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The solution to any environmental problem that is not the result of go

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The solution to any environmental problem that is not the result of go  [#permalink]

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The solution to any environmental problem that is not the result of government mismanagement can only lie in major changes in consumer habits. But major changes in consumer habits will occur only if such changes are economically enticing. As a result, few serious ecological problems will be solved unless the solutions are made economically enticing.

The conclusion drawn in the argument above follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?


(A) Few serious ecological problems are the result of government mismanagement.

(B) No environmental problems that stem from government mismanagement have solutions that are economically feasible.

(C) Major changes in consumer habits can be made economically enticing.

(D) Most environmental problems that are not the result of government mismanagement are major ecological problems.

(E) Few serious ecological problems can be solved by major changes in consumer habits.


Source: LSAT

Originally posted by vjsharma25 on 11 Mar 2011, 09:43.
Last edited by Bunuel on 04 Mar 2019, 06:11, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: The solution to any environmental problem that is not the result of go  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2012, 22:48
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few serious ecological problems solved --> solutions NOT made economically enticing.

NOT economically enticing--> NOT major changes in consumer habits

NOT major changes in consumer habits--> NOT solution to any environmental problem (not the result of government mismanagement)
=> few serious ecological problems solved--> RESULT OF GOVERNMENT MISMANAGEMENT

HENCE A.
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Re: The solution to any environmental problem that is not the result of go  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Mar 2011, 10:34
4
Eliminate the extreme all - go answers.

vjsharma25 wrote:
The solution to any environmental problem that is not
the result of government mismanagement can only lie
in major changes in consumer habits. But major
changes in consumer habits will occur only if such
changes are economically enticing. As a result, few
serious ecological problems will be solved unless the
solutions are made economically enticing.

The conclusion drawn in the argument above follows
logically if which one of the following is assumed?

(A) Few serious ecological problems are the result
of government mismanagement.

(B) No environmental problems that stem from
government mismanagement have solutions
that are economically feasible.
No is extreme. Hence this cannot be the answer.

(C) Major changes in consumer habits can be made
economically enticing.
This is too rosy to be true. The argument is dealing with probability not certainty

(D) Most environmental problems that are not the
result of government mismanagement are major
ecological problems.
The arg never alludes to problems which are the result of govt mismanagement

(E) Few serious ecological problems can be solved
by major changes in consumer habits.
This is inverse relationship between changes in consumer habits and ecological problems.
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New post 10 Jan 2013, 01:40
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vjsharma25 wrote:
The solution to any environmental problem that is not the result of government mismanagement can only lie in major changes in consumer habits. But major changes in consumer habits will occur only if such changes are economically enticing. As a result, few
serious ecological problems will be solved unless the solutions are made economically enticing.

The conclusion drawn in the argument above follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?

(A) Few serious ecological problems are the result of government mismanagement.
(B) No environmental problems that stem from government mismanagement have solutions that are economically feasible.
(C) Major changes in consumer habits can be made economically enticing.
(D) Most environmental problems that are not the result of government mismanagement are major ecological problems.
(E) Few serious ecological problems can be solved by major changes in consumer habits.

I fell for C :-(


1. Problems caused by either Govt or consumer. So, If problems are caused not by Govt mismanagement, then it is caused surely due to consumer behavior.

2. Assuming Problems are not caused by Govt mismanagement i.e. the problems can be solved by changing consumer behaviour.

3. Consumer behavior can be changed if choice is affordable.

4. Few serious problems which can be solved if solutions are economically affordable. but As there are very few problems which can be solved by changing consumer behavior. These problems are result of Govt mismanagement

In option 1, Take Problem X=Ecological Problem, One of few serious problems.
As there are very few serious problems which can not be solved by making solution economically enticing( i.e. changing consumer behavior) . It is result of Government mismanagement.
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Re: The solution to any environmental problem that is not the result of go  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2014, 09:50
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Option A.
Environmental problems caused by:
1.govt. mismgt.
2.consumer habits
Those caused by 2 can be solved ONLY IF SOLUTIONS ARE ECONOMICALLY ATTRACTIVE.
Conclusion:FEW PROBLEMS can be solved UNTIL SOLUTIONS ARE ECONOMICALLY ATTRACTIVE.
Clearly,we have to assume that most problems are caused by consumer habits rather than govt.mismgt.

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Re: The solution to any environmental problem that is not the result of go  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2014, 06:42
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To put it simply, It is a missing link or information question.

The solution to any environmental problem that is not
the result of government mismanagement
can only lie
in major changes in consumer habits.
But major changes in consumer habits will occur only if such
changes are economically enticing.
As a result, few serious ecological problems will be solved unless the
solutions are made economically enticing.

The conclusion drawn in the argument above follows
logically if which one of the following is assumed?

(A) Few serious ecological problems are the result
of government mismanagement.

(B) No environmental problems that stem from
government mismanagement have solutions
that are economically feasible.
Not given, is not required for conclusion
(C) Major changes in consumer habits can be made
economically enticing.
Maybe they can maybe they cannot be, But does it provide the missing link to reach the conclusion.
(D) Most environmental problems that are not the
result of government mismanagement are major
ecological problems.
maybe most, maybe some (in context of the entirety).Does not help to reach the conclusion
(E) Few serious ecological problems can be solved
by major changes in consumer habits.
maybe few, maybe more, not given and not relevant to reach conclusion.

Analysis

From the stem, we are given that any problem that is not result of governmental mismanagement can only be solved, if there is change in consumer habit and which in turn will only happen if changes are economically enticing.

Conclusion: few serious ecological problems will be solved unless the
solutions are made economically enticing.

See the missing link ?
From the premise we know that non governmental problems can be solved only if consumer habit changes, which ,in turn, will only happen if the changes are economically enticing, so how come few problems will still be solved, if changes are not economically enticing ?
This could only happen if these few problems are governmental mismanagement problems.

A mentions this missing premise, therefore completes the argument and is required to reach the conclusion.
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New post 23 Nov 2014, 23:28
The important thing to note with this argument is that the premises are really about "any environmental problem that is not
the result of government mismanagement" and the conclusion is about "serious ecological problems." So really the premises are about a subset of the problems that the conclusion is trying to make a general statement about. If, for example, there were 100 serious ecological problems and only one of them was not the result of government mismanagement, then the premises really wouldn't be able to lead to the conclusion. Thus, we need to find a answer choice that corrects this problem. (A) does this perfectly.
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New post 02 Dec 2015, 01:48
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Major changes in consumer habits will help to provide a solution to environmental problem.
Economically enticing changes will bring about major changes in consumer habits

Conclusion: Few serious ecological problems will be solved unless the solutions are made economically enticing. --> Few serious problems will be solved by major changes in consumer habits.

For the conclusion to hold true, we must assume that serious ecological problems can be solved by major changes in consumer habits.

Negating E - Few serious ecological problems cannot be solved by major changes in consumer habits. This shatters the conclusion.

In my opinion, answer is E
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Re: The solution to any environmental problem that is not the result of go  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2016, 13:15
[quote=]

Not sure why D is incorrect? Its between A and D, but what are the reasons to eliminate D? - usage of Most? environmental instead of ecological? or major?

[/quote]

Yes, D is talking about major ecological problems...
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New post 21 Feb 2016, 11:25
Can anyone please explain why C is incorrect ?
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New post 21 Feb 2016, 11:52
Conclusion: Very few problems can be solved if the solutions are not made economically enticing.
Option C: Major changes in consumer habits can be made economically enticing. - This means that most of the ecological problems will be solved. Conclusion says only few ecological problems can be solved in the current scenario. Option C is against the conclusion. Hence it's incorrect.
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The solution to any environmental problem that is not the result of go  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2016, 09:44
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1
There are 2 types of environmental problems:
Type 1. Problems NOT caused by government mismanagement.
Type 2. Problems caused by government mismanagement.

The core of the argument deals with solving Type 1 problems, problems that are NOT caused by government mismanagement.

Many problems (of Type 1) will be solved if there are economically enticing changes, implying that there are a few Type 2 problems, problems that resulted from government mismanagement.

Why B is wrong?

Now whether those few type 2 problems are economically feasible is not relevant to the core of the argument because the argument deals with solving the type 1 problems.

Therefore B can be eliminated.

Why D is wrong?

As for D, it is not required to assume whether the type 1 problems are majorly serious not. Negate the option D: most of type 1 problems are not major. yet the argument does not breakdown. It is still possible to solve many environmental problem by economically enticing changes even though they are les than 50% of all type 1 problem.

Since negating the option D does not break down the argument, D is not the correct option.
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Re: The solution to any environmental problem that is not the result of go  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2016, 05:08
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vjsharma25 wrote:
The solution to any environmental problem that is not
the result of government mismanagement can only lie
in major changes in consumer habits. But major
changes in consumer habits will occur only if such
changes are economically enticing. As a result, few
serious ecological problems will be solved unless the
solutions are made economically enticing.

The conclusion drawn in the argument above follows
logically if which one of the following is assumed?

(A) Few serious ecological problems are the result
of government mismanagement.
(B) No environmental problems that stem from
government mismanagement have solutions
that are economically feasible.
(C) Major changes in consumer habits can be made
economically enticing.
(D) Most environmental problems that are not the
result of government mismanagement are major
ecological problems.
(E) Few serious ecological problems can be solved
by major changes in consumer habits.

I fell for C :-(



It's a classic case of causation fallacy : Let me draw you the picture :

1) Problems that are not due to govt. mismanagement(PNG) can be soved only by changes in consumer habits (CC)
2) CC can only happen if solutions are Economically feasible (EF)

So till now

EF -> CC -> Solution of PNG

Now conclusion :

few serious ecological problems will be solved unless the solutions are made economically enticing.

Now notice!!! it is talking about serious ecological problems on a whole. And not only PNG.

What if 95% of problems were due to govt. mismanagement?

So wee need something to connect P due to govt and the whole of the issue

Few serious ecological problems are the result
of government mismanagement.

does that perfectly. It is very important to have clarity of words in CR. Don't rush. Arguments are a play of words. If you miss a step, you fall into a trap
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New post 25 Jul 2016, 13:12
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Lets say X=environmental problem that is not the result of government mismanagement
Thus to solve X means pushing for economically enticing changes. Now lets say Y=any serious ecological problem. Acc to the argument very few Y's will be solved unless economically enticing changes happen. So it means most Y's are X/few Y's are not X.
A. Few Y are non X. (correct)
B. No X has economically feasible solution. We know that most Y's are X and if the X has no solution than we can't conclude at first place.
C. irrelevant
D. Most X's are Y. It doesn't tell anything about the composition of Y. Logically Most Y's should be X and not the vice versa for the conclusion to hold.
E. Its completely false because the conclusion says that most serious ecological problems can be solved by changes in consumer habit/changes that are economically enticing.


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Re: The solution to any environmental problem that is not the result of go  [#permalink]

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New post 10 May 2017, 01:10
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vjsharma25 wrote:
The conclusion says: As a result, few serious ecological problems will be solved unless the solutions are made economically enticing.



Few is the keyword here.
Only few serious ecological problems will be solved by making the solutions economically enticing. This means rest serious problems are not related to consumer habits. They are related to government mismanagement.

Hence answer A.
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Re: The solution to any environmental problem that is not the result of go  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2017, 18:10
The solution to any environmental problem that is not the result of government mismanagement can only lie in major changes in consumer habits. But major changes in consumer habits will occur only if such changes are economically enticing. As a result, few serious ecological problems will be solved unless the solutions are made economically enticing.

The conclusion drawn in the argument above follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?

A. Few serious ecological problems are the result of government mismanagement.

B. No environmental problems that stem from government mismanagement have solutions that are economically feasible.

C. Major changes in consumer habits can be made economically enticing.

D. Most environmental problems that are not the result of government mismanagement are major ecological problems.

E. Few serious ecological problems can be solved by major changes in consumer habits.

---



Solution to EP (not the result of Gov mismgmt) <--- Major changes in consumer habits <----iff--- changes economically enticing.

Conclusion: Few serious ecological problems will be solved unless the solutions are made economically enticing.

Possible assumptions:

1. EP (not the result of Gov mismgmt) forms a huge chunk of serious ecological problems.
2. The changes have no adverse effect on the environment
3. Consumers are open to change


A. Few serious ecological problems are the result of government mismanagement.

-> This is just the other way of saying that EP (not the result of Gov mismgmt) forms a huge chunk of the environmental problems.

B. No environmental problems that stem from government mismanagement have solutions that are economically feasible.

-> Irrelevant.

C. Major changes in consumer habits can be made economically enticing.

-> This is just the opposite of what is mentioned in the argument. The argument says that if the changes are economically enticing, then they can trigger major changes in the consumer habits. Moreover, this does not help derive an assumption for the conclusion.

D. Most environmental problems that are not the result of government mismanagement are major ecological problems.

-> Can be proved wrong mathematically.
Say, the country has 100 ecological problems and out of those 100, 10 are not the result of government mismanagement. Let's assume that 50% of all the ecological problems are serious. Therefore, there are 50 serious ecological problems and of those 50 only 5 are not the result of government mismanagement. Even if all these 5 problems are solved by major changes in the consumer habit, the solution fails to make a bigger impact because there are 45 other serious environmental problems which are out of scope of the solution provided in the argument

E. Few serious ecological problems can be solved by major changes in consumer habits.

-> This option, at best, weakens the conclusion.


Thus, option A.





Trying the same with the negation test.

Solution to EP (not the result of Gov mismgmt) <--- Major changes in consumer habits <----iff--- changes economically enticing.

Conclusion: Few serious ecological problems will be solved unless the solutions are made economically enticing.

A. Few serious ecological problems are the result of government mismanagement.

Negate: A LOT of serious ecological problems are the result of the government mismanagement.

If this statement were true, then it breaks the conclusion because the conclusion has latched itself to the belief that if the solutions are made economically enticing, then a lot of serious ecological problems will be solved. Thus, the option is an assumption.

B. No environmental problems that stem from government mismanagement have solutions that are economically feasible.

Negate: SOME environmental problems that stem from government mismanagement have solutions that are economically feasible.

Even if some are economically feasible, the fact doesn't affect the conclusion. Thus, the option is not an assumption.

C. Major changes in consumer habits can be made economically enticing.

Negate: Major changes in consumer habits can NOT be made economically enticing.

If the changes are economically enticing, then major changes can be made in the consumer habits. 'Major changes in consumer habits' is dependent on whether the changes are economically enticing or not. Whether the changes that have been made in the consumer behavior can be made economically enticing or not doesn't help us derive an assumption for the argument.

D. Most environmental problems that are not the result of government mismanagement are major ecological problems.

Negate: NOT MORE THAN HALF environmental problems that are not the result of government mismanagement are major ecological problems.

If the number of problems that are not the result of government mismanagement is 90/100 and fewer than 45 (out of those 90) are major ecological problems, then sure the conclusion is true. Such an example will strengthen the conclusion. Therefore, this option is not an assumption.

E. Few serious ecological problems can be solved by major changes in consumer habits.

Negate: A LOT of the serious ecological problems can be solved by major changes in consumer habits.

This helps the argument stay. Therefore, the option is not an assumption.



egmat Is the use of 'A lot' as the logical opposite of 'Few' correct?
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New post 10 Oct 2018, 23:09
A talks about the cause of the serious ecological problems but the conclusion is about solving them. Based on this, I eliminated A on the first go. I wonder if A makes the argument airtight although it discloses some relevant information. Keeping the conclusion in mind, I chose C. If C is negated, the conclusion breaks.
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New post 11 Oct 2018, 07:42
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It is important to note that the solution can 'only' lie in major changes in habits.
It is also important to note that 'major changes in consumer habits will occur only if
such changes are economically enticing'. So, it is like saying that either the changes will happen or
they will not.The conclusion says that few (negligible) serious ecological problems will be solved unless the solutions
are made economically enticing or in other words many serious ecological problems will be solved
if consumer habits change.

Now, let us first look at C - Major changes in consumer habits can be made economically enticing.
Negate it. Major changes in habits cannot be made economically enticing. If that is true, then instead of breaking the
conclusion, it actually supports the conclustion that few problems can be solved.

Now, look at A. Few serious ecological problems are the result of govt mismanagement.So, it means that many serious
ecological problems can be solved if consumer habits change. Supports the conclusion.
Now,negate A. Almost All serious ecological problems are the result of govt mismanagement. If that is true, then
the colclusion breaks because there will not be many serious ecological problems that can be solved even if the
consumer habits change.

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A talks about the cause of the serious ecological problems but the conclusion is about solving them. Based on this, I eliminated A on the first go. I wonder if A makes the argument airtight although it discloses some relevant information. Keeping the conclusion in mind, I chose C. If C is negated, the conclusion breaks.
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New post 24 Dec 2018, 11:14
Premises can be broken into the following:
a) change is consumer habits is a necessary condition for solving Environmental problem not originating from governmental mismanagement (lets call this EP - Non G)
b) economically enticing changes are a necessary condition for changing consumer habits.

from these premises, we can safely say that economic enticing changes is NECESSARY for solving EP - Non G

CONCLUSION states : economically enticing changes is NECESSARY for solving a significant # of all kind of EPs ( EP - Gov + EP - Non G).

lets review the options:


(A) Few serious ecological problems are the result of government mismanagement. Bang on target. EP - Gov is a small number.


(B) No environmental problems that stem from government mismanagement have solutions that are economically feasible. pay attention of the word "feasible". this is not economic enticing (had that been the case even then it was not a required assumption)


(C) Major changes in consumer habits can be made economically enticing.
Lets say major changes in consumer habits can't be made economically enticing. the conclusion is that economically enticing changes are necessary for solving a chunk of EP. (which states that if economically enticing changes are not made then # of major EPs solved will not be significant). This doesn't hurt the argument a bit.

(D) Most environmental problems that are not the result of government mismanagement are major ecological problems.
lets attach some numbers so that we can clarify what this option is trying to say.
(Lets say the total number of EP - Non G is 90 and 10 of them are MAJOR and
total number of EP - Gov is 10 and 2 of them are MAJOR. therefore
out of a total of 100 EPs, 11 are Major (9 EP - Non G and 2 EP - Gov)
even though most of the EP - Non G are NOT major, problems, it still occupies a significant pie of the overall EPs)


(E) Few serious ecological problems can be solved by major changes in consumer habits. This is opposite of what we want as an assumption.
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Re: The solution to any environmental problem that is not the result of go  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jan 2019, 03:01
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vjsharma25 wrote:
The solution to any environmental problem that is not the result of government mismanagement can only lie in major changes in consumer habits. But major changes in consumer habits will occur only if such changes are economically enticing. As a result, few serious ecological problems will be solved unless the solutions are made economically enticing.

The conclusion drawn in the argument above follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?

(A) Few serious ecological problems are the result of government mismanagement.
(B) No environmental problems that stem from government mismanagement have solutions that are economically feasible.
(C) Major changes in consumer habits can be made economically enticing.
(D) Most environmental problems that are not the result of government mismanagement are major ecological problems.
(E) Few serious ecological problems can be solved by major changes in consumer habits.

Source: LSAT

I fell for C :-(


First note that "few" means "hardly any". It's very close to saying "none".

This is what the argument says:

Solution to any environmental problem (which is not due to government mismanagement) only lies in major changes in consumer habits.
But major changes in consumer habits will occur only if such changes are economically enticing.

Conclusion: Few serious ecological problems will be solved unless the solutions are made economically enticing.

In terms of variables, this is what the argument looks like:

Solution to A is only in B.
But B will happen only if C.

Valid conclusion that can be drawn: Solution to A only if C
Conclusion drawn in our argument: Solution to generic A only if C

Note that the argument draws a conclusion very similar to our valid conclusion except that it talks about serious ecological problems but does not mention whether they are due to Govt mismanagement. If we are saying that serious ecological problems will not be solved unless C, we are assuming that these serious ecological problems are not due to Govt mismanagement.

Option (A) tells us exactly this.
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