GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 24 Mar 2019, 04:12

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

There are some basic conceptual problems hovering about the widespread

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

 
Intern
Intern
User avatar
S
Status: Preparing
Joined: 15 Feb 2016
Posts: 34
Location: India
Concentration: Finance
CAT Tests
There are some basic conceptual problems hovering about the widespread  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 16 Feb 2019, 23:50
1
Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 20 sessions

60% (01:57) correct 40% (02:55) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 30 sessions

80% (00:47) correct 20% (01:00) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 30 sessions

63% (01:27) correct 37% (01:35) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 4
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 28 sessions

50% (00:57) correct 50% (01:31) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 5
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 32 sessions

88% (00:41) correct 13% (00:52) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 6
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 30 sessions

67% (01:27) correct 33% (01:23) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

There are some basic conceptual problems
hovering about the widespread use of brain scans as
pictures of mental activity. As applied to medical
diagnosis (for example, in diagnosing a brain tumor),
(5) a brain scan is similar in principle to an X-ray: it
is a way of seeing inside the body. Its value is
straightforward and indubitable. However, the use of
neuroimaging in psychology is a fundamentally
different kind of enterprise. It is a research method the
(10) validity of which depends on a premise: that the
mind can be analyzed into separate and distinct modules,
or components, and further that these modules are
instantiated in localized brain regions. This premise
is known as the modular theory of mind.

(15) It may in fact be that neither mental activity,
nor the physical processes that constitute it, are
decomposable into independent modules. Psychologist
William Uttal contends that rather than distinct
entities, the various mental processes are likely to be
(20) properties of a more general mental activity that is
distributed throughout the brain. It cannot be said,
for instance, that the amygdala is the seat of emotion
and the prefrontal cortex is the seat of reason, as the
popular press sometimes claims. For when I get angry,
(25) I generally do so for a reason. To cleanly
separate emotion from reason-giving makes a hash of
human experience.

But if this critique of the modular theory of mind
is valid, how can one account for the fact that brain
(30) scans do, in fact, reveal well-defined areas that
"light up" in response to various cognitive tasks? In the case
of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),
what you are seeing when you look at a brain scan is
actually the result of a subtraction. The fMRI is
(35) usually interpreted as a map of the rate of
oxygen use in different parts of the brain, which stands as a
measure of metabolic activity. But what it actually
depicts is the differential rate of oxygen use: one first
takes a baseline measurement in the control condition,
(40) then a second measurement while the subject is
performing some cognitive task. The baseline
measurement is then subtracted from the on-task
measurement. The reasoning, seemingly plausible, is
that whatever remains after the subtraction represents
(45) the metabolic activity associated solely with the
cognitive task in question.

One immediately obvious (but usually
unremarked) problem is that this method obscures the
fact that the entire brain is active in both conditions.
(50) A false impression of neat functional localization is
given by differential brain scans that subtract out all
the distributed brain functions. This subtractive
method produces striking images of the brain at work.
But isn't the modular theory of mind ultimately
(55) attractive in part because it is illustrated so well by
the products of the subtractive method?
1) Which one of the following most accurately states the main point of the passage?

(A) In spite of troubling conceptual problems surrounding brain scan technology, its use in psychological research on mental activity has grown rapidly.
(B) The use of brain scans to depict mental activity relies on both a questionable premise and a misleading methodological approach.
(C) Contrary to what is usually asserted in the popular press, reason and emotion are probably not located in the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, respectively.
(D) Although the fMRI is usually interpreted as a measure of metabolic activity in the brain, this interpretation is misguided and therefore leads to false results.
(E) The modular theory of mind has gained wide currency precisely because it is illustrated effectively by the images produced by the subtractive method.


2) According to the modular theory of mind, as described in the passage, mental activity

(A) consists of distinct components in localized areas of the brain
(B) requires at least some metabolic activity in all parts of the brain
(C) involves physical processes over which people have only limited control
(D) is localized in the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex
(E) generally involves some sort of reason-giving


3) The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which one of the following statements regarding the subtractive method?

(A) Because the subtractive method masks distributed brain functions, empirical results derived using the method are invalid for medical applications.
(B) The subtractive method results in images that strongly support Uttal's view that mental processes are simply properties of a more general mental activity.
(C) Brain scans of individuals experiencing anger that were produced using the subtractive method show that emotions are not actually seated in the amygdala.
(D) The subtractive method seems to strongly support the modular theory of mind because it creates an illusion that brain functions are localized.
(E) The view that the subtractive method depicts differential rates of oxygen use in the brain is based on a fundamental misconception of the method.


4) The author draws an analogy between brain scans and X-rays primarily in order to

(A) contrast a valid use of brain scans with one of more doubtful value
(B) suggest that new technology can influence the popularity of a scientific theory
(C) point to evidence that brain scans are less precise than other available technologies
(D) argue that X-ray images undermine a theory that brain scans are often used to support
(E) show how brain scan technology evolved from older technologies such as X-rays


5) According to the passage, psychologist William Uttal contends that the various mental processes are likely to be

(A) independent modules that are based in different areas of the brain
(B) essentially an amalgamation of emotion and reason
(C) generally uniform in their rates of oxygen use
(D) detectable using brain scans enhanced by means of the subtractive method
(E) features of a general mental activity that is spread throughout the brain


6) Which one of the following statements is most strongly supported by the passage?

(A) Although there are important exceptions, most cognition does in fact depend on independent modules located in specific regions of the brain.
(B) The modular theory of mind holds that regions of the brain that are not engaged in a specific cognitive task have a rate of oxygen use that is close to zero.
(C) During the performance of certain cognitive tasks, the areas of the brain that are most metabolically active show a rate of oxygen use that is higher than that of the rest of the brain.
(D) The baseline measurements of oxygen use taken for use in the subtractive method show that some regions of the brain have high metabolic activity at all times.
(E) When a brain scan subject experiences anger, the subtractive method shows several regions of the brain as "lit up" with metabolic activity.




Official LSAT Preptest- 80 (Dec-2016)
Difficulty Level: 600
Intern
Intern
User avatar
S
Status: Preparing
Joined: 15 Feb 2016
Posts: 34
Location: India
Concentration: Finance
CAT Tests
Re: There are some basic conceptual problems hovering about the widespread  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 Feb 2019, 00:17
akanshaxo wrote:
There are some basic conceptual problems
hovering about the widespread use of brain scans as
pictures of mental activity. As applied to medical
diagnosis (for example, in diagnosing a brain tumor),
(5) a brain scan is similar in principle to an X-ray: it is
a way of seeing inside the body. Its value is
straightforward and indubitable. However, the use of
neuroimaging in psychology is a fundamentally
different kind of enterprise. It is a research method the
(10) validity of which depends on a premise: that the mind
can be analyzed into separate and distinct modules,
or components, and further that these modules are
instantiated in localized brain regions. This premise
is known as the modular theory of mind.

( 15) It may in fact be that neither mental activity,
nor the physical processes that constitute it, are
decomposable into independent modules. Psychologist
William Uttal contends that rather than distinct
entities, the various mental processes are likely to be
(20) properties of a more general mental activity that is
distributed throughout the brain. It cannot be said,
for instance, that the amygdala is the seat of emotion
and the prefrontal cortex is the seat of reason, as the
popular press sometimes claims. For when I get angry,
(25) I generally do so for a reason. To cleanly separate
emotion from reason-giving makes a hash of
human experience.

But if this critique of the modular theory of mind
is valid, how can one account for the fact that brain
(30) scans do, in fact, reveal well-defined areas that "light
up" in response to various cognitive tasks? In the case
of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),
what you are seeing when you look at a brain scan is
actually the result of a subtraction. The fMRI is
(35) usually interpreted as a map of the rate of oxygen use
in different parts of the brain, which stands as a
measure of metabolic activity. But what it actually
depicts is the differential rate of oxygen use: one first
takes a baseline measurement in the control condition,
(40) then a second measurement while the subject is
performing some cognitive task. The baseline
measurement is then subtracted from the on-task
measurement. The reasoning, seemingly plausible, is
that whatever remains after the subtraction represents
( 45) the metabolic activity associated solely with the
cognitive task in question.

One immediately obvious (but usually
unremarked) problem is that this method obscures the
fact that the entire brain is active in both conditions.
(50) A false impression of neat functional localization is
given by differential brain scans that subtract out all
the distributed brain functions. This subtractive
method produces striking images of the brain at work.
But isn't the modular theory of mind ultimately
(55) attractive in part because it is illustrated so well by
the products of the subtractive method?


1) Which one of the following most accurately states the main point of the passage?

(A) In spite of troubling conceptual problems surrounding brain scan technology, its use in psychological research on mental activity has grown rapidly.
(B) The use of brain scans to depict mental activity relies on both a questionable premise and a misleading methodological approach.
(C) Contrary to what is usually asserted in the popular press, reason and emotion are probably not located in the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, respectively.
(D) Although the fMRI is usually interpreted as a measure of metabolic activity in the brain, this interpretation is misguided and therefore leads to false results.
(E) The modular theory of mind has gained wide currency precisely because it is illustrated effectively by the images produced by the subtractive method.



2) According to the modular theory of mind, as described in the passage, mental activity

(A) consists of distinct components in localized areas of the brain
(B) requires at least some metabolic activity in all parts of the brain
(C) involves physical processes over which people have only limited control
(D) is localized in the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex
(E) generally involves some sort of reason-giving



3) The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which one of the following statements regarding the subtractive method?

(A) Because the subtractive method masks distributed brain functions, empirical results derived using the method are invalid for medical applications.
(B) The subtractive method results in images that strongly support Uttal's view that mental processes are simply properties of a more general mental activity.
(C) Brain scans of individuals experiencing anger that were produced using the subtractive method show that emotions are not actually seated in the amygdala.
(D) The subtractive method seems to strongly support the modular theory of mind because it creates an illusion that brain functions are localized.
(E) The view that the subtractive method depicts differential rates of oxygen use in the brain is based on a fundamental misconception of the method.



4) The author draws an analogy between brain scans and X-rays primarily in order to

(A) contrast a valid use of brain scans with one of more doubtful value
(B) suggest that new technology can influence the popularity of a scientific theory
(C) point to evidence that brain scans are less precise than other available technologies
(D) argue that X-ray images undermine a theory that brain scans are often used to support
(E) show how brain scan technology evolved from older technologies such as X-rays



5) According to the passage, psychologist William Uttal contends that the various mental processes are likely to be

(A) independent modules that are based in different areas of the brain
(B) essentially an amalgamation of emotion and reason
(C) generally uniform in their rates of oxygen use
(D) detectable using brain scans enhanced by means of the subtractive method
(E) features of a general mental activity that is spread throughout the brain



6) Which one of the following statements is most strongly supported by the passage?

(A) Although there are important exceptions, most cognition does in fact depend on independent modules located in specific regions of the brain.
(B) The modular theory of mind holds that regions of the brain that are not engaged in a specific cognitive task have a rate of oxygen use that is close to zero.
(C) During the performance of certain cognitive tasks, the areas of the brain that are most metabolically active show a rate of oxygen use that is higher than that of the rest of the brain.
(D) The baseline measurements of oxygen use taken for use in the subtractive method show that some regions of the brain have high metabolic activity at all times.
(E) When a brain scan subject experiences anger, the subtractive method shows several regions of the brain as "lit up" with metabolic activity.





Can someone please edit the format. I'm unable to do so!!
Thanks
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 24 Dec 2015
Posts: 8
WE: Marketing (Pharmaceuticals and Biotech)
Re: There are some basic conceptual problems hovering about the widespread  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 Feb 2019, 00:43
Can anyone provide an explanation for the first question?
Senior RC Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: Preparing GMAT
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 2456
Location: Pakistan
GPA: 3.39
Re: There are some basic conceptual problems hovering about the widespread  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 Feb 2019, 00:54
1
Hello akanshaxo

I have edited the question on your behalf, you can click on quote button to see where i have put in codes to get it in proper format. So next time you would be able to format it properly on your own.

Thanks and regards
_________________

New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Final days of the GMAT Exam? => All GMAT Flashcards.
This Post Helps = Press +1 Kudos
Best of Luck on the GMAT!!

Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 07 Jan 2019
Posts: 52
Re: There are some basic conceptual problems hovering about the widespread  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Mar 2019, 12:17
what's the misleading approach in Q1 answer?
Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 07 Jan 2019
Posts: 52
Re: There are some basic conceptual problems hovering about the widespread  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Mar 2019, 12:25
the options in Q3 seem close.
Can someone explain the elimination process?
Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 07 Jan 2019
Posts: 52
Re: There are some basic conceptual problems hovering about the widespread  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Mar 2019, 12:36
Can you explain why answer of Q6 is c?
We are sure of a differential oxygen use but how can we be sure that metabloic activity and use of oxygen is directly proportional?
GMAT Club Bot
Re: There are some basic conceptual problems hovering about the widespread   [#permalink] 22 Mar 2019, 12:36
Display posts from previous: Sort by

There are some basic conceptual problems hovering about the widespread

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


Copyright

GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.