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# The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose

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The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 11 Mar 2019, 05:33
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65% (01:29) correct 35% (01:24) wrong based on 1232 sessions

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The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose an injunction against the hardware manufacturer, arguing that they should take immediate action in order to prevent further economic damages against their client.

A. they should take immediate action in order to prevent further economic damages against their client

B. the judge act immediately in order to prevent the client from suffering further damages of an economic nature

C. they should act immediately to prevent further economic damages being suffered by the client

D. the judge act immediately in order to prevent them from suffering economic damages further

E. immediate action should be taken to prevent their client from suffering further economic damages

This question is part of the GMAT Club Sentence Correction : Pronoun Revision Project.

Originally posted by kannn on 20 Apr 2011, 19:20.
Last edited by Bunuel on 11 Mar 2019, 05:33, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose  [#permalink]

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25 Apr 2011, 23:41
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As vivesomnium noted above, "they" is a problem in both A, C, and D-- the only plural antecedent in the sentence is "lawyers." Clearly ,the intended meaning of the sentence is *not* that lawyers should act or be saved from economic damages. Or you could say that there is potential to group the lawyers and judge together into a plural unit, rendering the pronoun ambiguous. In either case, knock those choices out.

B (and D) contain another issue, though. See that front-end split among the answer choices? "They should" and "the judge act" both appear twice.

That word, "should," might have triggered a red-flag in your head-- we're in the realm of SUBJUNCTIVES!

Remember there are certain words (we call them "bossy verbs") that require the subjunctive mood. Verbs that indicate desire, suggestions, orders, etc. fall into that "bossy verb" category and require the command subjunctive. To construct the command subjunctive, take the infinitive form and cross off the "to."

He demanded that she [strike]to[/strike] STOP the car.
She required that he [strike]to[/strike] START the class on time.
Carl should [strike]to[/strike] BE the best man at your wedding.

B and D incorrectly attempt to apply the command subjunctive! The verb (or verbal, here, since "arguing" has a modifier function not a working-verb function) is NOT a "bossy" verb. Arguing isn't pleasant, but it's a back-and-forth process, not a one-way request or order.

That only leaves E, which CORRECTLY uses the subjunctive "should BE" and unambiguously uses the pronoun "their" to refer back to "lawyers."

Hope this helps.
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Re: The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose  [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2011, 21:16
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a. who is they? lawyers? Federal judges? Manufacturer? or Federal judges and manufacturer togther? use of 'they' is creating ambiguity here
b. judge is made the agent of action, moreover 'from suffering further damages of an economic nature ' is very wordy - 'damages of an econmic nature' means 'economic damages'- use of such convoluted language makes this option incorrect.
c. similar to a, wrong use of they. also further damages being suffered is wrong. If the damages are further (in future, more than current) than how can they be 'being suffered' right now. being is continuous form, and is used wrongly here.
d. prevent whom? ambiguous use of them.
e. use of their here has a clear antecedent- lawyers. correct option.
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The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 11 Mar 2019, 05:34
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:

The original sentence is problematic in a number of ways. First, its use of the pronoun “they” is incorrect in the first instance. The first “they” should refer to the federal judge, who is singular. Hence, the use of the plural pronoun “they” is incorrect, particularly when viewed in conjunction with the second pronoun “their” which correctly refers to the lawyers. Also, the sentence is unnecessarily wordy, with “in order to” detracting from the sentence’s conciseness. “Damages against their client” is unidiomatic.

(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.

(B) This answer choice corrects the pronoun issue. However, this sentence is even more unnecessarily wordy and awkward, replacing “economic damages” with “damages of an economic nature.” Also, “the client” is an awkward use of the article “the” given that “the client” refers to the patent holder, which appears in the sentence.

(C) The sentence incorrectly retains the first “they” pronoun error, though it omits the use of the second “their.” Also, “the client” is an awkward use of the article “the” given that “the client” refers to the patent holder, which appears in the sentence.

(D) This choice’s use of “them” incorrectly suggests that the lawyers are to be protected from economic harm rather than their client, the patent holder.

(E) CORRECT. This sentence remedies the pronoun issue, and uses “their” correctly in the second part of the sentence. It is also clear and concise.
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Originally posted by souvik101990 on 01 Mar 2015, 23:38.
Last edited by Bunuel on 11 Mar 2019, 05:34, edited 1 time in total.
Formatted.
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Re: The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose  [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2016, 23:19
The Command subjunctive is used when the verb indicates a desire, intention, command, recommendation, request, resolution, or advice. It is also used along with such words as advisable, better, desirable, directive, essential, fitting, imperative, important, necessary, urge, urgent and vital etc
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Re: The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose  [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2016, 10:56
1
"They" is ambiguous.

"Argue" should not be followed by a subjunctive.

Only E is correct.
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Re: The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose  [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2017, 00:36
I was confused between B and E, but I finally selected B, thinking that E looses the information by making an active voice to passive voice. Please help how to avoid this trap(where more focus should be on actual meaning and where more focus should be on wordiness)
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Re: The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose  [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2017, 07:16
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AR15J wrote:
I was confused between B and E, but I finally selected B, thinking that E looses the information by making an active voice to passive voice. Please help how to avoid this trap(where more focus should be on actual meaning and where more focus should be on wordiness)

Sorry, your query is not clear - the preference for E over B is not because of wordiness or original meaning.

B is wrong not because of wordiness or meaning, but because of faulty use of subjunctive. The verb "argue" is not a bossy verb, and hence the use of subjunctive "judge act immediately " is wrong - it is a grammatical error.

(If there is only one grammatically correct option, you have to select the same, irrespective of whether it maintains the meaning of the original sentence. Nowhere in the official guide is it stated that the correct option should have the same meaning as the original sentence. In case there are more than one gramatically correct options, then select the one that adheres to the meaning of the original sentence.)
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Re: The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose  [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2017, 08:55
sayantanc2k wrote:
AR15J wrote:
I was confused between B and E, but I finally selected B, thinking that E looses the information by making an active voice to passive voice. Please help how to avoid this trap(where more focus should be on actual meaning and where more focus should be on wordiness)

Sorry, your query is not clear - the preference for E over B is not because of wordiness or original meaning.

B is wrong not because of wordiness or meaning, but because of faulty use of subjunctive. The verb "argue" is not a bossy verb, and hence the use of subjunctive "judge act immediately " is wrong - it is a grammatical error.

(If there is only one grammatically correct option, you have to select the same, irrespective of whether it maintains the meaning of the original sentence. Nowhere in the official guide is it stated that the correct option should have the same meaning as the original sentence. In case there are more than one gramatically correct options, then select the one that adheres to the meaning of the original sentence.)

1. I read one post in the discussion which also describes argue as bossy verb. However, I don't know what are the bossy verbs. I tried to search, but I did not understand anything except the sentence that imperative verbs are bossy verbs.

2. I know the usage of subjunctive verbs-- demand, dictate, insist, mandate, request, recommend, suggest stipulate(some are optional-- ask, beg, urge, prefer, desire, intend, order require).

But I have seen some posts on gmatclab, the post that sometimes subjunctive verbs does not act as subjunctive verbs.For instance--
A study conducted by researchers suggests that cat walk more in winter than in summer to keep its body warm. -- wrong

A study conducted by researchers suggests that cat walks more in winter than in summer to keep its body warm-- Correct

Because the study is not giving any suggestion so it should not be treated as subjunctive verb. Correct me if I am wrong.

I suggest him that he eat less to stay fit-- correct

2. I have read in one of your posts that two modifiers can not refer to the same noun if they are not connected by conjunction

The dog lying behind my house and black in color is sick. --correct

However,

A study conducted by researchers on cat suggests that.............

Modifier--on cat
and
conducted by researchers
modifies a study

But writing the below statement seems awkward to me, please help. I always struggle when same noun is modified by more than one modifier
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Re: The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose  [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2017, 03:32
1
AR15J wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
AR15J wrote:
I was confused between B and E, but I finally selected B, thinking that E looses the information by making an active voice to passive voice. Please help how to avoid this trap(where more focus should be on actual meaning and where more focus should be on wordiness)

Sorry, your query is not clear - the preference for E over B is not because of wordiness or original meaning.

B is wrong not because of wordiness or meaning, but because of faulty use of subjunctive. The verb "argue" is not a bossy verb, and hence the use of subjunctive "judge act immediately " is wrong - it is a grammatical error.

(If there is only one grammatically correct option, you have to select the same, irrespective of whether it maintains the meaning of the original sentence. Nowhere in the official guide is it stated that the correct option should have the same meaning as the original sentence. In case there are more than one gramatically correct options, then select the one that adheres to the meaning of the original sentence.)

1. I read one post in the discussion which also describes argue as bossy verb. However, I don't know what are the bossy verbs. I tried to search, but I did not understand anything except the sentence that imperative verbs are bossy verbs.

2. I know the usage of subjunctive verbs-- demand, dictate, insist, mandate, request, recommend, suggest stipulate(some are optional-- ask, beg, urge, prefer, desire, intend, order require).

But I have seen some posts on gmatclab, the post that sometimes subjunctive verbs does not act as subjunctive verbs.For instance--
A study conducted by researchers suggests that cat walk more in winter than in summer to keep its body warm. -- wrong

A study conducted by researchers suggests that cat walks more in winter than in summer to keep its body warm-- Correct

Because the study is not giving any suggestion so it should not be treated as subjunctive verb. Correct me if I am wrong.

I suggest him that he eat less to stay fit-- correct

2. I have read in one of your posts that two modifiers can not refer to the same noun if they are not connected by conjunction

The dog lying behind my house and black in color is sick. --correct

However,

A study conducted by researchers on cat suggests that.............

Modifier--on cat
and
conducted by researchers
modifies a study

But writing the below statement seems awkward to me, please help. I always struggle when same noun is modified by more than one modifier

1. The term "bossy" is used in Manhattan SC guide to explain which kind of verbs are suitable for use of command subjunctive.

2. Very well explained. ("suggest" may or may not be bossy).

3. This is an exception of modifier touch rule. Manhattan SC guide lists the exceptions. The first one is as follows:
A mission critical modifier (again seems to be a Manhattan-coined term) may come in between a modifer and the noun it refers to. The latter modifer then modifes the entire noun+ first modifer. So in this case the modifier "on cat" modifies "A study conducted by researchers ", not just " A study". ("conducted by researchers" as usual modifies the noun it touches, i.e. "A study").
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Re: The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2017, 11:54
isn't option E omitting the doer of action??

i have read that words that provide context should not be omitted or added to the original sentence.
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Re: The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose  [#permalink]

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05 Feb 2017, 00:49
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The doer of the action may not be mentioned in all passive voice sentences. For example, in a recent public rally, several slogans were raised against the Apex court. Here it is not mentioned who raised the slogans. Still, it is a complete sentence.
One more: Constitution demands that the wages be paid on skills rather than on gender, caste, color, or creed. Here there is no need to mention who pays the wages. Obviously, it is implied that wages are paid by those who employ the people.
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Re: The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose  [#permalink]

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13 Mar 2017, 12:15
This question is part of the GMAT Club Sentence Correction : Pronoun Revision Project.

The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose an injunction against the hardware manufacturer, arguing that they should take immediate action in order to prevent further economic damages against their client.

A. they should take immediate action in order to prevent further economic damages against their client
'They' and 'Them' are ambigous

B. the judge act immediately in order to prevent the client from suffering further damages of an economic nature
Economic damages to damages of economic nature. .Option is unecessarily wordy.

C. they should act immediately to prevent further economic damages being suffered by the client
'They' is ambigious

D. the judge act immediately in order to prevent them from suffering economic damages further

E. immediate action should be taken to prevent their client from suffering further economic damages
Correct choice.
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Re: The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose  [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2019, 08:22
kannn wrote:
The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose an injunction against the hardware manufacturer, arguing that they should take immediate action in order to prevent further economic damages against their client.

A. they should take immediate action in order to prevent further economic damages against their client

B. the judge act immediately in order to prevent the client from suffering further damages of an economic nature

C. they should act immediately to prevent further economic damages being suffered by the client

D. the judge act immediately in order to prevent them from suffering economic damages further

E. immediate action should be taken to prevent their client from suffering further economic damages

This question is part of the GMAT Club Sentence Correction : Pronoun Revision Project.

A. they should take immediate action in order to prevent further economic damages against their client - Wrong: Meaning issue due to pronoun "they"

B. the judge act immediately in order to prevent the client from suffering further damages of an economic nature - Wrong: No subjunctive needed 2) Wordy

C. they should act immediately to prevent further economic damages being suffered by the client - Wrong: Meaning issue due to pronoun "they" 2) Incorrect usage of "being"

D. the judge act immediately in order to prevent them from suffering economic damages further - Wrong: No subjunctive needed 2) Meaning issue due to pronoun "them"

E. immediate action should be taken to prevent their client from suffering further economic damages - Correct: "their" refers to "lawyers".
Re: The lawyers for the patent holder pressed the federal judge to impose   [#permalink] 16 Mar 2019, 08:22
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