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The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2016, 23:31
yanleman wrote:
One quick question for you however about "Which".

It says it should only refer to the closest noun, tkae this sentence as an example.

The neighborhood of the south, which is really expensive, has seen a substantial increase in crime.

this sentence is incorrect since "Which" refers to the closest noun which is south, but in fact modifies "neighborhood" so it is not correct.

This sentence is correct actually. It conveys two things:

i) neighborhood (of the south) has seen a substantial increase in crime.
ii) South is really expensive

It is incorrect to say that which always refers to closest noun; a more accurate description would be that which always refers to the nearest grammatically eligible noun.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses usage of which, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2016, 19:10
Errors in the original sentence : Parallelism & SV agreement. We need singular verb.
Idiom Usage : X Rather than Y.

The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including: same as above

B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which
include usage of as is incorrect
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that
includes usage of as is incorrect
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany,
which includes This solves Parallelism & SV agreement, but "which" incorrectly refers to Germany
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany,
including Correct Answer including modifies the previous clause
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2016, 03:39
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study wrote:
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which
include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that
includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany,
which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany,
including


2 concepts tested here...

1) S-V agreement (its easy to spot has vs have , Although i got it wrong at my first attempt)
2) Pronoun .....

C - That ---> Ambiguous reference
D - Which ---> Germany (wrong reference)
E - Modifier Including correctly refer to the subject in first clause.

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 10 Feb 2017, 12:36
I have a query -

In Option E, including should ideally be used to represent the result of previous clause and/or refer back to the main subject - the new image. But in this case it is used to modify tools. Can someone help to understand that part?

Also, as per knowledge 'which' in option D cannot jump over a verb and modify tools. Is that correct?
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 11 Feb 2017, 11:44
warriorguy wrote:
I have a query -

In Option E, including should ideally be used to represent the result of previous clause and/or refer back to the main subject - the new image. But in this case it is used to modify tools. Can someone help to understand that part?

Also, as per knowledge 'which' in option D cannot jump over a verb and modify tools. Is that correct?


A present participle modifier refers to an entire clause not just to depict the result of the clause. The modifier may modify in some other way as well, such as depicting how the action in the previous clause is done.

Steffi won Wimbledon, defeating Sabatini.

In option E the present participle (including...) does not depict the result of the previous clause. You may consider it a means to have the new image that stone age people are systematic hunters.

In option D, there is no verb between "which" and "tools" - "found" is a past participle modifier of "tools". The reason that D is wrong is as follows: in GMAT it is often awkward (except some exceptions) to have two modifiers one after the other (without a conjunction in between) to refer to the same noun.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 12 Feb 2017, 15:32
sayantanc2k wrote:
warriorguy wrote:
I have a query -

In Option E, including should ideally be used to represent the result of previous clause and/or refer back to the main subject - the new image. But in this case it is used to modify tools. Can someone help to understand that part?

Also, as per knowledge 'which' in option D cannot jump over a verb and modify tools. Is that correct?


A present participle modifier refers to an entire clause not just to depict the result of the clause. The modifier may modify in some other way as well, such as depicting how the action in the previous clause is done.

Steffi won Wimbledon, defeating Sabatini.

In option E the present participle (including...) does not depict the result of the previous clause. You may consider it a means to have the new image that stone age people are systematic hunters.

In option D, there is no verb between "which" and "tools" - "found" is a past participle modifier of "tools". The reason that D is wrong is as follows: in GMAT it is often awkward (except some exceptions) to have two modifiers one after the other (without a conjunction in between) to refer to the same noun.




The first part of the explanation: the phrase after comma offers some additional information about the sentence as a whole. In this case, it talks about tools? Question is can it offer information about a part of the sentence and not the main idea in general. I got an explanation that 'including' works in a different way as opposed to verb-ing form.

Can you further explain this sentence please? ---> in GMAT it is often awkward (except some exceptions) to have two modifiers one after the other (without a conjunction in between) to refer to the same noun
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2017, 10:29
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warriorguy wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
warriorguy wrote:
I have a query -

In Option E, including should ideally be used to represent the result of previous clause and/or refer back to the main subject - the new image. But in this case it is used to modify tools. Can someone help to understand that part?

Also, as per knowledge 'which' in option D cannot jump over a verb and modify tools. Is that correct?


A present participle modifier refers to an entire clause not just to depict the result of the clause. The modifier may modify in some other way as well, such as depicting how the action in the previous clause is done.

Steffi won Wimbledon, defeating Sabatini.

In option E the present participle (including...) does not depict the result of the previous clause. You may consider it a means to have the new image that stone age people are systematic hunters.

In option D, there is no verb between "which" and "tools" - "found" is a past participle modifier of "tools". The reason that D is wrong is as follows: in GMAT it is often awkward (except some exceptions) to have two modifiers one after the other (without a conjunction in between) to refer to the same noun.




The first part of the explanation: the phrase after comma offers some additional information about the sentence as a whole. In this case, it talks about tools? Question is can it offer information about a part of the sentence and not the main idea in general. I got an explanation that 'including' works in a different way as opposed to verb-ing form.

Can you further explain this sentence please? ---> in GMAT it is often awkward (except some exceptions) to have two modifiers one after the other (without a conjunction in between) to refer to the same noun


In D, the modifiers "found in Germany" and "which includes..." both refer to "tools". There is no conjunction between them. Such usage ( two modifiers one after the other (without a conjunction in between) to refer to the same noun) is often considered awkward.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2017, 16:07
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which
include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that
includes

D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany,
which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany,
including

The sentence has parallelism issue,pronoun error and modifier error.

Option E is the best answer
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2017, 21:49
egmat wrote:
Hi,
First of all, here is the question with all answer choices.

The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be above 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

eybrj2 wrote:
Q1) Is it ok not to use "as" after than in the context of the sentence above?
(This is the reason that I picked C)

Q2) Does "from examining tools" have a problem?
If it have, what is it?


Answer to your first question: Yes, it is alright to not repeat “as” after “rather than” because it is implied or understood. “As” already appears once in the sentence. Another thing that we need to note in Choice C is parallelism. In the parallel list, the first entity is “hunters of large animals” and the second one is “meat scavengers”. Now, it is not always necessary for the entities in the parallel list to be absolutely parallel. However, in this case, it is possible. We can write “meat scavengers” as “scavengers of meat” that will make the entities absolutely parallel. So go for it.

Answer to your second question: Yes, “examining tools” have a little problem. Here “examining” is now an adjective that is modifying “tools”, suggesting that the “tools” are used for examining things. It no longer conveys that the new image has emerged from the examination of the tool.

Let’s take these sentences:
The smile of the baby is beautiful. (smile is beautiful)
The smiling baby is beautiful. (baby is beautiful)
So be careful of the change in the words in the original choice. They might change the meaning of the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Hi,
I have two doubts. Can u please advise.

Doubt 1:
The verb+ing modifier suggests:
1. HOW aspect of the preceding clause
2. RESULT aspect of the same

But the meaning here intents to state about the types of tools that was examined. Doesnt specify the HOW/RESULT part.

Doubt 2 : Also "which" can jump the prepositional phrase( "in Germany") and refer to "tools". So why option D is wrong?
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2017, 22:21
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shoumodip wrote:
Hi,
I have two doubts. Can u please advise.

Doubt 1:
The verb+ing modifier suggests:
1. HOW aspect of the preceding clause
2. RESULT aspect of the same

But the meaning here intents to state about the types of tools that was examined. Doesnt specify the HOW/RESULT part.


"Including", unlike all other present participle modifier, is an exception. It follows a list, an incomplete list.

The striking differences between the semantic organization of Native American languages and that of European languages, including grammar and vocabulary, has to think about the degree to which differences in language may be correlated with non-linguistic differences.

Here, "grammar and vocabulary" is not a complete list of the differences, but some of those.

shoumodip wrote:
Doubt 2 : Also "which" can jump the prepositional phrase( "in Germany") and refer to "tools". So why option D is wrong?


Yes, it can. But, in that case, you need "include" and not "includes" - because "tools" is plural.
Refer this official question: https://gmatclub.com/forum/for-many-rev ... 60640.html
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 20 Apr 2017, 10:12
shoumodip wrote:
I have two doubts. Can u please advise.

Doubt 1:
The verb+ing modifier suggests:
1. HOW aspect of the preceding clause
2. RESULT aspect of the same

But the meaning here intents to state about the types of tools that was examined. Doesnt specify the HOW/RESULT part.


Hi shoumodip, I believe you're referring to the usage of including in option E. Actually including is not in strict sense a verb+ing modifier. It is a preposition (and not an adjective, as present participles normally are). Hence, we cannot apply the normal rules of present participles to including.

Quote:
Doubt 2 : Also "which" can jump the prepositional phrase( "in Germany") and refer to "tools". So why option D is wrong?

Notice that D says: which includes three wooden spears...

Since the verb is includes (a singular verb), which can only refer to singular noun. Hence, which cannot refer to tools (a plural noun).

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses this exception of the usage of including. Have attached the corresponding section of the book, for your reference.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2017, 17:21
17. The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes

E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

Option A is wrong becaue of the parallelism, and so is the Option B,
Option C is wrong because the examining the tools does not have a noun who is doing the examining.
Option D is out because the which referd to germany and germany does not include the wooden spears.

Option E is the correct answer.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2017, 09:29
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including S-V pair problem
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include S-V pair problem
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes S-V pair problem
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes wrong modifier
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including correct option
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2017, 19:52
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

(A) merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

(B) as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include

(C) as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes

(D) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes

(E) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2017, 01:34
We’ve got an X rather than Y comparison structure. We’re going to have to figure out what the X is and that will indicate what form we need to choose for the Y. (You may decide to jot down X rather than Y to remind yourself to address this issue.)

Time to Read the sentence! What’s it saying?

Strip that down to the core:

The new image of (some) people as X, rather than Y, have emerged from the examination (of tools).

What do you notice?

Wait a sec: there’s an error in the core sentence! You can choose to stick with the original comparison issue, or you can switch gears and Work on the subject-verb issue first. I’m going to do the latter:

The new image have emerged.

No way! Image is singular, so it should say the new image has emerged. Say goodbye to answers (A) and (B).
Answers (C) through (E) are all okay on this point, so now loop back around. Luckily, we’ve already identified the second potential issue: that comparison.

The new image of (some) people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than Y, have emerged from the examination (of tools).


X is hunters (of large animals), so Y should be in the same noun form. This is another reason to get rid of (A) and (B), but (C) through (E) all use the proper match, scavengers.

Aside: I’m not thrilled with mere meat scavengers in (C). I’d prefer mere scavengers of meat, as in (D) and (E). But there isn’t a strong grammatical reason why I couldn’t use mere meat scavengers, so I’m going to ignore that and look for something else. Loop around again!

Now, when you’re down to a small number of choices, compare the remaining answers, looking for differences. There are a couple, but they’re all actually part of a big modifier, so I recommend looking at them as one big chunk:
“(C) … from examining tools found in Germany that includes
“(D) … from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
“(E) … from the examination of tools found in Germany, including”

The three structures at the end are used for three types of modifiers.

That includes, in (C), signals an essential noun modifier: the modifier must be included in the sentence or the basic meaning of the core sentence will be nonsensical.
Further, the noun should be as close as possible to the modifier. In this case, the noun Germany is right before the comma. Logically, the modifier should refer to tools. In certain circumstances, it is possible to have a short separation of the noun and the modifier—but is it okay in this case to say that the that includes modifier refers back to tools, with a short found in Germany modifier in between?

Try it out:

… from the examination of tools that includes …
Oops. No, it’s not possible in this case because tools is plural and includes is singular. Logically, the modifier points to tools, but structurally it points to the singular Germany (or maybe even the singular examination?). None of these works; eliminate (C).
Can you use the same reasoning to eliminate either (D) or (E)?

Yes! Answer (D) changes the modifier to the non-essential structure comma which includes, and this modifier has the same problem: includes would have to be plural in order to point to tools. Eliminate (D).

But wait a second. Answer (E) doesn’t seem to be doing what it’s supposed to be doing either. It uses a comma –ing modifier:

The new image of (some) people as X, rather than Y, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including (some spears).

A comma –ing modifier refers back to the entire preceding clause, but is it really the case that the three spears refer back to the image has emerged from the examination?

We’ve just uncovered one of the few exceptions to the general comma –ing rule: when using the word including, the sentence really can just be giving examples of something (usually a noun) that was named shortly before the comma. Unlike the modifiers in answers (C) and (D), the including modifier in (E) does not contain a verb that needs to match the noun tools, so there are no problems with the construction.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 22 May 2018, 10:02
PiyushK wrote:
17. The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including --- S-V ERROR The image - have (X)
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include --- like A
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes --- that refers to Germany as verb includes is singular.
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes --- Like C
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including --- I dont know what kind of modifier is this but logically its describing tools.. is it an absolute phrase ? i am not sure.. but this option is best through POE.



Hello Piyush, In option C, if the verb had been "include" rather than includes , then "that" would be modifying tools ?
That need not modify the nearest noun
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2018, 02:41
egmat according to e-gmat SC rule for verb ing modifier , the structure for verb ing noun modifier is ( verb ing mod, noun) (verb ing noun,..) ( noun,verb ing,...) (noun verb ing mod -no comma )

here in this example the structure violates the law. please explain. In addition the verb ing mod here cannot modify action too.

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima   [#permalink] 23 May 2018, 02:41

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