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The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2015, 08:14
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Further to what I said in my previous reply, I am attaching a file that gives a list of GMAT examples in which 'that' is used as a relative pronoun and as a subordinate conjunction. Search for these examples in the forum and look for the correct usage of 'that' from the OAs.
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That as a relative pronoun and as a subordinatate conjunction.docx [14.45 KiB]
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Mar 2016, 09:14
I understand the subject is unclear on A, but I'm not sure I still understand the need for "that". Would B still be correct if "that" was removed as it would seem that "integrated companies" would still be the clear subject?
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New post 15 Mar 2016, 16:49
Quote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.


Reason why ‘that’ is required:

Let’s now split the sentence into the components.

1. The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades

2. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other ---subordinate clause one.
3. have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether. This clause is now dangling without proper conjugation with the subordinate clause.
Now we can see that the subject large integrated companies has two verbs namely, which is grammatically incorrect. This fault is fixed by turning the first subordinate clause into a relative noun and noun modifier, rendering ‘have ….” as the working verb for the subordinate clause. Without the 'that' , the subordinate clause will turn out to bea double - verbed fragment.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2017, 11:20
B. The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel that once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Could someone clarify if bold phrase could qualify "such as Bethlehem Steel"? I am not sure if the phrase points to "such as Bethlehem Steel" or to "large, integrated companies".

Thanks in advance.
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New post 13 Jul 2017, 22:40
sevenplusplus wrote:
B. The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel that once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Could someone clarify if bold phrase could qualify "such as Bethlehem Steel"? I am not sure if the phrase points to "such as Bethlehem Steel" or to "large, integrated companies".

Thanks in advance.

Hi sevenplusplus, that refers to large, integrated companies.

The simple reason is to note that there is a comma before that. In normal situations, that does not have a comma preceding it.

This comma is actually a delimiter for the following non-essential phrase: such as Bethlehem Steel.

So, the core of the sentence is:

....large, integrated companies that once conducted operations from...

Now, it is clear that that is referring to large, integrated companies.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2017, 21:04
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.

A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Oct 2017, 17:51
iDisappear wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel
once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.
A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel


Contenders: A, B and C

A: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

As a rule of thumb, "Such as X and Y.." should be a modifier. Hence it requires either a that or a which construction. Which is inappropriate here, as "...once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other..."
is an essential modifier and requires that constriction.

of course which isn't in any of the options anyway, making life a little easier.

B: as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.

- ", such as Bethlehem Steel, " - a non-essential modifier separated by commas - correct use
- "once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other" - an essential modifier - modifying companies - is correctly used with a that construction.


C: with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.

- With cannot start a full sentence.
- With distorts the meaning. If we strip out the fluff, the sentence becomes

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether

You need an "as" instead of a with to convey a causal relation.

So B is correct
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Mar 2018, 21:20
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel - not a sentence -- we need that after Bethlehem Steel
If "that" introduces a modifier, it can NEVER be left out. If it is left out, you're left with subject + verb (an entirely different construction).
E.g., the book that was released yesterday is just a noun + modifier. The book was released yesterday is a complete sentence.
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that - Correct
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that - "with" can't be followed by a complete sentence
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that - incorrect usage of while
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel - usage of and changes the meaning; also the part after and is not an independent clause

Answer B
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2018, 05:25
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This is an official question, and I'm unable to wrap my head around A and B. How is A better than B? Won't we require 'that" here?
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New post 13 Aug 2018, 06:53
shobuj wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

(A) as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

(B) as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

(C) with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

(D) while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

(E) and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel


The correct option is B.
I'm considering that you're stuck between A and B option, B correctly talks about Bethlehem steel by using 'that' pronoun reading Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.
Note that have greatly downsized is a plural verb and is NOT referring to Bethlehem Steel but is referring to the word 'operations'. you can ask something like what is being dowsized?, answer- operations.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Oct 2018, 10:09
It took me like 10 re-reads but I think I see what the error in B is now as I was also torn between A & B. This article covers the uses of "that":

https://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-sent ... s-of-that/
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as &nbs [#permalink] 19 Oct 2018, 10:09

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