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Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a

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Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2017, 20:25
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Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a patient’s conscious beliefs. Thus, cognitive psychotherapy is likely to be more effective at helping patients overcome psychological problems than are forms of psychotherapy that focus on changing unconscious beliefs and desires, since only conscious beliefs are under the patient’s direct conscious control.

Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the therapist’s argument?

(A) Psychological problems are frequently caused by unconscious beliefs that could be changed with the aid of psychotherapy.

(B) It is difficult for any form of psychotherapy to be effective without focusing on mental states that are under the patient’s direct conscious control.

(C) Cognitive psychotherapy is the only form of psychotherapy that focuses primarily on changing the patient’s conscious beliefs.

(D) No form of psychotherapy that focuses on changing the patient’s unconscious beliefs and desires can be effective unless it also helps change beliefs that are under the patient’s direct conscious control.

(E) All of a patient’s conscious beliefs are under the patient’s conscious control, but other psychological states cannot be controlled effectively without the aid of psychotherapy.

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Re: Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2017, 10:41
broall wrote:
Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a patient’s conscious beliefs. Thus, cognitive psychotherapy is likely to be more effective at helping patients overcome psychological problems than are forms of psychotherapy that focus on changing unconscious beliefs and desires, since only conscious beliefs are under the patient’s direct conscious control.

Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the therapist’s argument?

(A) Psychological problems are frequently caused by unconscious beliefs that could be changed with the aid of psychotherapy.

(B) It is difficult for any form of psychotherapy to be effective without focusing on mental states that are under the patient’s direct conscious control.

(C) Cognitive psychotherapy is the only form of psychotherapy that focuses primarily on changing the patient’s conscious beliefs.

(D) No form of psychotherapy that focuses on changing the patient’s unconscious beliefs and desires can be effective unless it also helps change beliefs that are under the patient’s direct conscious control.

(E) All of a patient’s conscious beliefs are under the patient’s conscious control, but other psychological states cannot be controlled effectively without the aid of psychotherapy.

Source: LSAT


Will go with B .
Argument tells that psychotherapy that change the patient’s conscious beliefs is effective.
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Re: Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2017, 05:58
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OE from MGMAT:

What’s the assumption? The author assumes that in order to be effective, a treatment must address mental processes that are under the control of the patient. This is easy to miss, but it’s an important assumption that is critical to the argument. We can strengthen the argument by making this assumption explicit. Answer (B) does this.

(A) weakens the argument.
(C) is irrelevant. It doesn’t matter if it’s the only form of therapy that focuses on conscious beliefs. The argument deals only with cognitive psychotherapy vs. other forms of psychotherapy that do NOT focus on conscious beliefs.
(D) strengthens the argument by providing an additional piece of supporting evidence, but it does not strengthen as much as answer (B). An answer that fills a gap in the argument will generally strengthen the most (since the argument is weak with the gap).
(E) fails to provide any information comparing the two types of therapy.
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Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2017, 07:24
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Let's first BOIL down the argument.

1. Cognitive psychotherapy's focus is conscious beliefs.
2. Patients can ONLY directly control conscious beliefs. => Cognitive psychotherapy (aka focusing on Conscious) beliefs are more EFFECTIVE than other forms of psychotherapy

What's the gap here? It's pretty clear from the 2nd point that we have an assumption: PATIENT's DIRECT CONTROL = MORE EFFECTIVE.
Let's scan through the answer choices to find something that is related to the gap.

(A) Psychological problems are frequently caused by unconscious beliefs that could be changed with the aid of psychotherapy.
-Out of scope, we are trying to argue why Cognitive psychotherapy is EFFECTIVE.

(B) It is difficult for any form of psychotherapy to be effective without focusing on mental states that are under the patient’s direct conscious control.
-In other words, TO BE an effective form of psychotherapy, IT MUST FOCUS on mental states (or conscious) that are DIRECTLY UNDER PATIENTS CONTROL. This is basically stating our gap and assumption!!

(C) Cognitive psychotherapy is the only form of psychotherapy that focuses primarily on changing the patient’s conscious beliefs.
-Just because it is the only one..doesn't mean it is EFFECTIVE. This doesn't help our argument.

(D) No form of psychotherapy that focuses on changing the patient’s unconscious beliefs and desires can be effective unless it also helps change beliefs that are under the patient’s direct conscious control.
-In other words, TO be EFFECTIVE on changing patient's unconscious beliefs we ALSO NEED to change conscious beliefs. This is tricky..let's rewind a bit and look at what exactly are we trying to prove. What we do mean when we say Cognitive psychotherapy are more effective. Reading the stem again, we get "cognitive psychotherapy is likely to be more effective at helping patients overcome psychological problems than...". Looks like we are looking at EFFECTIVE in "overcome psychological problems" NOT "changing unconscious beliefs". Therefore this is OUT of scope!

(E) All of a patient’s conscious beliefs are under the patient’s conscious control, but other psychological states cannot be controlled effectively without the aid of psychotherapy.
-Obvious out of scope. We don't care what the patient can control. We are trying to prove IF Cognitive psychotherapy is more effective than other types of psychotherapy

B is the winner here.
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Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2017, 17:58
Thanks for the explanations!

Please post your explanations or use the request verbal experts' reply button to post specific questions.
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Re: Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Mar 2018, 03:39
Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a patient’s conscious beliefs. Thus, cognitive psychotherapy is likely to be more effective at helping patients overcome psychological problems than are forms of psychotherapy that focus on changing unconscious beliefs and desires, since only conscious beliefs are under the patient’s direct conscious control.

Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the therapist’s argument?

(A) Psychological problems are frequently caused by unconscious beliefs that could be changed with the aid of psychotherapy. --This weakens the argument, since Cognitive psychotherapy concentrates only on conscious beliefs.

(B) It is difficult for any form of psychotherapy to be effective without focusing on mental states that are under the patient’s direct conscious control. --Correct. Cognitive psychotherapy concentrates on conscious beliefs.

(C) Cognitive psychotherapy is the only form of psychotherapy that focuses primarily on changing the patient’s conscious beliefs. --Exaggerated statement

(D) No form of psychotherapy that focuses on changing the patient’s unconscious beliefs and desires can be effective unless it also helps change beliefs that are under the patient’s direct conscious control. --Out of scope since we are talking about Cognitive psychotherapy that concentrates on conscious beliefs.

(E) All of a patient’s conscious beliefs are under the patient’s conscious control, but other psychological states cannot be controlled effectively without the aid of psychotherapy. --This is a neutral statement.
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Re: Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a  [#permalink]

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New post 28 May 2018, 02:58
Hi,

I have a confusion between option B and D.

B says that psychotherapies which do not focus on mental states are not as effective as ones that do. This strengthens the conclusion, in fact, I would go even further and say this is, in fact, the author's assumption. (Negate it and the conclusion falls apart)

D says that no form of psychotherapy can be effective till it changes conscious beliefs. Although this is an exaggeration, it does increase my belief in the conclusion that possibly cognitive psychotherapy, since it changes conscious beliefs, is likely to be effective. I am not sure how to eliminate D.

Is it because changing conscious beliefs is a necessary condition and not a sufficient one for psychotherapy to be active? That is even if a psychotherapy changes conscious beliefs, there is no guarantee it will be more effective than a therapy which does not?

Many thanks.
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Re: Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a  [#permalink]

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New post 29 May 2018, 00:11
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Ah, we know we're in LSAT land when we get this deep into sufficient and necessary. If you want a good treatment of that, check out my friend Patrick's analysis here (the post from March 21, 2012): https://www.manhattanprep.com/lsat/foru ... tml#p15880

In a nutshell, the crucial difference between B and D is that D talks about "helping to change beliefs" while B addresses "focusing" on states under conscious control. The latter fits well with the argument. The problem with "helping" is that perhaps we could help change conscious beliefs without actively focusing them. In other words, if I'm receiving therapy that focuses on the unconscious, then it seems clear enough that I'm not focusing on the conscious, so B kicks in and helps us. However, we don't know whether that therapy is helping me to change my conscious beliefs, so D does not necessarily apply.
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Re: Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a  [#permalink]

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New post 29 May 2018, 00:57
guys

this seems to be very complex. is this limited only to LSAT or even GMAT has such tough questions?
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Re: Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a  [#permalink]

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New post 29 May 2018, 05:00
MikeHelios wrote:
guys

this seems to be very complex. is this limited only to LSAT or even GMAT has such tough questions?


Hi MikeHelios,

LSAT CR questions tend to be on the more difficult side of things, no doubt. However, If you look at the top of the page, you will see a difficulty measure. You can see how this question compares to other questions based on said difficulty level.

LSAT LR questions are great practice, but there a few that go above and beyond the GMAT.
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Re: Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a  [#permalink]

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New post 29 May 2018, 06:05
hi nightblade354

thanks. i hope we dont get many such questions on the real exam.
also how is that difficulty calculated?
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Re: Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a  [#permalink]

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New post 29 May 2018, 06:26
MikeHelios wrote:
hi nightblade354

thanks. i hope we dont get many such questions on the real exam.
also how is that difficulty calculated?


Hi MikeHelios,

It is calculated by the percentage of forum participants who got it wrong. Hence, it is a good judge of GMAT difficulty and character
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Re: Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a  [#permalink]

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New post 29 May 2018, 06:39
nightblade354

hi man sorry to keep pestering you. it says its 95% hard, but 42% have got it correct? shouldnt it be 5% who have answered it correctly? am i missing something?
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Re: Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a  [#permalink]

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New post 31 May 2018, 00:44
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This is definitely a more LSAT-like question. One of the big differences in the LSAT is that it focuses heavily on conditional logic. To do well on the LSAT, you need to have a strong grasp of sufficient vs. necessary and you will often need to diagram arguments using conditional notation. We can generally get through the GMAT without any of this.

Short answer, for those who are worried: no, you're not likely to see something like this on the GMAT.
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New post 31 May 2018, 00:46
Another way to think about the difficulty is that while it may not be the hardest LSAT question of all time, it tests skills that GMAT students won't typically have been working on. Similarly, we might not enjoy seeing an easy trigonometry question if we haven't studied trigonometry!
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Re: Therapist: Cognitive psychotherapy focuses on changing a &nbs [#permalink] 31 May 2018, 00:46
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