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The United States National Park Service (NPS) is in the unenviable pos

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The United States National Park Service (NPS) is in the unenviable pos  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 27 Nov 2018, 22:37
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The United States National Park Service (NPS) is in the unenviable position of being charged with two missions that are frequently at odds with one another. Created by an act of Congress in 1916, the NPS is mandated to maintain the country’s national parks in “absolutely unimpaired” condition, while somehow ensuring that these lands are available for “the use . . . and pleasure of the people.” As the system of properties (known as units) managed by the NPS has grown over the years—a system now encompassing seashores, battlefields, and parkways—so
has its popularity with the vacationing public. Unfortunately, the maintenance of the system has not kept pace with the record number of visits, and many of the properties are in serious disrepair.

Several paths can be taken, perhaps simultaneously, to alleviate the deterioration of the properties within the system. Adopting tougher requirements for admission could reduce the number of additional units that the NPS manages. Congress has on occasion added properties without any input from the NPS itself. It is debatable whether all of these properties, which may be of importance to the constituents of individual representatives of Congress, pass the test of “national significance.” Furthermore, some of the units now in the NPS (there are close to
400) receive few visitors, and there is no reason to think that this trend will reverse itself. These units can be removed from the system, and their fates can be decided by local public and private concerns. The liberated federal funds could then be rerouted to areas of greater need within the system.

Another approach would be to attack the root causes of the deterioration. Sadly, a great deal of the dilapidated condition of our national parks and park lands can be attributed not to overuse, but to misuse. Visitors should be educated about responsible use of a site. Violators of these rules must be held accountable and fined harshly. There are, of course, already guidelines and penalties set in place, but studies strongly indicate that enforcement is lax.
Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage as a whole?
A) The author mentions a problem, and opposing solutions are then described.
B) The various factors that led to a problem are considered, and one factor is named the root cause.
C) A historical survey is made of an institution, followed by a discussion of the problem of management of the institution.
D) A problem is described, and two possibly compatible methods for reducing the problem are then outlined.
E) A description of a plan and the flaws of the plan are delineated.


The author is primarily concerned with
A) analyzing the various problems that beset the NPS
B) summarizing the causes of deterioration of NPS properties
C) criticizing the NPS’s maintenance of its properties
D) encouraging support for increased funding for the NPS
E) discussing possible solutions for NPS properties’ deterioration



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Originally posted by GmatWizard on 27 Nov 2018, 18:37.
Last edited by GmatWizard on 27 Nov 2018, 22:37, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The United States National Park Service (NPS) is in the unenviable pos  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2018, 20:31

+1 kudos to all the posts containing proper explanations for all questions


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Re: The United States National Park Service (NPS) is in the unenviable pos  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2018, 20:37
1

Analysis


From the first sentence, you can already tell a lot about this passage. The Park Service has an “unenviable” (opinion keyword) dilemma. You can predict that the author will state (in the grayedout text of the first paragraph) what that dilemma is.You get more opinion from the author in the final sentence of paragraph 1. “Unfortunately,” (opinion keyword), the Park Service can’t maintain the parks with so many visitors. The problem is apparently “serious” (emphasis keyword). On Test Day you would jot some brief notes on your noteboard about the main idea of the first paragraph:

¶1: NPS problem: lots of visitors = hard to maintain lands
From the first sentence of the second paragraph, where do you anticipate that this passage will go? The phrase “alleviate the deterioration” indicates that the author will discuss some possible
solutions to the Park Service’s problem. Now is a good time to ask yourself whether this author is likely to express a preference for one of those solutions in particular. It seems that this author will probably describe the solutions without supporting one over the others, since she says there are “several” and that they might work at the same time. In the middle of the second paragraph, the
word “Furthermore” is a continuation keyword, signaling that the paragraph continues to describe a proposed solution and why it might be effective. This is all you need to know about this paragraph from your initial read-through. Take down some notes for later reference:

¶2: Possible solutions; details about the first Right off the bat, the third paragraph indicates that the author will describe “another approach.” If you need to know details about this other approach, you can always return to the passage to research the answer to a question.

¶3: 2nd solution details
Just from this quick analysis, notice how much you already understand about the structure of the passage and the author’s point of view. You effectively know what the grayed-out parts of the passage
accomplish, even though you can’t recite the details they contain. You are now in a strong position to approach the questions that accompany this passage, knowing that you can always return to the passage to clarify your understanding of any relevant details.
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Re: The United States National Park Service (NPS) is in the unenviable pos  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2018, 20:41
1

Official Answers and Explanations


Let’s look at this first question:This question asks for the organization of the entire passage. Fortunately, you already have the passage structure in your notes, so there’s no need to go back to the passage itself to answer this question. The author begins by introducing a problem, then advances two potential solutions to that problem. The solutions are complementary, as the author states in line 11 that they can be undertaken “simultaneously.”
Choice (D) matches this prediction and is the correct answer. If you weren’t sure about the answer, you could always eliminate incorrect answer choices by finding the specific faults they contain.
(A) cannot be correct because it calls the two solutions “opposing.”
(B) is incorrect because the focus of the passage is not on the “factors” leading to the problem but rather on solutions to the problem.
(C) is incorrect because the passage gives no “historical survey” of the National Park Service; the only bit of historical data given is the date of its founding (1916).
Finally, (E) is incorrect because the passage does not focus on the strengths and drawbacks of a single proposed plan of action; instead, it considers several different suggestions. Moreover, the
passage never discusses the flaws of any of these possible solutions.
Choice (D) is correct.

Let’s now look at next question about this passage:
This question asks for the author’s purpose in writing the passage. As was the case in the previous question, you’ve already thought through the author’s purpose as you read the passage strategically.
Again, this question does not require specific research beyond the notes you’ve already taken. The author is concerned with advancing two possible solutions to the dilemma faced by the National
Park Service.
Choice (E) matches your prediction perfectly and is correct.
(A) is incorrect because only one problem is discussed, not “various” problems.
(B) is incorrect because it is the solutions, not the causes, of the National Park Service’s problem that are the focus of the passage.
(C) is incorrect because the author is not critical of the NPS. Indeed, the word “unenviable” in the first sentence actually signals sympathy with the NPS’s plight.
(D) is incorrect because there is no discussion of funding in the passage.
(E) is the correct answer.

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Re: The United States National Park Service (NPS) is in the unenviable pos &nbs [#permalink] 27 Nov 2018, 20:41
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