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The near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and .....

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The near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and .....  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2018, 08:27
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Question Stats:

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The near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and terrestrial rocks, combined with the water extracted from lunar volcanic glass having an isotopic composition indistinguishable from the water found on Earth, provides evidence for the giant-impact hypothesis, which holds that a large body striking Earth caused material to break off and form the Moon.

A) near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and terrestrial rocks, combined with the water extracted from lunar volcanic glass having an isotopic composition indistinguishable from the

B) near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and terrestrial rocks, combined with the extraction of water from lunar volcanic glass that is indistinguishable from the isotopic composition of

C) oxygen isotope ratios observed to be nearly identical in lunar and terrestrial rocks, combined with the fact that water extracted from lunar volcanic glass has an isotopic composition indistinguishable from the

D) observation, in lunar and terrestrial rocks, of near-identical oxygen isotope ratios, combined with the extraction of water from lunar volcanic glass that is indistinguishable from the isotopic composition of

E) observation, in lunar and terrestrial rocks, of near-identical oxygen isotope ratios, combined with the fact that the isotopic composition of water extracted from lunar volcanic glass is indistinguishable from that of

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Re: The near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and .....  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2018, 08:28
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Official Explanation:-

(1) Take a First Glance (5 seconds)

The first two answers start out the same, but answer (C) changes a decent amount and answers (D) and (E) start with completely different words, so keep an eye out for global issues related to Sentence Structure, Meaning, Modifiers, or Parallelism.

(2) Read for Meaning

This sentence is a real challenge. On SC, if you struggle to decipher the overall meaning of the sentence, you may want to guess your favorite letter and move on. It would be easy to spend 3 minutes on this problem and still end up guessing.

Note that SC never requires specific subject knowledge, so if the science-y language is stressing you out, mentally substitute an abbreviation such as i or Iso for all of that isotope stuff.

The sentence is trying to say that there are two pieces of evidence supporting a particular hypothesis:

The ratios, combined with the water, provides evidence for the hypothesis. To find the subject, mentally strip out the modifier combined with the water. The subject, ratios, is plural, but the verb provides is singular, so eliminate answer (A) for faulty Subject-Verb Agreement.

The original sentence has a couple of other errors—you can dig into these, or you can use the subject-verb error to eliminate additional answers and then directly compare whatever answers remain. It turns out that you can eliminate choices (A), (B), and (C) on the subject-verb issue alone!

If you investigate the additional errors, start by understanding the intended meaning of the sentence. The first piece of evidence is the fact that Iso ratios in both lunar (Moon) and terrestrial (Earth) rocks are nearly identical. The second is that water from lunar volcanic glass and water from Earth are nearly indistinguishable in their Iso composition.

The structure of the second piece of evidence is faulty in the original sentence in two ways. First, combined with water makes it sound as though something is physically being combined with that water. Rather, the sentence is trying to indicate that one fact, combined with another fact, provides support for the theory. In addition, the Comparison (Moon water has an Iso composition indistinguishable from water found on Earth) is illogical. The comparison should be between the two compositions: Moon water has an Iso composition indistinguishable from the Iso composition of Earth water.


(3) Find a Starting Point

Start with any difference that seems easiest to you, then move to the next easiest issue, and so on. Stop when you have one answer or you aren’t sure how to address the remaining differences. All errors for each choice are detailed in the next section.


(4) Eliminate (and Repeat)

(A) The plural subject ratios does not match the singular verb provides. Ratios … combined with water makes it seem as if the ratios are being physically combined with the Moon water. In actuality, the sentence is trying to discuss one fact in combination with another fact. In addition, the comparison of the Iso composition of Moon water with Earth water itself (as opposed to the Iso composition of Earth water) is illogical.

(B) The plural subject ratios does not match the singular verb provides. The other two errors for this choice center around the second piece of evidence. The extraction of the Moon water is not the evidence for the theory; rather, the evidence is the fact that, when researchers extracted this water, they discovered that the Iso composition of the Moon water is indistinguishable from the Iso composition of Earth water. This choice also compares the Moon water itself to the Iso composition of the Earth water; the comparison should be the Iso composition of one to the Iso composition of the other.

(C) The plural subject ratios does not match the singular verb provides. The comparison of the Iso composition of Moon water with Earth water (as opposed to the Iso composition of Earth water) is illogical.

(D) This choice is also very tricky. It is acceptable to say that the observation of a particular fact or outcome provides evidence, so the first part of this choice is fine. The extraction of the Moon water, however, is not the actual evidence for the theory; the evidence is the fact that, when researchers extracted this water, they discovered or observed a particular fact: the Iso composition of Moon water is indistinguishable from the Iso composition of Earth water.

(E) CORRECT. The singular subject observation matches the singular verb provides. Note: the fact that is not part of the subject. In order for two separate words to function as a compound subject, you have to connect them with and (for example, the dog and the cat are friends). In addition, the sentence properly compares the Iso composition of Moon water to the Iso composition of Earth water. It is also logical to say that the observation of a certain thing and the fact that a second thing is true can combine to provide evidence for a certain theory.
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Re: The near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and .....  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2018, 12:51
CAMANISHPARMAR wrote:
Official Explanation:-

(1) Take a First Glance (5 seconds)

The first two answers start out the same, but answer (C) changes a decent amount and answers (D) and (E) start with completely different words, so keep an eye out for global issues related to Sentence Structure, Meaning, Modifiers, or Parallelism.

(2) Read for Meaning

This sentence is a real challenge. On SC, if you struggle to decipher the overall meaning of the sentence, you may want to guess your favorite letter and move on. It would be easy to spend 3 minutes on this problem and still end up guessing.

Note that SC never requires specific subject knowledge, so if the science-y language is stressing you out, mentally substitute an abbreviation such as i or Iso for all of that isotope stuff.

The sentence is trying to say that there are two pieces of evidence supporting a particular hypothesis:

The ratios, combined with the water, provides evidence for the hypothesis. To find the subject, mentally strip out the modifier combined with the water. The subject, ratios, is plural, but the verb provides is singular, so eliminate answer (A) for faulty Subject-Verb Agreement.

The original sentence has a couple of other errors—you can dig into these, or you can use the subject-verb error to eliminate additional answers and then directly compare whatever answers remain. It turns out that you can eliminate choices (A), (B), and (C) on the subject-verb issue alone!

If you investigate the additional errors, start by understanding the intended meaning of the sentence. The first piece of evidence is the fact that Iso ratios in both lunar (Moon) and terrestrial (Earth) rocks are nearly identical. The second is that water from lunar volcanic glass and water from Earth are nearly indistinguishable in their Iso composition.

The structure of the second piece of evidence is faulty in the original sentence in two ways. First, combined with water makes it sound as though something is physically being combined with that water. Rather, the sentence is trying to indicate that one fact, combined with another fact, provides support for the theory. In addition, the Comparison (Moon water has an Iso composition indistinguishable from water found on Earth) is illogical. The comparison should be between the two compositions: Moon water has an Iso composition indistinguishable from the Iso composition of Earth water.


(3) Find a Starting Point

Start with any difference that seems easiest to you, then move to the next easiest issue, and so on. Stop when you have one answer or you aren’t sure how to address the remaining differences. All errors for each choice are detailed in the next section.


(4) Eliminate (and Repeat)

(A) The plural subject ratios does not match the singular verb provides. Ratios … combined with water makes it seem as if the ratios are being physically combined with the Moon water. In actuality, the sentence is trying to discuss one fact in combination with another fact. In addition, the comparison of the Iso composition of Moon water with Earth water itself (as opposed to the Iso composition of Earth water) is illogical.

(B) The plural subject ratios does not match the singular verb provides. The other two errors for this choice center around the second piece of evidence. The extraction of the Moon water is not the evidence for the theory; rather, the evidence is the fact that, when researchers extracted this water, they discovered that the Iso composition of the Moon water is indistinguishable from the Iso composition of Earth water. This choice also compares the Moon water itself to the Iso composition of the Earth water; the comparison should be the Iso composition of one to the Iso composition of the other.

(C) The plural subject ratios does not match the singular verb provides. The comparison of the Iso composition of Moon water with Earth water (as opposed to the Iso composition of Earth water) is illogical.

(D) This choice is also very tricky. It is acceptable to say that the observation of a particular fact or outcome provides evidence, so the first part of this choice is fine. The extraction of the Moon water, however, is not the actual evidence for the theory; the evidence is the fact that, when researchers extracted this water, they discovered or observed a particular fact: the Iso composition of Moon water is indistinguishable from the Iso composition of Earth water.

(E) CORRECT. The singular subject observation matches the singular verb provides. Note: the fact that is not part of the subject. In order for two separate words to function as a compound subject, you have to connect them with and (for example, the dog and the cat are friends). In addition, the sentence properly compares the Iso composition of Moon water to the Iso composition of Earth water. It is also logical to say that the observation of a certain thing and the fact that a second thing is true can combine to provide evidence for a certain theory.



Could you please explain Option C (why its wrong) as simple as possible ? :lol:
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Re: The near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and .....  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2018, 00:32
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CAMANISHPARMAR wrote:
The near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and terrestrial rocks, combined with the water extracted from lunar volcanic glass having an isotopic composition indistinguishable from the water found on Earth, provides evidence for the giant-impact hypothesis, which holds that a large body striking Earth caused material to break off and form the Moon.

A) near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and terrestrial rocks, combined with the water extracted from lunar volcanic glass having an isotopic composition indistinguishable from the

B) near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and terrestrial rocks, combined with the extraction of water from lunar volcanic glass that is indistinguishable from the isotopic composition of

C) oxygen isotope ratios observed to be nearly identical in lunar and terrestrial rocks, combined with the fact that water extracted from lunar volcanic glass has an isotopic composition indistinguishable from the

D) observation, in lunar and terrestrial rocks, of near-identical oxygen isotope ratios, combined with the extraction of water from lunar volcanic glass that is indistinguishable from the isotopic composition of

E) observation, in lunar and terrestrial rocks, of near-identical oxygen isotope ratios, combined with the fact that the isotopic composition of water extracted from lunar volcanic glass is indistinguishable from that of


The Key word here is "Combined with"

A) near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and terrestrial rocks, combined with the water extracted from lunar volcanic glass having an isotopic composition indistinguishable from the - Here Isotope Ratio is Combined with Water extracted...So wrong

B) near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and terrestrial rocks, combined with the extraction of water from lunar volcanic glass that is indistinguishable from the isotopic composition of - Again here Isotope Ration combined with Extraxtion of Water... So Wrong

C) oxygen isotope ratios observed to be nearly identical in lunar and terrestrial rocks, combined with the fact that water extracted from lunar volcanic glass has an isotopic composition indistinguishable from the
Again here Isotope Ration combined with fact... So Wrong

D) observation, in lunar and terrestrial rocks, of near-identical oxygen isotope ratios, combined with the extraction of water from lunar volcanic glass that is indistinguishable from the isotopic composition of
Here Observation combined with extraction of Water... So Wrong

E) observation, in lunar and terrestrial rocks, of near-identical oxygen isotope ratios, combined with the fact that the isotopic composition of water extracted from lunar volcanic glass is indistinguishable from that of
Here, Observation is Combined with the Fact.. Correct
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Re: The near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and .....  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2018, 09:04
I have nothing against this question, and it is a great question, but I'm having a bad day so I'll rant.

WTF? This question was unhealthily long. I mean i'd probably finish an RC set in the time it takes to read this question front to back and then read all the options front to back. This gets really annoying. If I see anything remotely as lengthy as this in the original paper I'll skip.
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Re: The near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and .....  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2018, 09:52
Retaining the subject and the main verb - we see that we have SV mismatch that is present in A, B & C

The ratios provides evidence for the giant-impact hypothesis, which holds that a large body striking Earth caused material to break off and form the Moon.


D) observation, in lunar and terrestrial rocks, of near-identical oxygen isotope ratios, combined with the extraction of water from lunar volcanic glass that is indistinguishable from the isotopic composition of -> that refers to volcanic gas - not the intended modifier

E) observation, in lunar and terrestrial rocks, of near-identical oxygen isotope ratios, combined with the fact that the isotopic composition of water extracted from lunar volcanic glass is indistinguishable from that of ->> Correct
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The near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and .....  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 21 Nov 2018, 03:10
Experts,

I had difficulty finding the subject of this sentence.

The near-identical oxygen isotope ratios

I assumed the article --"The" at the very start made this a noun phrase...and so The new identical oxygen isotope as a whole will be acting as SINGULAR and the verb PROVIDES would fit into it.

Please help!!

Originally posted by prabsahi on 21 Nov 2018, 03:09.
Last edited by prabsahi on 21 Nov 2018, 03:10, edited 1 time in total.
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The near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and .....  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2018, 03:09
Experts,

I had difficulty finding the subject of this sentence.

The near-identical oxygen isotope ratios

I assumed the article --The at the very start made this a noun phrase...and so The new identical oxygen isotope as a whole will be acting as SINGULAR and the verb PROVIDES would fit into it.

Another Doubt ,Manhattan explanation says that
the comparison of the Iso composition of Moon water with Earth water itself (as opposed to the Iso composition of Earth water) is illogical.

My reasons/Doubt

lunar volcanic glass having an isotopic composition indistinguishable from the water found on Earth,

why cant we treat VERBing (Having as a modifier ) and think that the glass (with some isotopic data) is indistinguishable from water(having some isotpic data)

whats wrong with my understanding..

Please help!!
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Re: The near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and .....  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2018, 08:32
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This is a really cool question. A couple things to help you with that noun identification:

1) If you look at this phrase "The near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and terrestrial rocks" notice that:

-ratios is a noun
-observed is an participial modifier
-in... is a prepositional phrase

If you want to cut this off and say that "the near-identical oxygen isotope" is the noun phrase, my big question to you is what do you make of the word "ratios"? It's pretty clear based on parts of speech that everything from "observed" to the comma is all modifier, but that leaves that glaring word "ratios" just kind of hanging there. Ratios isn't modifying "isotopes" or "oxygen" so it has to be part of the noun phrase.

2) The structure on this question kind of screams at you that it's testing subject-verb agreement. The first difference in the answer choices is a choice between nouns (near-identical oxygen isotope ratios vs. oxygen isotope ratios vs. observations), and there's a non-underlined verb "provides" that appears a few words after the underline, right after a comma (which signifies that a modifier precedes it...and you *know* that the GMAT loves to distance subjects from verbs with long modifiers so that it's harder for you to determine which noun is the subject). So your instincts should be telling you - it's time to buckle down and A) break apart modifiers and B) think logically about which nouns "provide evidence" (if I get a choice between a noun that could be construed as illogical - do the isotopes themselves provide the evidence? - and one where there's no doubt - an observation is definitely scientific evidence - I'll always lean toward the one that seems airtight).
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The near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and .....  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2018, 09:21
VeritasPrepBrian wrote:
This is a really cool question. A couple things to help you with that noun identification:

Firstly, Thank you so much for your reply Brian :)

1) If you look at this phrase "The near-identical oxygen isotope ratios observed in lunar and terrestrial rocks" notice that:

-ratios is a noun
-observed is an participial modifier
-in... is a prepositional phrase

If you want to cut this off and say that "the near-identical oxygen isotope" is the noun phrase, my big question to you is what do you make of the word "ratios"? It's pretty clear based on parts of speech that everything from "observed" to the comma is all modifier, but that leaves that glaring word "ratios" just kind of hanging there. Ratios isn't modifying "isotopes" or "oxygen" so it has to be part of the noun phrase.




2) The structure on this question kind of screams at you that it's testing subject-verb agreement. The first difference in the answer choices is a choice between nouns (near-identical oxygen isotope ratios vs. oxygen isotope ratios vs. observations), and there's a non-underlined verb "provides" that appears a few words after the underline, right after a comma (which signifies that a modifier precedes it...and you *know* that the GMAT loves to distance subjects from verbs with long modifiers so that it's harder for you to determine which noun is the subject). So your instincts should be telling you - it's time to buckle down and A) break apart modifiers and B) think logically about which nouns "provide evidence" (if I get a choice between a noun that could be construed as illogical - do the isotopes themselves provide the evidence? - and one where there's no doubt - an observation is definitely scientific evidence - I'll always lean toward the one that seems airtight).


For 1)
I was thinking "isotope ratios" can act as noun .I mean to me it looked fine. And the words before isotope as modifying "isotope ratios"
So ,The near-identical oxygen(modifying isotope ratios) isotope ratios(noun)--The entire as Noun phrase including ratios.

For 2)

B) think logically about which nouns "provide evidence"-- i was thinking on these lines but wasn't clear.Now with your words its attested.
This is perfect !!
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