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The late Japanese mathematician Shizuo Kakutani developed

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The late Japanese mathematician Shizuo Kakutani developed [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2011, 00:42
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The late Japanese mathematician Shizuo Kakutani developed mathematical tools used for disparate purposes including proving the existence of Nash equilibria, accurate description of random processes such as coin-flipping, and the furthering of economists' understanding of supply and demand in a complex economy.

A. proving the existence of Nash equilibria, accurate description of random processes such as coin-flipping, and the furthering of
B. proving the existence of Nash equilibria, accurate description of random processes such as coin-flipping, and furthering
C. proving the existence of Nash equilibria, accurately describing random processes such as coin-flipping, and furthering
D. completing the proof of the existence of Nash equilibria, accurately describing random processes such as coin-flipping, and the furthering of
E. the proof of existence of Nash equilibria, accurately describing random processes such as coin-flipping, and furthering
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: mathematician Shizuo Kakutani [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2011, 02:26
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C.
parallelism using "the" and "ing"
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Re: mathematician Shizuo Kakutani [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2011, 08:13
proving ... describing ... , and furthering

only C has the above construction

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Re: mathematician Shizuo Kakutani [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jan 2011, 11:23
Pkit wrote:
The late Japanese mathematician Shizuo Kakutani developed mathematical tools used for disparate purposes including proving the existence of Nash equilibria, accurate description of random processes such as coin-flipping, and the furthering of economists' understanding of supply and demand in a complex economy.

A. proving the existence of Nash equilibria, accurate description of random processes such as coin-flipping, and the furthering of
B. proving the existence of Nash equilibria, accurate description of random processes such as coin-flipping, and furthering
C. proving the existence of Nash equilibria, accurately describing random processes such as coin-flipping, and furthering
D. completing the proof of the existence of Nash equilibria, accurately describing random processes such as coin-flipping, and the furthering of
E. the proof of existence of Nash equilibria, accurately describing random processes such as coin-flipping, and furthering

It makes sense that the answer is C.
Parallelism is what is tested here. A and D are out b/c "the furthering of" is an awkward construction. B and E are out too b/c the verbs used have to be in a continuous construction - proving, describing and furthering.
C constructs the sentence nicely by making those corrections and using the adverb "accurately" instead of trying to use the word "accurate" (in adjective form) to describe a verb.

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Re: mathematician Shizuo Kakutani [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2011, 10:58
C, as all 3 follow a parallel structure : X-ing..., Y-ing..., Z-ing,

also because the economists' view is possessive you are furthering their understanding and not furthering OF their understanding
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Re: mathematician Shizuo Kakutani [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2011, 13:34
C. proving, accurately describing and furthering are parallel.
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Re: mathematician Shizuo Kakutani [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2011, 21:52
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Simple gerunds can be parallel only with other simple gerunds.
A simple gerund doesn't have "the" before it.
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Re: The late Japanese mathematician Shizuo Kakutani developed [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2013, 14:37
Here is the Official Explanation. This showed up as a question of the day on October 10, 2013.

Answer C Here, the three items listed must be in parallel form. (A) uses "proving . . . description of . . . and the furthering of . . ." That sentence does not use parallel form since the first item ("proving") is a gerund without an article, while the second ("description") is a noun, and the third ("the furthering") is a gerund with an article. (C) correctly uses parallel form by using gerunds without articles for all three items "proving . . . describing . . . and furthering". (B) uses a gerund ("proving") without an article, a noun ("description"), and another gerund ("furthering") without an article. So (B) is not parallel. (D) uses two gerunds ("completing" and "describing") without an article and a gerund ("the furthering of") with an article. So (D) is not parallel. (E) uses a noun ("the proof") and gerunds ("describing" and "furthering") without articles. So, (E) is not parallel.
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Re: The late Japanese mathematician Shizuo Kakutani developed [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2017, 13:39
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Re: The late Japanese mathematician Shizuo Kakutani developed   [#permalink] 23 Dec 2017, 13:39
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