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The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the wor

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The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the wor  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 11 Dec 2018, 05:57
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A
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C
D
E

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The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word "natural" to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.


(A) or nothing that has been

(B) or that has been

(C) and nothing that is

(D) or anything that has been

(E) and anything


https://www.nytimes.com/1979/12/12/archives/how-wholesome-is-natural-food-personal-health-personal-health.html

To mitigate fraud, the Federal Trade Commission has proposed to restrict the word's use in advertising to foods that are no more than “minimally processed” and that contain no color or flavor additives, no chemical preservatives or anything that's been synthesized.

Originally posted by bsd_lover on 09 May 2008, 01:59.
Last edited by Bunuel on 11 Dec 2018, 05:57, edited 3 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the wor  [#permalink]

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New post 20 May 2014, 11:26
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vingmat001 wrote:
I don't see any expert comments here. Request Verbal experts - Please reply.

D is correct answer - I get it. It sounds right too. Not awkward ...etc.
But meaning and grammar based analysis - I was only able to remove B. What about other choices - What are the incorrect?





Hi vingmat001,

Why wait for the experts when we can solve it on our own. :-D

Let’s first understand the structure and meaning of the sentence.


The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word ‘natural’ to foods
o that do not contain
 color or flavor additives, (item-1)
 chemical preservatives (item-2)
 or nothing that has been synthesized. (item-3)


MEANING

• So, the sentence tells us that a certain commission has restricted the advertisers to use the word ‘natural’ for some specific type of foods.
o These are the foods that do not contain
1. Color or flavor additives
2. Chemical preservatives
3. Or anything that has been synthesized

Now, let’s move on to the options:


OPTION A

The given sentence has only one error. It says that the natural foods do not contain nothing that has been synthesized. The double negative (do not contain and nothing) invert the intended meaning of the sentence. So, this is incorrect.

1. People should not eat nothing that has high level of cholesterol.

2. People should not eat anything that has high level of cholesterol.


Which one of the above is correct? The second one. First one has double negatives that distort the meaning.


OPTION B

This option changes the sentence structure by removing ‘nothing’.

The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word ‘natural’ to foods
o that do not contain
 color or flavor additives,
 chemical preservatives
o or that has been synthesized.


1. Now, the third item of the list is not parallel to the other two. In fact there is no third item in the list. There is no connector to connect the two items of the list ‘color or flavor additives’ and ‘chemical preservatives’.

2. This option makes the two clauses starting with ‘that’ parallel to each other. Now, the meaning becomes that natural foods are the ones that have been synthesized. This is illogical since synthesized foods can’t be natural.


OPTION C

1. This option has the same error as option A has. (nothing)

2. It also replaces the connector ‘or’ with ‘and’. This changes the meaning of the original sentence. Initially it meant that natural foods are the foods that do not have any of the three items listed in the list.

Now, it means that natural foods are the foods that don’t have all the listed items in them i.e. a food that contains one or two of the listed items can be a natural food.


OPTION D

This option corrects the only error from the original sentence.


OPTION E

This option has the same error as error no. 2 in option C.



Hope this helps! :)
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Re: The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the wor  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 09 May 2008, 06:33
1
Still thinking..
The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word natural to foods that do not contain
color or flavor additives,
chemical preservatives, or
synthesized stuff...
(D Wins)

Originally posted by mymba99 on 09 May 2008, 06:29.
Last edited by mymba99 on 09 May 2008, 06:33, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 09 May 2008, 06:31
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bsd_lover wrote:
The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word natural to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.

A. or nothing that has been

B. or that has been

C. and nothing that is

D. or anything that has been

E. and anything


I went with D here.
I believe "or" is correct. If you use "and", the food can be "neutral" if it has one of those three. I don't believe this is the intended meaning.
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New post 09 May 2008, 13:01
2
foods that do not contain X, Y, or Z. Eliminates C & E. Between B & D. My pick is B is for concision. I am not sure if D is gramatically incorrect.

bsd_lover wrote:
The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word natural to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.

A. or nothing that has been

B. or that has been

C. and nothing that is

D. or anything that has been

E. and anything
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Re: The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the wor  [#permalink]

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New post 09 May 2008, 13:22
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yavasani wrote:
Guys, why is B wrong ?


Hi Yavasani,

B is wrong because "foods" does not agree with "has" in number. we need "have" here.
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New post 31 Jul 2011, 11:48
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Between A and D how does D win?

In short, how does double negative work here?

I can understand that it would be correct if the sentence is

The commission....foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or synthesized materials.

However, how does the not in 'foods that do NOT CONTAIN' act on 'or anything thet has been synthesized"?

'Or anything that has been synthesized' is not 'not contained' in the foods.
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New post 08 Mar 2012, 09:39
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I have chosen the answer D in this case:

A. The use of the word "nothing" is incorrect. It seems to create a double negative, but we are suggesting that we don't want ingredients that have been synthesized, not the reverse.

B. It is confusing to me what the last "that" refers to. Also, if the last "that" refers to foods, then it should be "have been" and not "has been."

C. The use of the word "or" is correct because any of the 3 elements present in food would mean that the food is not natural. By using the word "and" we are saying that all 3 are required before the food is not natural. Also, "nothing" creates a double negative similar to answer choice A.

D. The use of the word "or" is correct in this case and the meaning of this answer choice makes sense.

E. "And" is used incorrectly here.
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Re: The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the wor  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jan 2014, 07:58
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bsd_lover wrote:
The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word natural to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.

A. or nothing that has been

B. or that has been

C. and nothing that is

D. or anything that has been

E. and anything


A) incorrectly uses "nothing", which makes the sentence a double negative given that the underline is preceded by "foods that do NOT contain".

B) "or that has been" improperly focuses on synthesized foods, which is not the intended meaning of the author. The intended meaning is that the CONTENTS of food should not be X, Y and Z..

C) Again with the double negative, WRONG

D) "anything" focuses on contents of food and not food in itself. Thus this is better than B (and correct). Also, notice that anything does not create an error with double negatives. CORRECT

E) Uses the word "anything" correctly but, just like B, focuses on foods and NOT contents of foods. Thus, wrong.


Also, (I didn't think of this when I answered, but I do now!) the initial and/or split is paramount; "and" breaks the parallelism of the sentence, "or" upholds it. So right off the bat you should eliminate all options that do not start with "or".

Alternatively, "and" creates an additional unwanted trait of food contents (that are added to the previously stated contents), which is not the intent of the author. The author doesn't mean to say that "foods that do NOT contain perservatives AND anything synthesized", rather "anything synthesized" needs to be its own "entity", thus and is wrong and or is correct.
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New post 20 May 2014, 08:41
I don't see any expert comments here. Request Verbal experts - Please reply.

D is correct answer - I get it. It sounds right too. Not awkward ...etc.
But meaning and grammar based analysis - I was only able to remove B. What about other choices - What are the incorrect?
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New post 28 May 2014, 12:07
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Thanks Manyu!


Also found awesome e-GMAT explanation!

markers-in-parallelism-139076.html
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New post 19 Jun 2016, 04:52
Can anyone explain why do we need a prefect tense 'has' in D here? Had the 'E' option been "Or anything" would be correct? P
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New post 19 Jun 2016, 13:16
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jjindal wrote:
Can anyone explain why do we need a prefect tense 'has' in D here? Had the 'E' option been "Or anything" would be correct? P


Yes that would be correct. In that case "synthesized" would be a past participle acting as an adjective for "anything".

Why present perfect is a suitable option here: At the time of taking the decision whether to restrict, the action "synthesize" has been completed, but the effect of synthesis is still present, i.e. the decision whether to restrict still depends on the action "synthesize".

Nonetheless, a simple present would also be alright here, though the meaning would be slightly different.
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New post 31 Aug 2016, 15:36
The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word "natural" to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.

Are the three things ( color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized) sign of "NATURAL".
Thanks...
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Re: The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the wor  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2016, 09:57
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iMyself wrote:
The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word "natural" to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.

Are the three things ( color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized) sign of "NATURAL".
Thanks...


No they are not, but foods that DO NOT contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or anything that has been synthesized are.
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New post 01 Sep 2016, 12:22
sayantanc2k wrote:
iMyself wrote:
The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word "natural" to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, [b]or nothing that has been synthesized.[/b]

Are the three things ( color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized) sign of "NATURAL".
Thanks...


No they are not, but foods that DO NOT contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or anything that has been synthesized are.

That means: the word "natural" is LIMITED. If the food contains color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or anything that has been synthesized, we can't use "natural" in those foods, right?
But, the main sentence says another meaning. 'Natural' is restricted to those foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical blah blah blah..... .That means: if my food contains color or flavor, chemical preservatives, blah blah blah then 'natural' is NOT restricted-I'm allowed to use 'natural' in those foods. What do you think brother. Am I right?
Also, why or is used here. If someone used and here, will there be any problem in meaning?
Thanks...
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Re: The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the wor  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2016, 08:40
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iMyself wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
iMyself wrote:
The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word "natural" to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, [b]or nothing that has been synthesized.[/b]

Are the three things ( color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized) sign of "NATURAL".
Thanks...


No they are not, but foods that DO NOT contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or anything that has been synthesized are.

That means: the word "natural" is LIMITED. If the food contains color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or anything that has been synthesized, we can't use "natural" in those foods, right?
But, the main sentence says another meaning. 'Natural' is restricted to those foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical blah blah blah..... .That means: if my food contains color or flavor, chemical preservatives, blah blah blah then 'natural' is NOT restricted-I'm allowed to use 'natural' in those foods. What do you think brother. Am I right?
Also, why or is used here. If someone used and here, will there be any problem in meaning?
Thanks...


Brother, I am not sure what you mean by "if my food contains color or flavor, chemical preservatives, blah blah blah then 'natural' is NOT restricted-I'm allowed to use 'natural' in those foods." It seems that you have a wrong understanding of the sentence. The sentence means that the use of the word "natural" is restricted to only those foods that do not contain those certain items - i.e. if the food contains those items, then the word "natural" canNOT be used.

The reason that "and" cannot be used comes from the logical equations:

NOT (A and B) = NOT A or NOT B
NOT (A or B) = NOT A and NOT B

If the above is not clear, then let me explain in words.

The food that does not contain (X, Y AND Z)

The statement implies that the food may still contain (only X) or (only Y) or (only Z) or (any combination of two of them) - the only thing that the food must not contain is all the three items together. However this is not the intended meaning.
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New post 14 May 2017, 11:40
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The correct way to parse this sentence is this way: The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word natural to foods that do not contain (A. color or flavor additives, (or) B. chemical preservatives, or C anything that has been synthesized.)
You can see now why anything that has been synthesized is gelling with the rest of the list. The text implies that even if one of the items is found to be used in the food, that food can't be marked as natural. This invalidates the use of 'and' in the choice.
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New post 23 Oct 2017, 19:25
bsd_lover wrote:
The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word "natural" to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.

(A) or nothing that has been

(B) or that has been

(C) and nothing that is

(D) or anything that has been

(E) and anything


First Glance

With an underline this short, look at the answers before reading the original sentence. The and versus or and nothing versus anything splits signal a Meaning or Idiom issue. Verb tense might be an issue (has been versus is).

Issues

(1) Meaning: nothing; and

The original sentence describes foods that do not contain additives, preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized. Shorten the sentence: foods that do not contain nothing that has been synthesized.

Both do not and nothing are negatives. It's not acceptable to use two negatives in a row; this is called a double negative and it's always wrong. Eliminate answers (A) and (C).

Check the and versus or issue that you spotted when comparing the answers:

do not contain additives, preservatives, or anything synthesized
do not contain additives, preservatives, and anything synthesized

The and option means that the food cannot contain all three bad things at once—but a food that has only one or two of the three would still be considered natural. This doesn't make logical sense. it's more logical to say that the food cannot contain any of the bad ingredients. Eliminate answers (C) and (E).

(2) Parallelism: X, Y, or that Z

The sentence contains a list of three items; check for parallelism.

The list consists of nouns that describes bad things that could be added to food. Answers (A), (C), (D), and (E) all offer a noun (anything or nothing), but answer (B) is problematic. It could be interpreted in two different ways:

Option 1: additives, preservatives, or that has been
Option 2: that do not contain X, Y, or that has been Z

Option 1 is a list of three items, but the third is not parallel to the first two. In option 2, the sentence contains two parallel that clauses: that do not contain and that has been. In this case, the first portion would have to be that do not contain X or Y. The word or is missing! Under either interpretation, the sentence isn't constructed properly. Eliminate answer (B).

The Correct Answer

Correct answer (D) eliminates the double negative by changing the word nothing to anything.
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New post 26 Mar 2019, 20:28
The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word "natural" to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.

(D) or anything that has been

Split 1 - Double Negative "that do not contain X, Y or NOT Z"
Eliminate
(A) or nothing that has been
(C) and nothing that is


Second Error - Missing Noun breaks Parallelism
Eliminate B
(B) or that has been


Third Error - Restrictiveness of AND changes the meaning
E.g. "In order to submit an MBA application you need to have submitted references, GMAT, and application" -- You need all 3
This is different than "In order to submit an MBA application you need to have submitted references, GMAT, or applications" -- You only need to submit 1 thing
Eliminate E for this change in meaning
(E) and anything

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Re: The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the wor   [#permalink] 26 Mar 2019, 20:28

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