Last visit was: 14 Sep 2024, 20:19 It is currently 14 Sep 2024, 20:19
Toolkit
GMAT Club Daily Prep
Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History
Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

# The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima

SORT BY:
Tags:
Show Tags
Hide Tags
Manager
Joined: 05 Oct 2008
Posts: 160
Own Kudos [?]: 3654 [205]
Given Kudos: 22
Alum
Joined: 19 Mar 2012
Posts: 4330
Own Kudos [?]: 51881 [90]
Given Kudos: 2326
Location: United States (WA)
Schools: Ross '20 (M)
GMAT 1: 760 Q50 V42
GMAT 2: 740 Q49 V42 (Online)
GMAT 3: 760 Q50 V42 (Online)
GPA: 3.8
WE:Marketing (Non-Profit and Government)
e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 4477
Own Kudos [?]: 31540 [56]
Given Kudos: 656
GMAT Date: 08-19-2020
GMAT Club Legend
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Status: enjoying
Posts: 5264
Own Kudos [?]: 42172 [48]
Given Kudos: 422
Location: India
WE:Education (Education)
Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]
36
Kudos
12
Bookmarks
1. ‘The new image’ is singular, and hence the verb has to be the singular ‘has’; reject A and B
2. The relative pronouns ‘that’ in C and ‘which’ in D refer to Germany rather than the tools

3. By using the present participle, 'including', E avoids the relative pronoun pitfall and is the correct answer.
Experts' Global Representative
Joined: 10 Jul 2017
Posts: 5129
Own Kudos [?]: 4699 [11]
Given Kudos: 38
Location: India
GMAT Date: 11-01-2019
Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]
7
Kudos
4
Bookmarks
Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-
study
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

(A) merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

(B) as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include

(C) as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes

(D) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes

(E) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

Concepts tested here: Subject-Verb Agreement + Modifiers + Parallelism + Idioms

• Any elements linked by a conjunction ('rather than' in this sentence) must be parallel.
• “that” is used to provide information needed to preserve the core meaning of the sentence, and the “comma + which” construction is used to provide extra information.

A: This answer choice incorrectly refers to the singular noun "image" with the plural verb "have emerged". Further, Option A fails to maintain parallelism between "systematic hunters of large animals" and "merely scavenging for meat"; please remember, any elements linked by a conjunction ('rather than' in this sentence) must be parallel.

B: This answer choice incorrectly refers to the singular noun "image" with the plural verb "have emerged". Further, Option A fails to maintain parallelism between "systematic hunters of large animals" and "mere scavenging for meat"; please remember, any elements linked by a conjunction ('rather than' in this sentence) must be parallel. Additionally, Option B incorrectly uses the adjective "mere" to modify the verb "scavenging"; please remember, an adjective can only modify a noun; it cannot modify another adjective; to modify an adjective, an adverb must be used; generally, adjective+ly leads to an adverb.

C: This answer choice incorrectly refers to the plural noun "tools" with the singular verb "includes". Further, Option C incorrectly refers to extra information - that fact that the tools include "three wooden spears" - with "that"; please remember, “that” is used to provide information needed to preserve the core meaning of the sentence, and the “comma + which” construction is used to provide extra information.

D: This answer choice incorrectly refers to the plural noun "tools" with the singular verb "includes".

E: Correct. This answer choice correctly refers to the singular noun "image" with the singular verb "has emerged". Moreover, Option E avoids the subject-verb disagreement seen in Options C and D, as it uses the present participle ("verb+ing" - "including" in this sentence) rather than an active verb. Further, Option E maintains parallelism between "hunters of large animals" and "mere scavengers of meat". Additionally, Option E correctly uses the adjective "mere" to modify the noun "scavengers". Besides, Option E avoids the idiomatic error seen in Option C, as it uses the present participle ("verb+ing") phrase "including three wooden spears" rather than "that" to refer to extra information - that fact that the tools include "three wooden spears".

Hence, E is the best answer choice.

To understand the concept of "Which" vs "That" on GMAT, you may want to watch the following video (~2 minutes):

All the best!
Experts' Global Team
General Discussion
Manager
Joined: 21 Aug 2008
Posts: 65
Own Kudos [?]: 231 [8]
Given Kudos: 0
Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]
4
Kudos
4
Bookmarks
study
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including there wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

B. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes

C. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes

D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

E. missing - incorrect choice anyways

D it is . "rather than" should be followed by noun because we are comparing "systematic hunters of large animals" . Hence A is out. B is out because "that" wrongly modifies "germany". In C "which" again modifies Germany. E as you mentioned is already out. d is right because "including" is rightly used.
Manager
Joined: 04 Jan 2009
Posts: 119
Own Kudos [?]: 20 [4]
Given Kudos: 0
Concentration: finance &amp; strategy
Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]
3
Kudos
study
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including there wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

B. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes

C. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes

D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

E. missing - incorrect choice anyways
to maintain parallelism, we want to have similar to hunters andhence scavengers.
real debate is between c and d.
If there is a comma, even then which is wrongly modifying germany?
if modifier is incorrectly placed, does it become right to use including vs which includes? Grammar pros pls comment and if possible pls give references.
Director
Joined: 07 Nov 2007
Posts: 717
Own Kudos [?]: 3092 [4]
Given Kudos: 5
Location: New York
Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]
3
Bookmarks
study
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including there wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

B. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
C. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

E. missing - incorrect choice anyways

A - out
new image -- have (S-V not agree)

B, C are out because "that"/"which" incorrectly modifies "Germany"

D is the best.
Intern
Joined: 30 Jan 2011
Posts: 9
Own Kudos [?]: 9 [7]
Given Kudos: 4
Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]
5
Kudos
2
Bookmarks
A, B: wrong because of the lack of parallelism

C: that refers to Germany

D: which refers to Germany (subject-verb agreement is also wrong between tools and includes)

Manager
Joined: 31 Oct 2011
Posts: 200
Own Kudos [?]: 8067 [20]
Given Kudos: 18
Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]
4
Kudos
16
Bookmarks
Q1) Is it ok not to use "as" after than in the context of the sentence above?
(This is the reason that I picked C)

Q2) Does "from examining tools" have a problem?
If it have, what is it?

Originally posted by eybrj2 on 29 Apr 2012, 21:44.
Last edited by Bunuel on 28 Mar 2018, 04:16, edited 4 times in total.
Edited the Q
GMAT Club Legend
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Status: enjoying
Posts: 5264
Own Kudos [?]: 42172 [9]
Given Kudos: 422
Location: India
WE:Education (Education)
Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]
5
Kudos
4
Bookmarks
The core problem in this issue is not about the use of the term ‘examining’, namely, whether it is an adjective or a gerund in the context.

Step1: The problem here is more about the use of the relative pronouns ‘which and that’ in B,C and D, in which the touch rule has been grossly flouted. In all the three cases, the implication is that Germany includes some tools, which is just meaningless. Eliminate all of them with a sleight of hand

Step 2: That said, between A and E, which use the participial ‘including’, to modify freely any fitting noun in the foregoing portion. E is better because it keeps the parallelism in ‘hunters and scavengers’ in tact rather than in ‘hunters and scavenging’
Manager
Joined: 31 Aug 2011
Posts: 121
Own Kudos [?]: 819 [6]
Given Kudos: 56
Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]
5
Kudos
1
Bookmarks
We need has(sing verb) and not have so elimninate A,B

Couple of reasons to elimnate C,D

C-> uses "that" which as worded refers to Gemany the nearest noun

X RATHER THAN Y is the idiom

X->systematic hunters of large animals
Y->mere scavengers of meat

We dont need "as" again since it violates the idiomatic usage

D-> which refers to germany the nearest noun and changes the meaning

Hence E
Director
Joined: 22 Mar 2013
Status:Everyone is a leader. Just stop listening to others.
Posts: 603
Own Kudos [?]: 4683 [6]
Given Kudos: 235
Location: India
GPA: 3.51
WE:Information Technology (Computer Software)
Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]
5
Kudos
1
Bookmarks
17. The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including --- S-V ERROR The image - have (X)
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include --- like A
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes --- that refers to Germany as verb includes is singular.
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes --- Like C
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including --- I dont know what kind of modifier is this but logically its describing tools.. is it an absolute phrase ? i am not sure.. but this option is best through POE.
Intern
Joined: 31 May 2014
Posts: 3
Own Kudos [?]: 2 [1]
Given Kudos: 9
Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]
1
Kudos
But my question still stays! will D be correct if it is include instead of includes?
"tools found in Germany" in this found in Germany modifies tools and thus which would in turn modify tools?
Director
Joined: 22 Mar 2013
Status:Everyone is a leader. Just stop listening to others.
Posts: 603
Own Kudos [?]: 4683 [2]
Given Kudos: 235
Location: India
GPA: 3.51
WE:Information Technology (Computer Software)
Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]
2
Kudos
akshat1989
But my question still stays! will D be correct if it is include instead of includes?
"tools found in Germany" in this found in Germany modifies tools and thus which would in turn modify tools?

Yes, sentence will be correct if you replace includes with include in following sentence.

Plural verb will look for nearest plural noun and that is tools not Germany. Thus, such sentence is considered fine.

D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 4477
Own Kudos [?]: 31540 [16]
Given Kudos: 656
GMAT Date: 08-19-2020
Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]
8
Kudos
8
Bookmarks
akshat1989
But my question still stays! will D be correct if it is include instead of includes?
"tools found in Germany" in this found in Germany modifies tools and thus which would in turn modify tools?

Hi akshat1989,
This is in response to your PM.

Let’s first try to understand the modification of a slightly far away placed noun by ‘which’:
Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber her letters to anyone else.

In the above sentence, the modifier ‘which’ jumps over the preceding noun “Susan Huntington Dickinson” to modify “Emily Dickinson’s letters”. This modification is possible since the phrase ‘to Susan Huntington Dickinson’ cannot be placed anywhere else without changing the intended meaning of the sentence. Also, it does not make sense for 'which' to modify "Susan Huntington Dickinson" since this gives an illogical meaning that Susan Huntington Dickinson were written over a period.

Please refer to the following article to know more how a noun modifier can modify slightly far away nouns:
noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

• The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany,
o which include three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

Now, since the modifier “found in Germany” refers to ‘tools’, we can’t place it anywhere else in the sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence. So, 'which' jumps over “found in Germany” to modify "tools".
Also, there is no ambiguity in this modification since the plural verb ‘include’ tells us that ‘which’ is plural and hence it should have a plural antecedent. So, the only logical antecedent for ‘which’ is ‘tools’.
So, this sentence would be correct if the verb ‘includes’ is replaced by ‘include’.

Hope this helps!
Deepak
SVP
Joined: 14 Dec 2013
Posts: 2401
Own Kudos [?]: 15348 [4]
Given Kudos: 26
Location: Germany
Schools:
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
WE:Corporate Finance (Pharmaceuticals and Biotech)
Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]
3
Kudos
1
Bookmarks
Konstantin1983
Do we need "as" in choice E for parallelism? I think that yes though sentence is correct even without "as"

Here the 2 elements of parallelism are:

systematic hunters of large animals and mere scavengers of meat.

One does not need to repeat as in the second element because of the once-out-twice-in rule. In option E the first as is outside the parallelism loop:

as [X rather than Y].

Nevertheless you could as well consider that as is within the parallelism loop; in such case it would be repeated in the second element as well:

[as X rather than as Y].
Intern
Joined: 06 Apr 2012
Posts: 20
Own Kudos [?]: 6 [0]
Given Kudos: 11
Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]
fieldsrd
nikhilsrl
The new image of stonage people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

a) merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
b) as merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
c) as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
d) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
e) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

Between A and E, E wins because of parallelism.
Where do u see the parallelism in here?
SVP
Joined: 14 Dec 2013
Posts: 2401
Own Kudos [?]: 15348 [0]
Given Kudos: 26
Location: Germany
Schools:
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
WE:Corporate Finance (Pharmaceuticals and Biotech)
Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]
anonimo
fieldsrd
nikhilsrl
The new image of stonage people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

a) merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
b) as merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
c) as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
d) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
e) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

Between A and E, E wins because of parallelism.
Where do u see the parallelism in here?

Parallelism marker is X, rather than Y.
In option A: X = systematic hunters of large animals, Y= merely scavenging for meat.... faulty parallelism (hunters and scavenging)

In option E: X = systematic hunters of large animals, Y= mere scavengers of meat... correct parallelism (hunters and scavengers)
CEO
Joined: 27 Mar 2010
Posts: 3744
Own Kudos [?]: 3549 [1]
Given Kudos: 153
Location: India
Schools: ISB
GPA: 3.31
Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]
1
Kudos