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The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima

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The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.


(A) merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

(B) as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include

(C) as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes

(D) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes

(E) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including


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Originally posted by study on 26 Jan 2009, 05:21.
Last edited by Bunuel on 25 Jan 2019, 01:33, edited 8 times in total.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2012, 07:49
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Hi,
First of all, here is the question with all answer choices.

The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be above 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

eybrj2 wrote:
Q1) Is it ok not to use "as" after than in the context of the sentence above?
(This is the reason that I picked C)

Q2) Does "from examining tools" have a problem?
If it have, what is it?


Answer to your first question: Yes, it is alright to not repeat “as” after “rather than” because it is implied or understood. “As” already appears once in the sentence. Another thing that we need to note in Choice C is parallelism. In the parallel list, the first entity is “hunters of large animals” and the second one is “meat scavengers”. Now, it is not always necessary for the entities in the parallel list to be absolutely parallel. However, in this case, it is possible. We can write “meat scavengers” as “scavengers of meat” that will make the entities absolutely parallel. So go for it.

Answer to your second question: Yes, “examining tools” have a little problem. Here “examining” is now an adjective that is modifying “tools”, suggesting that the “tools” are used for examining things. It no longer conveys that the new image has emerged from the examination of the tool.

Let’s take these sentences:
The smile of the baby is beautiful. (smile is beautiful)
The smiling baby is beautiful. (baby is beautiful)
So be careful of the change in the words in the original choice. They might change the meaning of the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 28 Mar 2018, 04:16
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Q1) Is it ok not to use "as" after than in the context of the sentence above?
(This is the reason that I picked C)

Q2) Does "from examining tools" have a problem?
If it have, what is it?

Originally posted by eybrj2 on 29 Apr 2012, 21:44.
Last edited by Bunuel on 28 Mar 2018, 04:16, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2009, 10:02
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study wrote:
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including there wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

B. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes

C. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes

D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

E. missing - incorrect choice anyways


D it is . "rather than" should be followed by noun because we are comparing "systematic hunters of large animals" . Hence A is out. B is out because "that" wrongly modifies "germany". In C "which" again modifies Germany. E as you mentioned is already out. d is right because "including" is rightly used.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2009, 10:29
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study wrote:
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including there wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

B. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes

C. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes

D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

E. missing - incorrect choice anyways

to maintain parallelism, we want to have similar to hunters andhence scavengers.
real debate is between c and d.
If there is a comma, even then which is wrongly modifying germany?
if modifier is incorrectly placed, does it become right to use including vs which includes? Grammar pros pls comment and if possible pls give references.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2009, 11:28
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study wrote:
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including there wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

B. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
C. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

E. missing - incorrect choice anyways


A - out
new image -- have (S-V not agree)

B, C are out because "that"/"which" incorrectly modifies "Germany"

D is the best.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2011, 09:45
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1. ‘The new image’ is singular, and hence the verb has to be the singular ‘has’; reject A and B
2. The relative pronouns ‘that’ in C and ‘which’ in D refer to Germany rather than the tools

3. By using the present participle, 'including', E avoids the relative pronoun pitfall and is the correct answer.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2011, 09:45
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A, B: wrong because of the lack of parallelism

C: that refers to Germany

D: which refers to Germany (subject-verb agreement is also wrong between tools and includes)

E is the correct answer.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2012, 20:02
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The core problem in this issue is not about the use of the term ‘examining’, namely, whether it is an adjective or a gerund in the context.

Step1: The problem here is more about the use of the relative pronouns ‘which and that’ in B,C and D, in which the touch rule has been grossly flouted. In all the three cases, the implication is that Germany includes some tools, which is just meaningless. Eliminate all of them with a sleight of hand

Step 2: That said, between A and E, which use the participial ‘including’, to modify freely any fitting noun in the foregoing portion. E is better because it keeps the parallelism in ‘hunters and scavengers’ in tact rather than in ‘hunters and scavenging’
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2012, 00:38
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We need has(sing verb) and not have so elimninate A,B

Couple of reasons to elimnate C,D

C-> uses "that" which as worded refers to Gemany the nearest noun

X RATHER THAN Y is the idiom

X->systematic hunters of large animals
Y->mere scavengers of meat

We dont need "as" again since it violates the idiomatic usage

D-> which refers to germany the nearest noun and changes the meaning

Hence E
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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17. The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including --- S-V ERROR The image - have (X)
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include --- like A
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes --- that refers to Germany as verb includes is singular.
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes --- Like C
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including --- I dont know what kind of modifier is this but logically its describing tools.. is it an absolute phrase ? i am not sure.. but this option is best through POE.
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But my question still stays! will D be correct if it is include instead of includes?
"tools found in Germany" in this found in Germany modifies tools and thus which would in turn modify tools?
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2014, 01:47
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akshat1989 wrote:
But my question still stays! will D be correct if it is include instead of includes?
"tools found in Germany" in this found in Germany modifies tools and thus which would in turn modify tools?


Yes, sentence will be correct if you replace includes with include in following sentence.

Plural verb will look for nearest plural noun and that is tools not Germany. Thus, such sentence is considered fine.

D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2014, 04:21
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akshat1989 wrote:
But my question still stays! will D be correct if it is include instead of includes?
"tools found in Germany" in this found in Germany modifies tools and thus which would in turn modify tools?



Hi akshat1989,
This is in response to your PM. :)

Let’s first try to understand the modification of a slightly far away placed noun by ‘which’:
Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber her letters to anyone else.

In the above sentence, the modifier ‘which’ jumps over the preceding noun “Susan Huntington Dickinson” to modify “Emily Dickinson’s letters”. This modification is possible since the phrase ‘to Susan Huntington Dickinson’ cannot be placed anywhere else without changing the intended meaning of the sentence. Also, it does not make sense for 'which' to modify "Susan Huntington Dickinson" since this gives an illogical meaning that Susan Huntington Dickinson were written over a period.

Please refer to the following article to know more how a noun modifier can modify slightly far away nouns:
noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

Now, coming to your question:
• The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany,
o which include three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

Now, since the modifier “found in Germany” refers to ‘tools’, we can’t place it anywhere else in the sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence. So, 'which' jumps over “found in Germany” to modify "tools".
Also, there is no ambiguity in this modification since the plural verb ‘include’ tells us that ‘which’ is plural and hence it should have a plural antecedent. So, the only logical antecedent for ‘which’ is ‘tools’.
So, this sentence would be correct if the verb ‘includes’ is replaced by ‘include’.

Hope this helps! :)
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2016, 22:54
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Konstantin1983 wrote:
Do we need "as" in choice E for parallelism? I think that yes though sentence is correct even without "as"


Here the 2 elements of parallelism are:

systematic hunters of large animals and mere scavengers of meat.

One does not need to repeat as in the second element because of the once-out-twice-in rule. In option E the first as is outside the parallelism loop:

as [X rather than Y].

Nevertheless you could as well consider that as is within the parallelism loop; in such case it would be repeated in the second element as well:

[as X rather than as Y].
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2016, 03:23
fieldsrd wrote:
nikhilsrl wrote:
The new image of stonage people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

a) merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
b) as merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
c) as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
d) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
e) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

Between A and E, E wins because of parallelism.

Where do u see the parallelism in here?
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2016, 07:51
anonimo wrote:
fieldsrd wrote:
nikhilsrl wrote:
The new image of stonage people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

a) merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
b) as merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
c) as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
d) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
e) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

Between A and E, E wins because of parallelism.

Where do u see the parallelism in here?


Parallelism marker is X, rather than Y.
In option A: X = systematic hunters of large animals, Y= merely scavenging for meat.... faulty parallelism (hunters and scavenging)

In option E: X = systematic hunters of large animals, Y= mere scavengers of meat... correct parallelism (hunters and scavengers)
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2016, 23:31
fieldsrd wrote:
Between A and E, E wins because of parallelism.

Actually between A and E, E should first win because of subject-verb agreement.

We always recommend that whenever you spot subject-verb being tested, that should always be your first criterion of eliminating incorrect answer choices, because this criterion is almost always easy to implement and very objective.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2016, 11:20
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I am with (E) , and I would suggest you go through the following excellent articles posted here at GMATClub

verb-ed-modifiers-vs-verb-ing-modifiers-125611.html

usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html

verb-ing-modifiers-part-2-in-our-first-article-on-verb-ing-135567.html

noun-noun-modifier-vs-verb-ing-modifier-as-discussed-in-137569.html

Hope you find these articles helpful...
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2016, 13:02
Abhishek009 wrote:
I am with (E) , and I would suggest you go through the following excellent articles posted here at GMATClub


Hope you find these articles helpful...



Great! Thank you so much, that helped me a lot.

One quick question for you however about "Which".

It says it should only refer to the closest noun, tkae this sentence as an example.

The neighborhood of the south, which is really expensive, has seen a substantial increase in crime.

this sentence is incorrect since "Which" refers to the closest noun which is south, but in fact modifies "neighborhood" so it is not correct.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima   [#permalink] 03 Mar 2016, 13:02

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