Borodia would also decrease. Thus, Borodia would have to get televisions from somewhere else (i.e. Vernland) to meet the unchanging demand. Thus, the author concludes that Borodia has probably started to import more televisions from Vernland.

Is this logic sound? If the number of assemblers in Borodia decreases, does the supply of televisions produced in Borodia necessarily decrease? Which of the following is an assumption on which the author's argument depends?

Quote:
A. The number of television assemblers in Vernland has increased by at least as much as the number of television assemblers in Borodia has decreased.

The problem with (A) is that we don't know the rates at which Vernlandian assemblers and Borodian assemblers can assemble televisions. What if Vernlandians assemble televisions three times as quickly as Borodians? In that case, we would only need, for example, 100 Vernlandians to replace the output of 300 Borodians. Furthermore, what if Vernlandia already has an excess supply of televisions available for sale? In that case, Vernland would not need to significantly ramp up production in order to meet the demand from Borodia. The author's argument does not rely on this assumption, so eliminate (A).

Quote:
B. Televisions assembled in Vernland have features that televisions assembled in Borodia do not have.

The author's argument rests on the idea that there is excess television demand in Borodia. If Vernlandian televisions had the SAME features as Borodian televisions, then surely Borodia would be willing to import the Vernlandian televisions to meet that demand. If Vernlandian televisions did NOT have the same features as the ones made in Borodia, that might weaken the author's argument. However, as is, choice (B) is not a required assumption.

Quote:
C. The average number of hours it takes a Borodian television assembler to assemble a television has not decreased significantly during the past three years.

The author's argument is based on the idea that Borodia's television supply has decreased because the number of Borodian assemblers has decreased. But what if the Borodian assemblers have simply become more efficient? What if there are new methods or technologies that allow Borodian assemblers to make televisions twice as quickly as they did three years ago? In that case, Borodia would need half as many assemblers to meet the existing demand.

In order for the author's supply-demand argument to hold, we have to assume that the productivity of Borodian assemblers has not significantly improved. Otherwise, the supply of televisions could remain the same despite a decrease in the number of assemblers. Thus, (C) is a required assumption.

Quote:
D. The number of televisions assembled annually in Vernland has increased significantly during the past three years.

As described for choice (A), it is possible that Vernland has an excess supply of televisions that could be sold to Borodia. Alternatively, Vernland could simply decide to sell a higher proportion of the televisions it makes to Borodia and keep a smaller proportion in Vernland. Thus, Vernland could export more televisions to Borodia without significantly increasing the number of televisions it assembles annually. Thus, (D) is not a required assumption and can be eliminated.

Quote:
E. The difference between the hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland and the hourly wage of television assemblers in Borodia is likely to decrease in the next few years.

The author's argument has nothing to do with wages. Sure, you could speculate that if wages don't increase in Vernland then Vernlandian assemblers might move to Borodia, decreasing the need to import televisions from Vernland, but there is nothing in the passage to suggest that this will happen. Even if wages do not change, Vernlandian assemblers might go on making televisions and exporting them to Borodia. The author's reasoning does not rely on this assumption, so eliminate (E).

Choice (C) is the best answer.
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Re: The average hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland has long  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2018, 06:23
You can assume that only when you know that the supply was more than the demand. Think about it. Does the argument mention anything about more supply and less demand ?
[quote="ravitejajasti"]Can we also assume that "there is not a lot of inventory of Borodia TVs, which are of high demand, left"?
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Re: The average hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland has long  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2018, 08:55
Official Answer:-

Argument Construction:-

Situation Television assemblers in Vernland are paid less than those in neighboring Borodia. The number of televisions sold in Borodia has not dropped since its tariffs on Vernlandian TVs were lowered three years ago, but the number of TV assemblers in Borodia has. So TV imports from Vernland have likely increased.

Reasoning What assumption does the argument depend on? The fact that fewer individuals in Borodia are working as TV assemblers is offered as evidence that TV imports from Vernland into Borodia have likely increased. That piece of evidence is relevant only as an indication that the number of TVs being produced within Borodia has decreased. But a drop in the number of TV assemblers does not indicate a drop in the number of TVs being assembled if the number of TVs an average assembler puts together has increased. Thus, the argument must be assuming that the average time it takes an assembler to put together a TV has not signifi cantly decreased.

A The argument does not rely on any information about the number of television assemblers in Vernland nor for that matter on the number of TVs assembled in Vernland.

B The argument need not assume there is any difference in the features of the TVs produced in the two countries. Increased sales of Vernlandian TVs in Borodia could be due to any number of other reasons, such as price or quality.

C Correct. This option states an assumption on which the argument depends.

D The argument does not depend upon this being so: Vernland’s domestic TV sales (or perhaps its exports to countries other than Borodia) may have decreased by more than its imports into Borodia have increased.

E The argument’s conclusion addresses what has happened; the argument in no way relies on any assumptions about what may or may not happen in the coming years.
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Re: The average hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland has long  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2018, 21:48
100 TV sold in Borodia
Used to require 100 people to make 100 TV
but if avg worker productivity increase you may only need 50 workers to make 100 TV

Therefore, TV won't be imported from the neighbor country, still made in Borodia by few workers

(C) is correct
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Re: The average hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland has long  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Dec 2018, 21:29
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GMATPrepNow wrote:
linker wrote:
The average hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland has long been significantly lower than that in neighboring Borodia. Since Borodia dropped all tariffs on Vernlandian televisions three years ago, the number of televisions sold annually in Borodia has not changed. However, recent statistics show a drop in the number of television assemblers in Borodia. Therefore, updated trade statistics will probably indicate that the number of televisions Borodia imports annually from Vernland has increased.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The number of television assemblers in Vernland has increased by at least as much as the number of television assemblers in Borodia has decreased.
B. Televisions assembled in Vernland have features that televisions assembled in Borodia do not have.
C. The average number of hours it takes a Borodian television assembler to assemble a television has not decreased significantly during the past three years.
D. The number of televisions assembled annually in Vernland has increased significantly during the past three years.
E. The difference between the hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland and the hourly wage of television assemblers in Borodia is likely to decrease in the next few years.


Let's use the Negation technique with this Assumption question.
First, let's summarize the argument:

Premise: Vernland TV assemblers paid less than Borodia TV assemblers
Premise: Borodia dropped tariffs on Vernlandian televisions three years ago, and # TV's sold in Borodia has not changed
Premise: Statistics show drop in # of Borodian TV assemblers
Conclusion: Updated stats likely to show Borodia now importing MORE Vernland TVs


The conclusion suggests that the DECREASE in the number of Borodian TV assemblers, will mean that Borodia will produce FEWER TVs. As a result, Borodia will have to import MORE TV's from Vernland

Now apply negation technique (we're looking for an answer choice that, when negated, INVALIDATES the conclusion):
A. The number of television assemblers in Vernland has NOT increased by at least as much as the number of television assemblers in Borodia has decreased.
Does this INVALIDATE the conclusion? No, it doesn't.

B. Televisions assembled in Vernland DO NOT have features that televisions assembled in Borodia do not have.
Does this INVALIDATE the conclusion? No, it doesn't.

C. The average number of hours it takes a Borodian television assembler to assemble a television HAS decreased significantly during the past three years. Does this INVALIDATE the conclusion? YES.
If it takes less time to make a TV, then the decrease in Borodian TV assemblers does not necessarily mean that fewer TV's will be produced in Borodia. If there is no change in the # of TVs produced in Borodia, there's no reason to conclude that more TV's will be imported from Vernland

Answer: C

Cheers,
Brent




This is great !!We forget to use all the tools we have to solve the question.Thanks Brent.
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Re: The average hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland has long  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Dec 2018, 15:10
It took me over 4:00 min to figure out what was going on and I still got the wrong answer. For those that got this one, kudos to you. On the actual GMAT, I would pick an answer in about 30 sec and move on. Sometimes, you need to sacrifice a question or two to still get a good score.
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Re: The average hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland has long  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2019, 02:26
The answer should be C. Here the author is assuming that the amount of time taken to assemble a tv in Borodia has not changed. This is necessary for the argument to hold up because if it has decreased, and the number of tvs being produced was still the same then that would mean that there would be less assemblers.
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Re: The average hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland has long  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2019, 03:01
Hi All ,

As per the OA - C The average no. of hours taken by Borodian television assembler has not decreased significantly.

This means either the average time taken to assemble the television has remained same or has increased.

Now when i negate this statement..
1) When average time taken has remained constant - then this means that no. of televisions produced in Borodia will be lesser as no. of assemblers have decreased.

Which does not break the conclusion that imports from Vernland will be higher.

Can you pleasecorrect my understanding here?
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Re: The average hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland has long  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Mar 2019, 23:53
How do we know if the supply of television produced in Borodia decreases as the number of assembles decrease? Which part of the sentence indicates this relationship? Please help.
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Re: The average hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland has long  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2019, 02:27
The author argues that we should expect the number of imported TVs from Vernaland to be higher since:
- Vern. has lower wage costs in manufacturing; and
Borodia has experienced the following:
- Drop in tariffs
- drop in # TV assemblers


A - We don't need to assume that a corresponding drop in TV assemblers in Borodia has led to a correspondingly equal increase in assemblers in Vernland in order to make our argument that imports could be higher.
B - TV features are irrelevant to the story
C - This is a defender/ passive assumption.

If the # hours taken to manufacture a TV has decreased then this means total output per TV assembler has increased (productivity) therefore Borodia needs fewer workers to produce the same level of TVs; therefore it may or may not be true that imports will rise. The author denies the possibility that productivity has in fact increased in making his argument, so, negated, C weakens the argument as the negated choice tells the author 'actually imports haven't increased since productivity has increased'

D - Even if the # of assemblers increased, Vernland's average wages are lower than Borodia's - so all things being equal there's already a reason to suspect borodia will import, so increased # workers adds more pressure to wages (more competition), further strengthening the argument.

E - Who cares if its likely to decrease. The argument is concerning a lag effect on import data. I.e. stuff that's already happened.
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Re: The average hourly wage of television assemblers in Vernland has long   [#permalink] 21 Jun 2019, 02:27

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