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The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as

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07 Dec 2015, 07:14
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Further to what I said in my previous reply, I am attaching a file that gives a list of GMAT examples in which 'that' is used as a relative pronoun and as a subordinate conjunction. Search for these examples in the forum and look for the correct usage of 'that' from the OAs.
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14 Mar 2016, 08:14
I understand the subject is unclear on A, but I'm not sure I still understand the need for "that". Would B still be correct if "that" was removed as it would seem that "integrated companies" would still be the clear subject?
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15 Mar 2016, 15:49
Quote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Reason why ‘that’ is required:

Let’s now split the sentence into the components.

1. The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades

2. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other ---subordinate clause one.
3. have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether. This clause is now dangling without proper conjugation with the subordinate clause.
Now we can see that the subject large integrated companies has two verbs namely, which is grammatically incorrect. This fault is fixed by turning the first subordinate clause into a relative noun and noun modifier, rendering ‘have ….” as the working verb for the subordinate clause. Without the 'that' , the subordinate clause will turn out to bea double - verbed fragment.
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13 Jul 2017, 10:20
B. The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel that once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Could someone clarify if bold phrase could qualify "such as Bethlehem Steel"? I am not sure if the phrase points to "such as Bethlehem Steel" or to "large, integrated companies".

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13 Jul 2017, 21:40
sevenplusplus wrote:
B. The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel that once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Could someone clarify if bold phrase could qualify "such as Bethlehem Steel"? I am not sure if the phrase points to "such as Bethlehem Steel" or to "large, integrated companies".

Hi sevenplusplus, that refers to large, integrated companies.

The simple reason is to note that there is a comma before that. In normal situations, that does not have a comma preceding it.

This comma is actually a delimiter for the following non-essential phrase: such as Bethlehem Steel.

So, the core of the sentence is:

....large, integrated companies that once conducted operations from...

Now, it is clear that that is referring to large, integrated companies.
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15 Jul 2017, 20:04
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.

A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
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02 Oct 2017, 16:51
iDisappear wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel
once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.
A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

Contenders: A, B and C

A: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

As a rule of thumb, "Such as X and Y.." should be a modifier. Hence it requires either a that or a which construction. Which is inappropriate here, as "...once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other..."
is an essential modifier and requires that constriction.

of course which isn't in any of the options anyway, making life a little easier.

B: as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.

- ", such as Bethlehem Steel, " - a non-essential modifier separated by commas - correct use
- "once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other" - an essential modifier - modifying companies - is correctly used with a that construction.

C: with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.

- With cannot start a full sentence.
- With distorts the meaning. If we strip out the fluff, the sentence becomes

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether

You need an "as" instead of a with to convey a causal relation.

So B is correct
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02 Mar 2018, 20:20
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel - not a sentence -- we need that after Bethlehem Steel
If "that" introduces a modifier, it can NEVER be left out. If it is left out, you're left with subject + verb (an entirely different construction).
E.g., the book that was released yesterday is just a noun + modifier. The book was released yesterday is a complete sentence.
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that - Correct
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that - "with" can't be followed by a complete sentence
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that - incorrect usage of while
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel - usage of and changes the meaning; also the part after and is not an independent clause

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27 Jul 2018, 04:25
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This is an official question, and I'm unable to wrap my head around A and B. How is A better than B? Won't we require 'that" here?
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13 Aug 2018, 05:53
shobuj wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

(A) as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

(B) as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

(C) with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

(D) while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

(E) and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

The correct option is B.
I'm considering that you're stuck between A and B option, B correctly talks about Bethlehem steel by using 'that' pronoun reading Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.
Note that have greatly downsized is a plural verb and is NOT referring to Bethlehem Steel but is referring to the word 'operations'. you can ask something like what is being dowsized?, answer- operations.
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19 Oct 2018, 09:09
It took me like 10 re-reads but I think I see what the error in B is now as I was also torn between A & B. This article covers the uses of "that":

https://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-sent ... s-of-that/
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20 Nov 2018, 03:15
Quote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as bethlehem steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

(A) as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

(B) as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

(C) with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

(D) while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

(E) and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

HI GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , RonPurewal , DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert (Carolyn), ccooley , dave13

Can you pls throw some light on above SC?

Eliminated A & E because bethlehem steel is conducted operations from mining

In C While need contast.

Is above reasoning valid?

Help me b/w B & C
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20 Nov 2018, 08:00
NandishSS wrote:
Quote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as bethlehem steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

(A) as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

(B) as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

(C) with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

(D) while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

(E) and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

HI GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , RonPurewal , DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert (Carolyn), ccooley , dave13

Can you pls throw some light on above SC?

Eliminated A & E because bethlehem steel is conducted operations from mining

In C While need contast.

Is above reasoning valid?

Help me b/w B & C

NandishSS

i think you misinterpreted the meaning of sentence thats why you chose D. (i think you meant Help me b/w B & D)

the sentence says that:

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, WHY ? because large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

now "while" doesnt make sence here, so we all agree that B is correct answer

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20 Nov 2018, 19:08
dave13 wrote:
NandishSS wrote:
Quote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as bethlehem steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

(A) as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

(B) as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

(C) with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

(D) while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

(E) and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

HI GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , RonPurewal , DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert (Carolyn), ccooley , dave13

Can you pls throw some light on above SC?

Eliminated A & E because bethlehem steel is conducted operations from mining

In C While need contast.

Is above reasoning valid?

Help me b/w B & C

NandishSS

i think you misinterpreted the meaning of sentence thats why you chose D. (i think you meant Help me b/w B & D)

the sentence says that:

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, WHY ? because large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

now "while" doesnt make sence here, so we all agree that B is correct answer

HI dave13 GMATGuruNY,

I've eliminated D because of while , which need contrast

Would like to know how did you eliminate C

(C) with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

Guru Also why is that necessary in B,C, & D
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21 Nov 2018, 12:02
NandishSS wrote:
I've eliminated D because of while , which need contrast

Would like to know how did you eliminate C

(C) with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

hey NandishSS

read sentence with option C below:

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

As you see C totally changes the meaning. It reads as if steel industry changed with companies such as Bethlehem Steel but the intended meaning is that, steel industry changed because operations downsized.

this is how I understand
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27 Nov 2018, 04:20
shobuj wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

(A) as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

(B) as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

(C) with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

(D) while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

(E) and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

C, D, E are out as it distort the meaning of original sentence

issue with A is that pronoun is missing between Steel and once conducted

B corrects the error by introducing that pronoun

So OA :B
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12 Jun 2019, 09:30
I don't understand why there is a comma before "that" in correct answer choice. If "that" is to describe the company, Bethelehem Steel and that should not be exasperated by comma.

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12 Jun 2019, 18:32
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kebab1990 wrote:
I don't understand why there is a comma before "that" in correct answer choice. If "that" is to describe the company, Bethelehem Steel and that should not be exasperated by comma.

We should think twice before marking an option that introduces a comma between a that and the noun that the that refers to. This means that the following structure is incorrect:

1. An event, that greatly reduced their numbers... ← Putting a comma between event and that is non-standard. We would really not want to mark an option like this one.
2. An event that, greatly reduced their numbers... ← This one is also incorrect.

However, there is an "exception" to this. If we need a modifier near the that, we may use commas to "bracket" the modifier.

3. An event that, in our opinion, greatly reduced their numbers... ← Yes, we can see commas here, but those commas are for "in our opinion".
4. An event that, in our opinion, greatly reduced their numbers... ← (3), without the "in our opinion"

Similarly, in this question:

5. ... as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that once conducted operations... ← The commas are for "such as Bethlehem Steel".
6. ... as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that once conducted operations... ← The that refers to large, integrated companies.
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30 Jun 2019, 21:22
I know lot of explanation has been provided already, but I am afraid I am not clear on why A is wrong and B is correct. Can someone please explain in detail. thanks in advance.
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30 Jun 2019, 21:32
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rashwiniyer wrote:
I know lot of explanation has been provided already, but I am afraid I am not clear on why A is wrong and B is correct. Can someone please explain in detail. thanks in advance.
The main thing to keep in mind here is that without a that, the first verb there will take companies as its subject.

... companies (a) once conducted operations (b) have greatly downsized...

This is like saying (ignore any other issues in the examples below):

... questions were once tough are now easy...

We have two verbs for questions, without anything to join them. We could use an and or a but, but we'd end up with something other than the intended meaning.

... questions were once tough and are now easy...
... questions were once tough but are now easy...

Another way to fix this is to "give" the first verb to something else, like that.

... questions that were once tough are now easy...
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