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# The idea that all mental functions are derived from the brain originat

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The idea that all mental functions are derived from the brain originat  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 10 Mar 2018, 18:45
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The idea that all mental functions are derived from the brain originated with Hippocrates, but it was largely neglected until the late 18th century, when Franz Gall attempted to link psychology and brain science. Gall took advantage of what was already known about the cerebral cortex. He was aware that it was bilaterally symmetrical and subdivided into four lobes. However, he found that these four lobes were, by themselves, inadequate to account for the forty-odd distinct psychological functions that psychologists had characterized by 1790. As a result he began to analyze the heads of hundreds of musicians, actors, etc., relating certain bony elevations or depressions under the scalp to the predominant talent or defects of their owners. Based on his skull palpation, Gall subdivided the cortex into roughly forty regions, each of which served as an organ for a specific mental function.

While Gall’s theory that all mental processes derive from the brain proved to be correct, his methods for localizing specific functions were deeply flawed because they were not based on what we would now consider valid evidence. Gall did not test his ideas empirically by performing autopsies on the brains of patients and correlating damage to specific regions with defects in mental attributes; he distrusted the diseased brain and did not think it could reveal anything about normal behavior. Instead, he developed the notion that as each mental function is used, the particular area of the brain responsible for that function becomes enlarged. Eventually, a given area may become so bulky that it pushes out against the skull and produces a bump on the head.

1/ Which of the following is NOT an assumption that Gall makes regarding the relation between a person’s aptitude and personality traits, and that person’s brain?

A Each bump in the skull corresponds to a distinct part of the brain, which is responsible for a personality trait.
B The more a person develops a certain ability the more an area of that person’s skull will protrude.
C There are certain personality traits that do not manifest themselves in the shape of a person’s skull.
D One can judge a person’s character simply by looking at the shape of the person’s skull.
E The diseased brain lends no useful insight into a person’s typical behavior.

2/ The author would agree with all of the following regarding Gall’s work EXCEPT?

A It did not confirm certain assumptions in an empirical manner.
B It relied on surface features of the skull to derive personality traits.
C It deemed the diseased brain as an invalid means of learning about an individual’s personality.
D It postulated that personality traits were not linked to the brain but to depressions and elevations in the scalp.
E It correctly identified the brain as the source of human behavior.

3/ According to the passage, Gall believes that bumps on the surface of the skull result from

A defects in a person’s thinking
B a psychological function becoming more pronounced
C a natural physiological progression
D underuse of a specific skill or ability
E processes of change within only one of the four cranial lobes

Originally posted by aaba on 04 Feb 2018, 10:39.
Last edited by Skywalker18 on 10 Mar 2018, 18:45, edited 1 time in total.
formatted
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Re: The idea that all mental functions are derived from the brain originat  [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2018, 07:38

+1 kudos to the posts containing answer explanations of all questions

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Re: The idea that all mental functions are derived from the brain originat  [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2018, 13:13

for Q1: I selected 'D' because the para didn't talk about D person’s character
For Q2: I selected 'E' because the para didn't explicitly call out all aspects of human behavior. Only Skills & Defects were mentioned but those do not necessarily constitute behavior.
For Q3: I selected 'C' . I didn't understand why B? thanks for your help.
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Re: The idea that all mental functions are derived from the brain originat  [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2018, 20:43
Cinematiccuisine wrote:

for Q1: I selected 'D' because the para didn't talk about D person’s character
For Q2: I selected 'E' because the para didn't explicitly call out all aspects of human behavior. Only Skills & Defects were mentioned but those do not necessarily constitute behavior.
For Q3: I selected 'C' . I didn't understand why B? thanks for your help.

Except for Q3 I do have the same set of doubts. It would be great if someone share some insight.
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Re: The idea that all mental functions are derived from the brain originat  [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2018, 22:11
2
The idea that all mental functions are derived from the brain originated with Hippocrates, but it was largely neglected until the late 18th century, when Franz Gall attempted to link psychology and brain science. Gall took advantage of what was already known about the cerebral cortex. He was aware that it was bilaterally symmetrical and subdivided into four lobes. However, he found that these four lobes were, by themselves, inadequate to account for the forty-odd distinct psychological functions that psychologists had characterized by 1790. As a result he began to analyze the heads of hundreds of musicians, actors, etc., relating certain bony elevations or depressions under the scalp to the predominant talent or defects of their owners. Based on his skull palpation, Gall subdivided the cortex into roughly forty regions, each of which served as an organ for a specific mental function.

While Gall’s theory that all mental processes derive from the brain proved to be correct, his methods for localizing specific functions were deeply flawed because they were not based on what we would now consider valid evidence. Gall did not test his ideas empirically by performing autopsies on the brains of patients and correlating damage to specific regions with defects in mental attributes; he distrusted the diseased brain and did not think it could reveal anything about normal behavior. Instead, he developed the notion that as each mental function is used, the particular area of the brain responsible for that function becomes enlarged. Eventually, a given area may become so bulky that it pushes out against the skull and produces a bump on the head.

1/ Which of the following is NOT an assumption that Gall makes regarding the relation between a person’s aptitude and personality traits, and that person’s brain?

A Each bump in the skull corresponds to a distinct part of the brain, which is responsible for a personality trait. ---supported by the passage that there are “forty-odd distinct psychological functions” and thus “roughly forty regions” of the brain.
B The more a person develops a certain ability the more an area of that person’s skull will protrude. ---supported by the passage, last two sentences.
C There are certain personality traits that do not manifest themselves in the shape of a person’s skull. ---Correct answer by POE, also it is not supported by the passage
D One can judge a person’s character simply by looking at the shape of the person’s skull. ---supported by the passage as according to Gall one only needs to look at person's skull to determine their personality trait.
E The diseased brain lends no useful insight into a person’s typical behavior. ---supported by the passage, 'the diseased brain...'

2/ The author would agree with all of the following regarding Gall’s work EXCEPT?

A It did not confirm certain assumptions in an empirical manner. ---supported by the passage, 'Gall did not test his ideas empirically...'
B It relied on surface features of the skull to derive personality traits. ---supported by the passage, 'relating certain bony elevations...'
C It deemed the diseased brain as an invalid means of learning about an individual’s personality. ---supported by the passage, 'the diseased brain and did not think...'
D It postulated that personality traits were not linked to the brain but to depressions and elevations in the scalp. ---Correct answer by POE
E It correctly identified the brain as the source of human behavior. ---supported by the passage, 'Gall attempted to link psychology and brain science.'

3/ According to the passage, Gall believes that bumps on the surface of the skull result from

Straight B, from the last two sentences of the passages.
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The idea that all mental functions are derived from the brain originat  [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2018, 23:12
1
Wow all correct in 4 mins

1/ Which of the following is NOT an assumption that Gall makes regarding the relation between a person’s aptitude and personality traits, and that person’s brain?

A Each bump in the skull corresponds to a distinct part of the brain, which is responsible for a personality trait. (given in last para)
B The more a person develops a certain ability the more an area of that person’s skull will protrude. (again in the last para)
C There are certain personality traits that do not manifest themselves in the shape of a person’s skull. (this is the answer)
D One can judge a person’s character simply by looking at the shape of the person’s skull. (Yes, it is given)
E The diseased brain lends no useful insight into a person’s typical behavior. (he distrusted diseased brain because as it gives no useful info)

2/ The author would agree with all of the following regarding Gall’s work EXCEPT?

A It did not confirm certain assumptions in an empirical manner. (given in 2nd para " Gall did not test his ideas empirically by performing autopsies")
B It relied on surface features of the skull to derive personality traits. (yes, the entire passage talk about this)
C It deemed the diseased brain as an invalid means of learning about an individual’s personality. (given in 2nd para)
D It postulated that personality traits were not linked to the brain but to depressions and elevations in the scalp. (its not given anywhere, in fact it says "the particular area of the brain responsible for that function becomes enlarged when used too much"----so this is the answer)
E It correctly identified the brain as the source of human behavior. (the first line of first para says this "The idea that all mental functions are derived from the brain originated with Hippocrates, but it was largely neglected until the late 18th century, when Franz Gall attempted to link psychology and brain science")
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Re: The idea that all mental functions are derived from the brain originat  [#permalink]

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28 Sep 2018, 11:42
dinu108 wrote:
Cinematiccuisine wrote:

for Q1: I selected 'D' because the para didn't talk about D person’s character
For Q2: I selected 'E' because the para didn't explicitly call out all aspects of human behavior. Only Skills & Defects were mentioned but those do not necessarily constitute behavior.
For Q3: I selected 'C' . I didn't understand why B? thanks for your help.

Except for Q3 I do have the same set of doubts. It would be great if someone share some insight.

Instead, he developed the notion that as each mental function is used, the particular area of the brain responsible for that function becomes enlarged.
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The idea that all mental functions are derived from the brain originat  [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2018, 04:02
workout

Need help for Q2:
I marked C option because

Quote:
While Gall’s theory that all mental processes derive from the brain proved to be correct, his methods for localizing specific functions were deeply flawed because they were not based on what we would now consider valid evidence. Gall did not test his ideas empirically by performing autopsies on the brains of patients and correlating damage to specific regions with defects in mental attributes; he distrusted the diseased brain and did not think it could reveal anything about normal behavior.

Acc to this : Gall method for localizing specific functions are deeply flawed because
1: They were not based on what we would now consider valid evidence.
2: Gall did not test his ideas empirically by performing autopsies on the brains of patients and correlating damage to specific regions with defects in mental attributes
3: He distrusted the diseased brain and did not think it could reveal anything about normal behavior..

Quote:
C It deemed the diseased brain as an invalid means of learning about an individual’s personality.

Acc to 3rd point , author is not agreeing with the fact that Gall distrusted the diseased brain.
The idea that all mental functions are derived from the brain originat   [#permalink] 10 Oct 2018, 04:02
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