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The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the wor

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Re: The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the wor  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2019, 11:34
Hi, Could anyone help me with this? I wonder if answer "or anything" would be correct here? I supposed yes, it is
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New post 22 Oct 2019, 18:18
bsd_lover wrote:
The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word "natural" to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.


(A) or nothing that has been

(B) or that has been

(C) and nothing that is

(D) or anything that has been

(E) and anything


foods that do not contain X or Y, Z and W. Why can't these three things be parallel and hence make E as the answer?
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New post 22 Oct 2019, 22:29
bsd_lover wrote:
The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word "natural" to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.

(A) or nothing that has been

(B) or that has been

(C) and nothing that is

(D) or anything that has been

(E) and anything


• Meaning: If a food satisfies any one of the disqualifying conditions, it cannot be called natural.

If a food contains color or flavor additives, it cannot be called natural. (That fact alone disqualifies the food.)
If a food contains chemical preservatives, that fact alone disqualifies the food from being called natural.
Finally, if a food contains a component that has been synthesized, that fact alone disqualifies the food from being called natural.

Obviously, if a food satisfies two conditions or all three conditions, it cannot be called natural.

The conjunction OR makes the disqualifying conditions separate from one another.

If we use "and," only foods that satisfy all three conditions are disqualified.

OR equals more possibilities:

You may not drive for a month if you run a red light, text while driving, or speed in a school zone.
(If I do any one of those things, I cannot drive for a month.)

AND equals fewer possibilities:
You may not drive for a month if you run a red light, text while driving, and speed in a school zone.
(I cannot drive for a month only if I do all three things. There will not be many times that I do not drive for a month.)

A proper Christmas candle must be red, green, or white.
A red candle is proper. A green candle is proper. A white candle is proper.
The pool of candles is fairly large.

A proper Christmas candle must be red, green, and white.
Now a proper candle contains all three colors. The pool of proper candles just got a lot smaller.

Eliminate easier errors first.

• Split #1: Subject/verb agreement

THe word "foods" is plural.
Correct: Foods that do not contain . . . or that HAVE been synthesized . . .
Option B, Wrong: Foods that do not contain . . . or that has been synthesized.

Eliminate B

• Split #2: Double negatives are ungrammatical

Wrong: For a week, do not eat cakes, candies, or nothing with added sugar.
Correct: For a week, do not eat cakes, candies, or anything with added sugar.

Options A and C contain "nothing" and thus create ungrammatical double negatives.
Option A:
Advertisers must restrict the use of the word "natural" to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.
Option C:
Advertisers must restrict the use of the word "natural" to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, and nothing that has been synthesized.

Eliminate A and C

• Split #3: LOGIC

D) or anything that has been [synthesized]
E) and anything [synthesized]

The use of and in Option E changes the logical intent of the commission.
AND means "all the conditions."
In (E), only when a food meets all three criteria is it disqualified from being called "natural."

(See the similar example in the footnote.)

The situation in E is not logical.
The commission is trying to stop people from being misled by inaccurate labels.
Why would it allow a food to be called "natural" if that food contained artificial colors and chemical preservatives but nothing that had been synthesized?
The commission would not allow that food to be called "natural."
Any one condition disqualifies a food from being called natural, but the word AND does not convey that fact.

The OG states, "Anything should be used instead of nothing. Logically, a natural food cannot contain any prohibited ingredient, so the list of prohibited ingredients must be connected by or."

Eliminate E

The correct answer is (D).


**• An animal cannot be called a giraffe if it is an egg-layer, short, OR cold-blooded.
If an animal is an egg-layer, it cannot be called a giraffe.
If an animal is short, it cannot be called a giraffe.
If an animal is cold-blooded, it cannot be called a giraffe.

If an animal is any one of those three things, it cannot be called a giraffe.
Many animals cannot be called "giraffe."

• An animal cannot be called a giraffe if it is an egg-layer, short, AND cold-blooded.
The meaning changed.
Now, the only time an animal cannot be called "giraffe" is when the animal is an egg-layer AND short AND cold-blooded,

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New post 22 Oct 2019, 22:29
icandoit1995 wrote:
Hi, Could anyone help me with this? I wonder if answer "or anything" would be correct here? I supposed yes, it is

icandoit1995 , yes, "or anything [subsidized]" would be correct.

You would not see that answer and option D in the same question.

Belated welcome to GMAT Club. I hope that answer helps.
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New post 22 Oct 2019, 22:30
TheNightKing wrote:
bsd_lover wrote:
The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word "natural" to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.
(A) or nothing that has been
(B) or that has been
(C) and nothing that is
(D) or anything that has been
(E) and anything


foods that do not contain X or Y, Z and W. Why can't these three things be parallel and hence make E as the answer?

TheNightKing , see my post above, HERE.

I cannot decide whether you are confused about parallelism or about AND.

Your construction is understandable but not correct.
You are missing an Oxford comma before Z. I have never seen a correct GMAC question without an Oxford comma.
Better: foods that do not contain X1 or X2, Y, or Z.

In addition, we can highlight the nouns.

The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word "natural" to foods that do not contain additives that enhance color or flavor, preservatives that are made from chemicals, or anything that has been synthesized.

Now let's dump the adjectives. And let's call "anything that has been synthesized" something else: synthetics.

Advertisers must restrict the use of the word "natural" to foods that do not contain additives, OR preservatives, OR synthetics.
If a food contains additives, it cannot be called natural.
If a different food contains preservatives, it also cannot be called natural.
If yet another food contains synthetics, it also cannot be called natural.

None of those three foods could be called "natural."
(If a food contained two of the three or three of the three prohibited substances, that food could not be called "natural.")

Quote:
Why can't these three things be parallel and hence make E as the answer?

Those three things can be (and are) parallel.

They are all prohibited substances.

The problem is the word AND.

Use X1 or X2, Y, and Z. (I'm marking this in red because I do not want others to think that this construction is okay. It isn't.)

Those three items are parallel.
There are three nouns: additives (X1, X2), preservatives (Y), and things that have been synthesized (Z).
There are two kinds of additives, so you could use
foods that do not contain W, X, Y, and Z.

Does either list that uses AND make more sense than a list with OR?
If so, why? If you make an argument or ask a more specific question, I will be happy to try to help.

Hope that helps.
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Re: The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the wor  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2019, 07:50
Quote:
You are missing an Oxford comma before Z. I have never seen a correct GMAC question without an Oxford comma.
Better: foods that do not contain X1 or X2, Y, or Z.


I am aware about the construction that we need a comma before Z. I would not call it typo and get it away with it. I will be more careful with it.

Quote:
Advertisers must restrict the use of the word "natural" to foods that do not contain additives, OR preservatives, OR synthetics.
If a food contains additives, it cannot be called natural.
If a different food contains preservatives, it also cannot be called natural.
If yet another food contains synthetics, it also cannot be called natural.


This example makes it very clear what is happening in the example. If we use "and" in place of "or" it changes the entire meaning and It will convey the meaning : the food that contains additives,preservatives, and synthetics will not be called natural. Not any one but all 3.

generis Thank you!
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Re: The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use  [#permalink]

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