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# The evolution of sex ratios has produced, in most plants and animals

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Re: The evolution of sex ratios has produced, in most plants and animals [#permalink]
Skywalker18 wrote:
1.The author suggests that the work of Fisher and Hamilton was similar in that both scientists

(A) conducted their research at approximately the same time - Incorrect - Fisher put forward 2nd view in 1930.
Although no time explicitly has been mentioned for Hamilton, we can infer that sometime has been passed since Fisher's research because of"Since Fisher’s time, it has been realized that genes can "
(B) sought to manipulate the sex ratios of some of the animals they studied - Incorrect - Nowhere has manipulation been discussed.
(C) sought an explanation of why certain sex ratios exist and remain stable - Correct - a one-to-one sex ratio is the only stable ratio; it is an “evolutionary stable strategy
(D) studied game theory, thereby providing important groundwork for the later development of strategy theory - Incorrect
(E) studied reproduction in the same animal species - Incorrect

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the mathematical theory of games has been

(A) developed by scientists with an interest in genetics - Out of scope - The passage DOES NOT mention who develops the game theory
(B) adopted by Hamilton in his research - ISWAT- Like Fisher, Hamilton looked for an evolutionary stable strategy, but he went a step further in recognizing that he was looking for a strategy.
Based on this we CANNOT infer that Hamilton adopted game theory in research.
(C) helpful in explaining how genes can sometimes influence gametes - Irrelevant - Since Fisher’s time, it has been realized that genes can sometimes influence the chromosome or gamete in which they find themselves so that the gamete will be more likely to participate in fertilization. If such a gene occurs on a sex-determining (X or Y) chromosome, then highly aberrant sex ratios can occur.
(D) based on animals studies conducted prior to 1930 - Incorrect - The other, and in my view correct, type of answer was first put forward by Fisher in 1930. This “genetic” argument starts from the assumption that genes can influence the relative numbers of male and female offspring produced by an individual carrying the genes.
Fisher developed the 2nd view but nowhere in the passage is it mentioned that game theory is based on Fisher's research
(E) useful in explaining some biological phenomena - Correct

Although Fisher wrote before the mathematical theory of games had been developed, his theory incorporates the essential feature of a game—that the best strategy to adopt depends on what others are doing.

But more immediately relevant to game theory are the sex ratios in certain parasitic wasp species that have a large excess of females.

For question 2, C is irrelevant because it is not explaining how genes influence gametes. Rather , per the exceprt,

But more immediately relevant to game theory are the sex ratios in certain parasitic wasp species that have a large excess of females.

we can be sure of the game theory's applicability to the wasps aberrantly high sex ratio. In short, just an example of applicabilty of game theory has been stated and this is irrelevant to the explanation.

Please point out flaw in my reasoning, if any.

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Re: The evolution of sex ratios has produced, in most plants and animals [#permalink]

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Re: The evolution of sex ratios has produced, in most plants and animals [#permalink]
Please someone provide explanation of q3,4
In q3 why can't the III part be correct, as we can determine the sex ratio on basis of fertilized and unfertilized eggs.
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Re: The evolution of sex ratios has produced, in most plants and animals [#permalink]
dhilavikash wrote:

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Explanation

5. According to the passage, successful game strategy depends on

Difficulty Level: 600

Explanation

(A) the ability to adjust one’s behavior in light of the behavior of others

It is clearly mentioned in the lines:

Although Fisher wrote before the mathematical theory of games had been developed, his theory incorporates the essential feature of a game—that the best strategy to adopt depends on what others are doing.

(B) one’s awareness that there is safety in numbers

(C) the degree of stability one can create in one’s immediate environment

We don't know anything about the degree of stability

(D) the accuracy with which one can predict future events

Out of context

(E) the success one achieves in conserving and storing one’s resources

Out of context

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Re: The evolution of sex ratios has produced, in most plants and animals [#permalink]
sidharth2412 wrote:
Please someone provide explanation of q3,4
In q3 why can't the III part be correct, as we can determine the sex ratio on basis of fertilized and unfertilized eggs.

Explanation

3. The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions about wasps?

Difficulty Level: 650

Explanation

Reference lines from the passage: Only the second paragraph discusses wasp

But more immediately relevant to game theory is the sex ratios in certain parasitic wasp species that have a large excess of females. In these species, fertilized eggs develop into females and unfertilized eggs into males. A female stores sperm and can determine the sex of each egg she lays by fertilizing it or leaving it unfertilized. By Fisher’s argument, it should still pay a female to produce equal numbers of sons and daughters. Hamilton, noting that the eggs develop within their host—the larva of another insect—and that the newly emerged adult wasps mate immediately and disperse, offered a remarkably cogent analysis.

All this text supports only II

4. It can be inferred that the author discusses the genetic theory in greater detail than the group selection theory primarily because he believes that the genetic theory is more

Difficulty Level: 600

Explanation

This is comparatively a straightforward question, the lines that lead to the answer are:

The other, and in my view correct, type of answer was first put forward by Fisher in 1930.

That is why only accurate is correct.

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Re: The evolution of sex ratios has produced, in most plants and animals [#permalink]
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The evolution of sex ratios has produced, in most plants and animals [#permalink]
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The following sentences are important to answer Q2.

"The other, and in my view correct, type of answer was first put forward by Fisher in 1930."

The author thinks Fisher's theory is correct.

"Although Fisher wrote before the mathematical theory of games had been developed, his theory incorporates the essential feature of a game—that the best strategy to adopt depends on what others are doing."

The author may be inferred to admire Fisher because Fisher was "before his time".

"Since Fisher’s time, it has been realized that genes can sometimes influence the chromosome or gamete in which they find themselves so that the gamete will be more likely to participate in fertilization."

The author implies that more recent research are based on a deeper understanding of some phenomenon, i.e. is more "up-to-date".

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Re: The evolution of sex ratios has produced, in most plants and animals [#permalink]
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Re: The evolution of sex ratios has produced, in most plants and animals [#permalink]
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