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The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently

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The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently [#permalink]

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The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently prevented by a shortage of human subjects for the clinical trials
needed to show that the drugs are safe and effective. Since the lives and health of people in future generations may depend
on treatments that are currently experimental, practicing physicians are morally in the wrong when, in the absence of any
treatment proven to be effective, they fail to encourage suitable patients to volunteer for clinical trials.

Which of the following, if true, casts most doubt on the conclusion of the argument?

A) Many drugs undergoing clinical trials ate intended for the treatment of conditions for which there is currently no effective treatment.

B) Patients do not share the physician’s professional concern for public health, but everyone has a moral obligation to alleviate suffering when able to do so.

C) Usually, half the patients in a clinical trial serve as a control group and receive a nonactive drug in place of the drug being tested.

D) An experimental drug cannot legally be made available to patients unless those patients are subjects in clinical trials of the drug.

E) Physicians have an overriding moral and legal duty to care for the health and safety of their current patients.

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Originally posted by sairam595 on 15 Jun 2016, 09:30.
Last edited by GMATNinjaTwo on 09 May 2018, 11:08, edited 2 times in total.
reformatted answer choices
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Re: The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently [#permalink]

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Argument: In order to find a cure for future generations patients who belong to the current generation must be subjected to experimentation. Since Physicians do not do this, they are morally wrong.

But, if Physicians have an interest to protect the patients who belong to the current generation against experimental trials, they are not morally wrong.

Answer: E
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Re: The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2016, 14:02
smartguy595 wrote:
The introduction of the new drugs into the market is frequently prevented by a shortage of human subjects for the clinical trials
needed to show that the drugs are safe and effective. Since the lives and health of people in future generations may depend
on treatments that are currently experimental, practicing physicians are morally in the wrong when, in the absence of any
treatment proven to be effective, they fail to encourage suitable patients to volunteer for clinical trials.

Which of the following, if true, casts most doubt on the conclusion of the argument?

A) Many drugs undergoing clinical trials ate intended for the treatment of conditions for which there is currently no effective treatment.
B) Patients do not share the physician’s professional concern for public health, but everyone has a moral obligation to alleviate suffering
when able to do so.
C) Usually, half the patients in a clinical trial serve as a control group and receive a nonactive drug in place of the drug being tested.
D) An experimental drug cannot legally be made available to patients unless those patients are subjects in clinical trials of the drug.
E) Physicians have an overriding moral and legal duty to care for the health and safety of their current patients.

OA will be revealed after few discussions :)


IMO, it is C.

The conclusion says that in the absence of any effective treatment, if a doctor is unable to encourage the patient to volunteer for clinical trial, the doctor is morally wrong.

And the clinical trials might will give a safe and effective treatment.

So, the assumption is that either doctor stays morally wrong or convince the patient for clinical experiment and provide safe and effective treatment.

Option 'C' does not guarantee that the patient will be given safe and effective treatment or will be a part of nonactive drug group. So, it weakens the conclusion that even after convincing the patient to be part of experiment, a doctor might or not be able to provide the treatment and be morally right.

The reason I did not choose E is that although it is moral duty of a doctors to take care of health and safety, it does not mean that they are doing their moral duty.
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Re: The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2016, 18:30
As the physicians go by the overriding moral standard expected of them,they cannot be morally wrong. E
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Re: The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2016, 21:38
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The author concludes that physicians are morally in the wrong because they do not help the future generations by failing to encourage their current patients to go to clinical trials. The author assumes that Physicians have a higher moral obligation to protect the lives and health of future generations over current patients.

E) Physicians have an overriding moral and legal duty to care for the health and safety of their current patients.

E clearly states that Physicians have a moral duty to protect the lives and health of their current patients, which clearly flies in the face of the author's assumption and hence weakens the conclusion.

My answer is E.
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Re: The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2016, 23:01
Thanks for all the discussions..OA is E

can someone explain why B is incorrect! i fell for B :(
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It isn't B, because B is too general. The conclusion states the physicians are morally in the wrong if they don't convince their patients to join clinical trials. This is more muddled and brings up everyone.
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Re: The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently [#permalink]

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sairam595 wrote:
The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently prevented by a shortage of human subjects for the clinical trials
needed to show that the drugs are safe and effective. Since the lives and health of people in future generations may depend
on treatments that are currently experimental, practicing physicians are morally in the wrong when, in the absence of any
treatment proven to be effective, they fail to encourage suitable patients to volunteer for clinical trials.

Which of the following, if true, casts most doubt on the conclusion of the argument?

A) Many drugs undergoing clinical trials ate intended for the treatment of conditions for which there is currently no effective treatment.
B) Patients do not share the physician’s professional concern for public health, but everyone has a moral obligation to alleviate suffering
when able to do so.
C) Usually, half the patients in a clinical trial serve as a control group and receive a nonactive drug in place of the drug being tested.
D) An experimental drug cannot legally be made available to patients unless those patients are subjects in clinical trials of the drug.
E) Physicians have an overriding moral and legal duty to care for the health and safety of their current patients.


Answer is E
CONCLUSION IS :--> Since lives of FUTURE PATIENTS depends on clinical trials therefore doctors are morally wrong, when they don't encourage their CURRENT PATIENTS to volunteer for clinical trials.

A Weakener that cast doubt on the CONCLUSION will be :- It's morally right for doctors to care about current patient. and doctors have no obligations towards FUTURE PATIENTS.

What if the clinical trials are dangerous for the current patient and can damage their recovery and health.
Then the doctor can say- Screw the hypothetical future patients. I have to look after my real current patients.


E) Physicians have an overriding moral and legal duty to care for the health and safety of their current patients.

Now if a doctor is morally right he cannot be morally wrong.

This E is the correct weakener.

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Originally posted by LogicGuru1 on 30 Jul 2016, 09:58.
Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 26 Apr 2017, 06:13, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2016, 07:07
sairam595 wrote:
The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently prevented by a shortage of human subjects for the clinical trials
needed to show that the drugs are safe and effective. Since the lives and health of people in future generations may depend
on treatments that are currently experimental, practicing physicians are morally in the wrong when, in the absence of any
treatment proven to be effective, they fail to encourage suitable patients to volunteer for clinical trials.

Which of the following, if true, casts most doubt on the conclusion of the argument?

A) Many drugs undergoing clinical trials ate intended for the treatment of conditions for which there is currently no effective treatment.
B) Patients do not share the physician’s professional concern for public health, but everyone has a moral obligation to alleviate suffering
when able to do so.
C) Usually, half the patients in a clinical trial serve as a control group and receive a nonactive drug in place of the drug being tested.
D) An experimental drug cannot legally be made available to patients unless those patients are subjects in clinical trials of the drug.
E) Physicians have an overriding moral and legal duty to care for the health and safety of their current patients.


Logical chain: people for experiment -> experiment -> safe & effective -> drugs are interduced.
Claim: No effective treatment + no candidates for experiments -> Dr. need to convice patients

the conclusion deals with "effective treatment" but not with a safe treatment (this is the logical gap).

E - if the care of patients is most important ("overriding"), then not given drugns that have not been proving as safe is moraliy right. hence this answer weakens the conclusion.
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Re: The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2016, 14:46
sairam595 wrote:
Thanks for all the discussions..OA is E

can someone explain why B is incorrect! i fell for B :(


The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently prevented by a shortage of human subjects for the clinical trials
needed to show that the drugs are safe and effective. Since the lives and health of people in future generations may depend
on treatments that are currently experimental, practicing physicians are morally in the wrong when, in the absence of any
treatment proven to be effective, they fail to encourage suitable patients to volunteer for clinical trials.

Which of the following, if true, casts most doubt on the conclusion of the argument?

A) Many drugs undergoing clinical trials ate intended for the treatment of conditions for which there is currently no effective treatment.
B) Patients do not share the physician’s professional concern for public health, but everyone has a moral obligation to alleviate suffering
when able to do so.
C) Usually, half the patients in a clinical trial serve as a control group and receive a nonactive drug in place of the drug being tested.
D) An experimental drug cannot legally be made available to patients unless those patients are subjects in clinical trials of the drug.
E) Physicians have an overriding moral and legal duty to care for the health and safety of their current patients.

Conclusion - Physicians are wrong when they are not able to encourage people to take part in clinical trials.
Option B doesn't talk about physicians but gives a general statement and somewhat means that patients (although they are not supposed to be as concerned as doctors) also have some moral obligation just as doctors have. This statement doesn't do anything to our conclusion. We need something about doctors to confirm that doctors are not wrong if they are not able to encourage patients.
Option E exactly does that as it says that doctors also have duty to care for safety of their current patients, then how can they be wrong if they don't encourage their patients to take part in trials.

Hope this helps.
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Re: The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently [#permalink]

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New post 25 Dec 2016, 08:18
Thank you for the explanation... 8-)

Vyshak wrote:
Argument: In order to find a cure for future generations patients who belong to the current generation must be subjected to experimentation. Since Physicians do not do this, they are morally wrong.

But, if Physicians have an interest to protect the patients who belong to the current generation against experimental trials, they are not morally wrong.

Answer: E
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Re: The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2017, 10:44
When I personalized this argument, the answer jumped off the page. If you were a doctor with a strong moral code, why would you not recommend patients participate in these trials. Seriously pretend you're a doctor. E is the only one that makes sense.
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Re: The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently [#permalink]

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New post 05 Mar 2018, 09:50
The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently prevented by a shortage of human subjects for the clinical trials
needed to show that the drugs are safe and effective. Since the lives and health of people in future generations may depend
on treatments that are currently experimental, practicing physicians are morally in the wrong when, in the absence of any
treatment proven to be effective, they fail to encourage suitable patients to volunteer for clinical trials.

Which of the following, if true, casts most doubt on the conclusion of the argument?

A) Many drugs undergoing clinical trials ate intended for the treatment of conditions for which there is currently no effective treatment.
B) Patients do not share the physician’s professional concern for public health, but everyone has a moral obligation to alleviate suffering
when able to do so.
C) Usually, half the patients in a clinical trial serve as a control group and receive a nonactive drug in place of the drug being tested.
D) An experimental drug cannot legally be made available to patients unless those patients are subjects in clinical trials of the drug.
E) Physicians have an overriding moral and legal duty to care for the health and safety of their current patients.

Assumption: It is morally right for physicians to encourage suitable patients to volunteer for clinical trials of drugs and treatment that are currently experimental. So we have to either cast a doubt on the assumption or shatter the assumption

Only E shatters the assumption and thereby weakens the conclusion

Hope this helps :)
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Re: The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2018, 01:56
The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently prevented by a shortage of human subjects for the clinical trials
needed to show that the drugs are safe and effective. Since the lives and health of people in future generations may depend
on treatments that are currently experimental, practicing physicians are morally in the wrong when, in the absence of any
treatment proven to be effective, they fail to encourage suitable patients to volunteer for clinical trials.

Which of the following, if true, casts most doubt on the conclusion of the argument?

A) Many drugs undergoing clinical trials are intended for the treatment of conditions for which there is currently no effective treatment. --Drugs undergoing trials are out of scope
B) Patients do not share the physician’s professional concern for public health, but everyone has a moral obligation to alleviate suffering
when able to do so. --Patient's obligation is out of scope
C) Usually, half the patients in a clinical trial serve as a control group and receive a nonactive drug in place of the drug being tested. --Out of scope
D) An experimental drug cannot legally be made available to patients unless those patients are subjects in clinical trials of the drug. --Those subjects is wrong. Moreover, this is the premise of the argument
E) Physicians have an overriding moral and legal duty to care for the health and safety of their current patients. -Correct. Current obligation is greater than future obligation
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Re: The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2018, 03:06
Hi Experts - For this question (https://gmatclub.com/forum/the-introduc ... 20355.html), my pre-thinking was that there must be a shortage of patients who can or are encouraged to volunteer. So when I looked at option C - I assumed that the situation is that although there are patients who are volunteering but half of them have been receiving a nonactive drug - which defeats the purpose of having them on trial to test a drug - and thus went with this option. Can you please explain where am I going wrong in my thinking. Thanks a lot in advance!
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Re: The introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently [#permalink]

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charlotte345 wrote:
Hi Experts - For this question (https://gmatclub.com/forum/the-introduc ... 20355.html), my pre-thinking was that there must be a shortage of patients who can or are encouraged to volunteer. So when I looked at option C - I assumed that the situation is that although there are patients who are volunteering but half of them have been receiving a nonactive drug - which defeats the purpose of having them on trial to test a drug - and thus went with this option. Can you please explain where am I going wrong in my thinking. Thanks a lot in advance!

Quote:
C) Usually, half the patients in a clinical trial serve as a control group and receive a nonactive drug in place of the drug being tested.

Having patients serve as a control by receiving a nonactive drug does not "defeat the purpose of having them on trial to test a drug." Rather, having patients serve as a control could simply be a normal part of clinical trials. In order for (C) to work, you would have to ASSUME that having half the patients serve as a control group is inefficient or detrimental for some reason. There is nothing in the passage suggesting that this is the case, so (C) must be eliminated.

We are specifically told that "the introduction of new drugs into the market is frequently prevented by a shortage of human subjects for the clinical trials needed to show that the drugs are safe and effective." The author's argument is:

  • More patients are needed.
  • The lives and health of people in future generations may depend on treatments that are currently experimental.
  • Therefore, "practicing physicians are morally in the wrong when, in the absence of any treatment proven to be effective, they fail to encourage suitable patients to volunteer for clinical trials."

But if we are still testing a drug to see if it is safe and effective, then we clearly do not know whether that drug is currently safe. So any patient participating in the trials runs the risk of taking drugs that are not safe. If a physician encourages a patient to participate in the trial, then the physician is encouraging the patient to do something that might be unsafe.

If "physicians have an overriding moral and legal duty to care for the health and safety of their current patients," then they should not encourage their patients to do something that might be unsafe. Thus, (E) is the best answer.
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