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The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to

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The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to [#permalink]

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The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to adjacent cells, can provoke dangerous inflammation; the resultant autoimmune disease, characterized by cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, are known as "rheumatoid arthritis."

A) cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, are
B) cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, is
C) cartilage and bone that become damaged although the immune system does not actually attack them, are
D) damaged cartilage and bone although the immune system does not actually attack them, are
E) damaged cartilage and bone although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, is

Why not E?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by nikhilsrl on 06 Mar 2011, 08:28, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: parellelism [#permalink]

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How come this is a //ism issue? This is an issue of S-V agreement and altered intent. The subject is the singular 'disease' and the verb should be ‘is’. B and E are the choices.

E rather distorts the meaning. As per the text the disease is characterized by both cartilage and bone that become damaged; E means to say the disease is characterized by damaged cartilage and bone (alone), leaving bone from the ambit of the damage.

B is the one.
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Re: parellelism [#permalink]

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Hello Daagh,

Sorry about the title - I understood the S-V part but could not decide on the altered intent and hence posted it here. Phrase "altered intent" did not come to my mind and so ended up with "parellelism" :wink: .

Hello Miguelmick,

Let me try to add to what Daagh has already explained:

As per E - damaged cartilage and bone although they are not actually attacked by the immune system
Here "damaged" appearing just before cartilage, seems to modify "cartilage" alone and not "cartilage and bone" as was intended in the original statement in the question.

As per D - cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, is
Here "that become damaged" clearly modifies "cartilage and bone". Even though "that become damaged" is next to "bone" the use of "become", a plural verb instead of "becomes" points to "cartilage and bone" instead of just "bone".

Hope this helps.
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Re: Altered Intent [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2011, 08:17
nikhilsrl - please could you underline the part of the sentence which is in question.

B it is...S-V issue
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Re: Altered Intent [#permalink]

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Interesting question. Lets take an example:

Good people often suffer because they are not able to be tough even when the situation demands.

What does they refer to in the above sentence? It does not refer to people but to good people. In other words, a pronoun not only refers to the noun (people) but also to the adjacent adjective (good).

Coming back to this question, in E, they would refer to damaged cartilage and bone. But this does not make logical sense, since the intent of the question is to say that autoimmune disease is characterized by:

1. cartilage and bone becoming damaged, though
2. cartilage and bone are not actually attacked by the immune system

In short, damaged cartilage and bone not being attacked by the immune system, as depicted in E does not make sense.
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Re: Kaplan Test Sc question [#permalink]

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[quote="Shashank8888"]The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to adjacent cells, can provoke dangerous inflammation; the resultant autoimmune disease, characterized by cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, are known as "rheumatoid arthritis."

(...) characterized by "damaged cartilage and bone" or "cartilage and bone that become damaged"?

The first option does not make sense, because it seems that the disease is characterized by
1)damaged cartilage -- fine
2)bone -- does not makes sense that a disease is characterized by bones...

Out D and E.

We can solve the question quickly now, just by looking at the subject:
resultant autoimmune disease, (...) is / are
Only B fits.
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Re: The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2013, 14:44
Shashank8888 wrote:
Between B and E, I went for E as B seemed redundant to me.


Hi Shashank8888, E changes the meaning (as I explained above).

Keep in mind that redundancy, "wordiness",.... are the last thing you have to check.Only if the meaning, the structure and the other (let me say) more relevant parts are OK, then pick the least redundant option.


Hope it helps
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Re: The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to [#permalink]

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Shashank8888 wrote:
Hi Zarrolou.

Won't damaged be applied to both cartilages and bones by the virtue of parallelism?


Nope.
The parallel structure is "characterized by X and Y", the fact that X is damaged does not mean anything regarding Y.
In D and E the adjective refers only to cartilages.

However in A B C, the modifier "that become damaged" refers to both the cartilage and the bone; the word "and" makes cartilage and bone a single unit

cartilage and bone (-a single unit-)
that become (-refers to the single unit-)

Hope it's clear
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Re: The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2014, 02:25
The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to adjacent cells, can provoke dangerous inflammation; the resultant autoimmune disease, characterized by cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, are known as "rheumatoid arthritis."

Intended meaning:
1.The cytokines of the immune system,
---acting as signalers to adjacent cells,
can provoke dangerous inflammation;
2. The resultant autoimmune disease,
---cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system,
is known as "rheumatoid arthritis."

a) cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, are
b) cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, is
c) cartilage and bone that become damaged although the immune system does not actually attack them, are
d) damaged cartilage and bone although the immune system does not actually attack them, are
e) damaged cartilage and bone although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, is
>> Awkward as "they" refers to damaged cartilage and bone.
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Re: The cytokines of the immune system [#permalink]

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sahilhanda wrote:
The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to adjacent cells, can provoke dangerous inflammation; the resultant autoimmune disease, characterized by cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, are known as "rheumatoid arthritis."

a. cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, are
b. cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, is
c. cartilage and bone that become damaged although the immune system does not actually attack them, are
d. damaged cartilage and bone although the immune system does not actually attack them, are
e. damaged cartilage and bone although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, is



Hi,

the Q hinges on two points-


1) "the resultant autoimmune disease" is singular and thus requires singular verb..... only B and D fit in..
2) THAT can modify the phrase preceding it, so that correctly modifies BOTH cartilage and bone, whereas in "damaged cartilage and bone" bone is not modified by damaged.. ONLY A, B and C fit in..

ONLY B is free of the above two errors
B
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Re: The cytokines of the immune system [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2016, 07:51
chetan2u wrote:
sahilhanda wrote:
The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to adjacent cells, can provoke dangerous inflammation; the resultant autoimmune disease, characterized by cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, are known as "rheumatoid arthritis."

a. cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, are
b. cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, is
c. cartilage and bone that become damaged although the immune system does not actually attack them, are
d. damaged cartilage and bone although the immune system does not actually attack them, are
e. damaged cartilage and bone although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, is



Hi,

the Q hinges on two points-


1) "the resultant autoimmune disease" is singular and thus requires singular verb..... only B and D fit in..
2) THAT can modify the phrase preceding it, so that correctly modifies BOTH cartilage and bone, whereas in "damaged cartilage and bone" bone is not modified by damaged.. ONLY A, B and C fit in..

ONLY B is free of the above two errors
B


Can you please explain why damaged in option D does not modify bone? There is a very subtle difference between B and D, and can be very hard to pick.
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The cytokines of the immune system [#permalink]

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MeghaP wrote:
There is a very subtle difference between B and D, and can be very hard to pick.

I think you meant B vs E (D has a clear S-V agreement issue, since it uses are).

Would agree that this kind of a difference in options is extremely unlikely to be tested. In fact, from a meaning clarity perspective, B is not very clear, because it states:

..autoimmune disease, characterized by cartilage and bone...

This is not a great construct, because autoimmune disease is not characterized by cartilage and bone, but by damage to cartilage and bone. GMAT would typically articulate this as:

..autoimmune disease, characterized by damage to cartilage and bone...

What's the source of this question?
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Re: The cytokines of the immune system [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2016, 10:25
EducationAisle wrote:
MeghaP wrote:
There is a very subtle difference between B and D, and can be very hard to pick.

I think you meant B vs E (D has a clear S-V agreement issue, since it uses are).

Would agree that this kind of a difference in options is extremely unlikely to be tested. In fact, from a meaning clarity perspective, B is not very clear, because it states:

..autoimmune disease, characterized by cartilage and bone...

This is not a great construct, because autoimmune disease is not characterized by cartilage and bone, but by damage to cartilage and bone. GMAT would typically articulate this as:

..autoimmune disease, characterized by damage to cartilage and bone...

What's the source of this question?



Yes I meant B vs E, thanks for correcting. The reason you pointed out was the exact reason i got confused and did not choose B. I hope the questions on the test are not as vague.

Not sure of the source.
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Re: The cytokines of the immune system [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2016, 11:06
Yes in fact, there is a lot of thrust that GMAT puts on meaning clarity. For example, it is very unlikely that the following sentence would be correct:

The room became very hot because of air-conditioner that failed.

This is just not a great construct, because it says: ...room became very hot because of air-conditioner...

A better way to articulate this would be:

The room became very hot because of failure of air-conditioner.
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Re: The cytokines of the immune system [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2016, 07:06
MeghaP wrote:
Great example. I see the difference between the two.

Thank you so much for clarifying this.

Glad it helped! In fact, GMAT tends to test this meaning clarity perspective quite extensively. For example, following is an incorrect option on a GMATPrep question:

...the studies indicate dolphins as capable of recognizing themselves in mirrors - an ability that is often considered a sign of self-awareness - and to grasp spontaneously the mood or intention of humans .

Among other reasons, one reason this is not a great construct is because the studies don't indicate dolphins; studies indicate something about dolphins (that dolphins have the ability of recognizing themselves in mirrors....). Hence, the correct answer is:

...the studies indicate that dolphins have the ability of recognizing themselves in mirrors - an ability that is often considered as a sign of self-awareness - and spontaneously grasping the mood or intention of humans

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses this concept of meaning clarity, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to adjacent [#permalink]

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InAthens wrote:
The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to adjacent cells, can provoke dangerous inflammation; the resultant autoimmune disease, characterized by cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, are known as "rheumatoid arthritis."

(A) cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, are
(B) cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, is
(C) cartilage and bone that become damaged although the immune system does not actually attack them, are
(D) damaged cartilage and bone although the immune system does not actually attack them, are
(E) damaged cartilage and bone although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, is

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to adjacent cells, can provoke dangerous inflammation; the resultant autoimmune disease, characterized by cartilage and bone that become damaged although they are not actually attacked by the immune system, is known as "rheumatoid arthritis."

Option (B) must be the correct answer for Correct S-V usage...

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Re: The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to [#permalink]

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New post 19 May 2017, 02:32
manhasnoname wrote:
can't (E) be read as "damaged cartilage and [damaged] bone ..."?

Can't participles be omitted?


Your query is valid. The adjective "damaged" covers both "cartilage" and "bone". Option E is wrong not because of the reason you mentioned.The reason for eliminating is E as follows:

The conjunction "although" indicates contradiction. Thus we require a verb that contradicts "are not actually attacked". Option E does not have such a verb. Option B is correct because the contradiction is shown clearly:
..become damaged, although... are not attacked.
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Re: The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2017, 12:44
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: The cytokines of the immune system, acting as signalers to   [#permalink] 21 May 2017, 12:44
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