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# The popular notion that a tree s age can be determined by

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The popular notion that a tree s age can be determined by [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2011, 01:53
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The popular notion that a tree’s age can be determined by counting the
number of internal rings in its trunk is generally true. However, to help
regulate the internal temperature of the tree, the outermost layers of wood
of the Brazilian ash often peel away when the temperature exceeds 95
degrees Fahrenheit, leaving the tree with fewer rings than it would otherwise
have. So only if the temperature in the Brazilian ash’s environment never
exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit will its rings be a reliable measure of the
tree’s age.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument
above depends?

A. The growth of new rings in a tree is not a function of levels of precipitation.
B. Only the Brazilian ash loses rings because of excessive heat.
C. Only one day of temperatures above 95 degrees Fahrenheit is needed to
cause the Brazilian ash to lose a ring.
D. The internal rings of all trees are of uniform thickness.
E. The number of rings that will be lost when the temperature exceeds 95
degrees Fahrenheit is not predictable.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: CR 700 level question [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2011, 15:38
E it is because the conclusion will fall apart when you negate this option.
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Re: CR 700 level question [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2011, 19:22
Hey can you explain why not C ?
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Re: CR 700 level question [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2011, 21:58
ksp, i think you should go to sc doc by whiplash2411(very nice!) in the following link cr-master-thread-101977.html specially --The Bang, Bang CR Guide - whiplash2411.

well, this doc. explains what is called a building a SHELL. This is what is exactly a shell. giving you some added nice information with respect to the premise. But this is wrong.

E is clearly the assumption here.

(p.s: sad but true, i too originally went for C, sometime these rules are hard to keep in mind and answers choices are very deviating)
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Re: CR 700 level question [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2011, 23:20
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Really a tough one.. (E) indeed is the correct ans..
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Re: CR 700 level question [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2011, 04:34
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IMO E,

The number of rings that will be lost when the temperature exceeds 95
degrees Fahrenheit is not predictable- If the count of the rings lost due to high temp was know, then it would be easy to predict the age of the tree.

Clearly E.
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Re: CR 700 level question [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2011, 01:50
Conclusion: So only if the temperature in the Brazilian ash’s environment never exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit will its rings be a reliable measure of the tree’s age.

C. Only one day of temperatures above 95 degrees Fahrenheit is needed to cause the Brazilian ash to lose a ring. => Negate, does not whether the counting rings is a reliable measure of the tree's age
E. The number of rings that will be lost when the temperature exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit is not predictable.=> Negate, Attack the counting rings method is a reliable measure of the tree's age
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Re: CR 700 level question [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2011, 05:40
Another victim for the trap. Fell for C.

Agree that E is the better choice and should be the correct answer. Nice question ksp.
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Re: The popular notion that a tree s age can be determined by [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2012, 00:11
[quote="ksp"]The popular notion that a tree’s age can be determined by counting the
number of internal rings in its trunk is generally true. However, to help
regulate the internal temperature of the tree, the outermost layers of wood
of the Brazilian ash often peel away when the temperature exceeds 95
degrees Fahrenheit, leaving the tree with fewer rings than it would otherwise
have. So only if the temperature in the Brazilian ash’s environment never
exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit will its rings be a reliable measure of the
tree’s age.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument
above depends?

A. The growth of new rings in a tree is not a function of levels of precipitation.
B. Only the Brazilian ash loses rings because of excessive heat.
C. Only one day of temperatures above 95 degrees Fahrenheit is needed to
cause the Brazilian ash to lose a ring.
D. The internal rings of all trees are of uniform thickness.
E. The number of rings that will be lost when the temperature exceeds 95
degrees Fahrenheit is not predictable.

Hi can someone explain this entire question and its elimination process?
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Re: The popular notion that a tree s age can be determined by [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2012, 15:17
Hello supriyas2,

Explanations are highlighted below. Hope it helps.

This is an assumption question - information that helps bridge gap between premises and conclusion is the best answer

Conclusion - if the temperature in the Brazilian ash’s environment never exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit will its rings be a reliable measure of the tree’s age

supriyas2 wrote:
The popular notion that a tree’s age can be determined by counting the number of internal rings in its trunk is generally true. However, to help regulate the internal temperature of the tree, the outermost layers of wood of the Brazilian ash often peel away when the temperature exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit, leaving the tree with fewer rings than it would otherwise have. So only if the temperature in the Brazilian ash’s environment never exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit will its rings be a reliable measure of the tree’s age.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument above depends?

A. The growth of new rings in a tree is not a function of levels of precipitation. precipitation is never mentioned in the argument. Out of scope
B. Only the Brazilian ash loses rings because of excessive heat. Only? - extreme usage choices are incorrect unless stated in the argument
C. Only one day of temperatures above 95 degrees Fahrenheit is needed to cause the Brazilian ash to lose a ring. Only one day? - extreme usage choices are incorrect unless stated in the argument
D. The internal rings of all trees are of uniform thickness. thickness is never mentioned in the argument. Out of scope
E. The number of rings that will be lost when the temperature exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit is not predictable. Correct. We cannot predict the number of rings

Hi can someone explain this entire question and its elimination process?
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Re: The popular notion that a tree s age can be determined by [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2012, 01:24
Hi gmat chase. Nice explaination. Only one thing to ask does eliminate extreme choices work on all assumption questions?
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Re: The popular notion that a tree s age can be determined by [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2012, 04:55
supriyas2 wrote:
Hi gmat chase. Nice explaination. Only one thing to ask does eliminate extreme choices work on all assumption questions?

Yes. Unless stated in the argument, we can eliminate the answer choices with extreme language
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Re: The popular notion that a tree s age can be determined by [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2012, 10:57
Well ,I doubt it has anything to do with Extremeness .Choice B & C are simple OFS.

Even E is extreme in some sense,but then its Defender Assumption .Enclosing all possible weakening avenues.
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Re: The popular notion that a tree s age can be determined by [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2012, 12:16
+ 1 E...2 mins approx!... conclusion will be killed if this assumption is negated...!
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Re: The popular notion that a tree s age can be determined by [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2012, 07:18
I don't understand this, the passage does not say whether historical temperature variations can be measured accurately. If you can't give a log of temperature variations. Then who cares how many rings the tree had lost.

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Re: The popular notion that a tree s age can be determined by [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2013, 00:45
IMO E.
The conclusion of the argument is, - "only if the temperature in the Brazilian ash’s environment never exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit will its rings be a reliable measure of the tree’s age".
This has 3 underlying assumptions -
1: Brazilian ash tree's age can be determined by counting rings. It is clearly written that "The popular notion that a tree’s age can be determined by counting the number of internal rings in its trunk is generally true".
2: Every time the temperature exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit, even momentarily, the Brazillian ash will lose some of its outer layers and the number of rings will decrease. Again, we can see that the question states, "the outermost layers of wood of the Brazilian ash often peel away when the temperature exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit".
3: We cannot, in any way possible, determine how many rings will the tree lose. This has to be true for the conclusion to be valid.

A: Irrelevant. Levels of precipitation has never been mentioned in the argument and has no impact on it whatsoever.
B: Irrelevant. The argument is only calling into question the reliability of the tree's age determination through counting the rings. The occurrence of the same phenomenon in other trees is irrelevant at this point.
C: This partially meets the 2nd assumption stated above. I believe it is this option that makes the question more difficult. To completely meet the assumption underlying the argument, the option should be replacing 'day' with 'moment'. It would then be a very strong contender for the right answer. Although negating this will deem the conclusion to be false it is not the right assumption.
D: This option is again irrelevant.
E: This is a totally valid assumption that is underlying the argument. You negate this, the conclusion falls apart.
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Re: The popular notion that a tree s age can be determined by [#permalink]

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Re: The popular notion that a tree s age can be determined by [#permalink]

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Re: The popular notion that a tree s age can be determined by [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2017, 02:23
The popular notion that a tree’s age can be determined by counting the
number of internal rings in its trunk is generally true. However, to help
regulate the internal temperature of the tree, the outermost layers of wood
of the Brazilian ash often peel away when the temperature exceeds 95
degrees Fahrenheit, leaving the tree with fewer rings than it would otherwise
have. So only if the temperature in the Brazilian ash’s environment never
exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit will its rings be a reliable measure of the
tree’s age.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument
above depends?

Either of these 2 might be assumed:
1. 'only if the temperature in the Brazilian ash’s environment never exceeds 95 degrees '
'only if' - apart from peeling, there are other factor(s) which causes trees loose rings/ peel.
2. count of lost rings can't be determined.

A. The growth of new rings in a tree is not a function of levels of precipitation.
precipitation- out of discussion.
B. Only the Brazilian ash loses rings because of excessive heat.
No mention.- "Only" - strong word.
C. Only one day of temperatures above 95 degrees Fahrenheit is needed to
cause the Brazilian ash to lose a ring.
-Strong word. Also no mention of how many days ?

D. The internal rings of all trees are of uniform thickness.
Does not matter.

E. The number of rings that will be lost when the temperature exceeds 95
degrees Fahrenheit is not predictable

- negate it -> count of rings can be predicted/ determined.
Totally changed the conclusion (opposite).
so this has been assumed to reach to the conclusion.

Correct assumption.
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Re: The popular notion that a tree s age can be determined by   [#permalink] 24 Mar 2017, 02:23
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