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# This much was well known that the purpose of a gene

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This much was well known that the purpose of a gene  [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2018, 02:11
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This much was well known that the purpose of a gene is to store the recipe for making proteins and that we inherit from our parents a gigantic list of recipes for making proteins and protein-making machines. What was not clear as late as the early 20th century until Gregor Mendel’s experiments were published and understood was that when crossed, the expression of these genes skipped a generation.

Mendel discovered that when white flower and purple flower plants are crossed, the result is not a blend. Rather than being a mix of the two, the offspring was purple flowered. He then conceived the idea of heredity units, which he called "factors", one of which is a recessive characteristic and the other dominant. Mendel said that factors, later called genes, normally occur in pairs in ordinary body cells, yet segregate during the formation of sex cells. The dominant gene, such as the purple flower in Mendel's plants, will hide the recessive gene, the white flower. Mendel crossed over 29,000 plants including inflated seed pods with wrinkled seed pods, green unripe pods with yellow unripe pods, and axial flowers with terminal flowers. In every case the resulting hybrids were just like one parent with the essence of other parent missing. However, as these hybrids were allowed to self-fertilize, the essence of the recessed parent re-appeared in exactly one third of the cases. This re-appearance is called the law of thirds. This law is not just obeyed in plants but also in every living species as demonstrated by Nageli’s experiment on crossing angora cats with another breed. Nageli observed that the angora coat disappeared in the next generation but re-appeared in the kittens in the third.

Mendel’s law has been put to a variety of uses such as selecting the right plants to hybridize to get the desired mix of dominant factors. A surprising use of the law has been to explain Alkaptonuria in which the patients suffered from arthritis and their urine and the ear wax turned reddish black upon exposure to air. Rare in the general population but frequent in children of first-cousin marriages, the incidence of Alkaptonuria is attributed to expression of recessive factors.

1. According to the passage, all of the following about Mendel’s dominant factors are true except

A. They were later called genes.
B. They exist in all living organisms including human beings.
C. They belong to only one of the crossed parents.
D. They define some of the key characteristics of the first offspring.
E. They are responsible for the incidence of Alkaptonuria.

A.They were later called genes.
Per Passage - “Mendel said that factors, later called genes”.
Both recessive and dominant factors are called genes. So this choice is TRUE.
B.They exist in all living organisms including human beings.
Per Passage – “This law is not just obeyed in plants but also in every living species as…”
Dominant factors are needed for the law. So if law is applicable to all living being, this means that this choice is TRUE.
C.They belong to only one of the crossed parents.
Per Passage – “In every case the resulting hybrids were just like one parent with the essence of other parent missing…”
Only one parent has dominant gene. So this choice is TRUE.
D.They define some of the key characteristics of the first offspring.
Per Passage – “In every case the resulting hybrids were just like one parent with the essence of other parent missing.”
This choice is TRUE
E.They are responsible for the incidence of Alkaptonuria.
Per passage “the incidence of Alkaptonuria is attributed to expression of recessive factors.”, recessive factors and not dominant factors are responsible

2. The author mentions Nageli’s experiment to illustrate

A. How unique property of the Angora cat – its fur can be transferred to another cat species.
B. An example of the validity of law of thirds in other living organisms.
C. That it is possible to cross-fertilize extremely distinct species.
D. An instance in which the recessive factor dominates the first offspring.
E. Demonstrate how selective species when cross-hybridized could lead to an offspring with extremely desirable characteristics.

A.How unique property of the Angora cat – its fur can be transferred to another cat species.
This choice states the result of the experiment but not the purpose
B.An example of the validity of law of thirds in other living organisms.
Reword of the purpose of entity as derived in question analysis.
C.That it is possible to cross-fertilize extremely distinct species.
Proof of cross-fertilizing extremely distinct species is outside the scope of the passage.
D.An instance in which the recessive factor dominates the first offspring.
The fact stated in this choice is opposite to what is stated in the passage.
E.Demonstrate how selective species when cross hybridized could lead to an offspring with extremely desirable characteristics.
While this fact is true, it is not the purpose of why Nageli’s experiment is mentioned in the passage.

3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. Explain Mendel's law and its utilities
B. Describe why a phenomena that was readily observed took so long to be formalized
C. Illustrate how Mendel discovered the law of thirds.
D. Show with appropriate examples, that crossbreeding can lead to offsprings that may show characteristics that are present in neither of the parents.
E. To evaluate some of the benefits of Mendal’s law of thirds

A.Explain Mendel's law and its utilities
Correct
B. Describe why a phenomena that was readily observed took so long to be formalized
No such discussion in the passage
C. Illustrate how Mendel discovered the law of thirds.
Presented only in second paragraph of the 3 paragraph passage.
D. Show with appropriate examples, that cross breeding can lead to offsprings that may show characteristics that are present in neither of the parents.
Not discussed in the passage.
E.To evaluate some of the benefits of Mendal’s law of thirds
Presented only in third paragraph of the 3 paragraph passage.

4. According to the passage, which of the following is not true about genes?

A. Genes store a recipe for making proteins.
B. We inherit a number of genes from our parents.
C. They occur in pairs in every cell but those that govern our sex.
D. The dominant genes in crossed offspring may never allow the recessive gene to express even in a future generations.
E. The recessive gene in a crossed offspring is not expressed in the first generation.

A. Genes store a recipe for making proteins.
Per Passage “the purpose of a gene is to store the recipe for making proteins”
B. We inherit a number of genes from our parents.
Per Passage “that we inherit from our parents a gigantic list of recipes”.
Recipe is stored in genes, so we inherit genes from our parents.
C. They occur in pairs in every cell but those that govern our sex.
Per Passage “factors, later called genes, normally occur in pairs in ordinary body cells, yet segregate during the formation of sex cells.”
D.The dominant genes in crossed offspring may never allow the recessive gene to express even in a future generations.
The law of thirds explained in the pasasge states opposite to this choice. So this choice is NOT TRUE about genes.
E. The recessive gene in a crossed offspring is not expressed in the first generation.
Per Passage “The dominant gene, such as the purple flower in Mendel's plants, will hide the recessive gene, the white flower”.

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This much was well known that the purpose of a gene  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 20 Sep 2018, 20:06
1. According to the passage, all of the following about Mendel’s dominant factors are true except

A.They were later called genes.

INCORRECT. Per Passage - “Mendel said that factors, later called genes”. Both recessive and dominant factors are called genes. So this choice is TRUE.

B.They exist in all living organisms including human beings.

INCORRECT Per Passage – “This law is not just obeyed in plants but also in every living species as…”. Dominant factors are needed for the law. So if law is applicable to all living being, this means that this choice is TRUE.

C.They belong to only one of the crossed parents.

INCORRECT Per Passage – “In every case the resulting hybrids were just like one parent with the essence of other parent missing…”. Only one parent has dominant gene. So this choice is TRUE.

D.They define some of the key characteristics of the first offspring.

INCORRECT Per Passage – “In every case the resulting hybrids were just like one parent with the essence of other parent missing.”. This choice is TRUE

E.They are responsible for the incidence of Alkaptonuria.

Correct. Per passage “the incidence of Alkaptonuria is attributed to expression of recessive factors.”, recessive factors and not dominant factors are responsible

2. The author mentions Nageli’s experiment to illustrate

A.How unique property of the Angora cat – its fur can be transferred to another cat species.

INCORRECT. This choice states the result of the experiment but not the purpose

B.An example of the validity of law of thirds in other living organisms.

Correct Reword of the purpose of entity.

C.That it is possible to cross-fertilize extremely distinct species.

INCORRECT. Proof of cross-fertilizing extremely distinct species is outside the scope of the passage.

D.An instance in which the recessive factor dominates the first offspring.

INCORRECT. The fact stated in this choice is opposite to what is stated in the passage.

E.Demonstrate how selective species when cross hybridized could lead to an offspring with extremely desirable characteristics.

INCORRECT. While this fact is true, it is not the purpose of why Nageli’s experiment is mentioned in the passage.

3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A.Explain Mendel's law and its utilities

Correct

B. Describe why a phenomena that was readily observed took so long to be formalized

INCORRECT. No such discussion in the passage

C. Illustrate how Mendel discovered the law of thirds.

INCORRECT. Presented only in second paragraph of the 3 paragraph passage.

D. Show with appropriate examples, that cross breeding can lead to offsprings that may show characteristics that are present in neither of the parents.

INCORRECT. Not discussed in the passage.

E.To evaluate some of the benefits of Mendal’s law of thirds

INCORRECT. Presented only in third paragraph of the 3 paragraph passage.

4. According to the passage, which of the following is not true about genes?

A. Genes store a recipe for making proteins.

INCORRECT. Per Passage “the purpose of a gene is to store the recipe for making proteins”

B. We inherit a number of genes from our parents.

INCORRECT. Per Passage “that we inherit from our parents a gigantic list of recipes”. Recipe is stored in genes, so we inherit genes from our parents.

C. They occur in pairs in every cell but those that govern our sex.

INCORRECT. Per Passage “factors, later called genes, normally occur in pairs in ordinary body cells, yet segregate during the formation of sex cells.”

D.The dominant genes in crossed offspring may never allow the recessive gene to express even in a future generations.

Correct. The law of thirds explained in the pasasge states opposite to this choice. So this choice is NOT TRUE about genes.

E. The recessive gene in a crossed offspring is not expressed in the first generation.

INCORRECT. Per Passage “The dominant gene, such as the purple flower in Mendel's plants, will hide the recessive gene, the white flower”.
_________________

Originally posted by workout on 19 Sep 2018, 20:00.
Last edited by workout on 20 Sep 2018, 20:06, edited 1 time in total.
Added explanations after seeing few resposnes.
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Re: This much was well known that the purpose of a gene  [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2018, 21:22
3
1.
A: true . Passage reference : Mendel said that factors, later called gene
B: true . Passage reference : This law is not just obeyed in plants but also in every living species as demonstrated by Nageli’s experiment on crossing angora cats with another breed
C: true . Only the dominant genes get passed to the offspring. Multiple references in passage.
D: true. Passage reference : In every case the resulting hybrids were just like one parent with the essence of other parent missing. This means a distinct or key characteristic of a hybrid is defined by the dominant genes.
E: False. Dominant factors are not responsible rather recessive ones are. Passage Reference : The incidence of Alkaptonuria is attributed to expression of recessive factors.

Hence E

2. From the passage : This law is not just obeyed in plants but also in every living species as demonstrated by Nageli’s experiment on crossing angora cats with another breed. Nageli observed that the angora coat disappeared in the next generation but re-appeared in the kittens in the third.
Straight B
3. Straight A. But lets do POE
A: correct
C: only mentioned in the second paragraph and not the central idea
D: Its an inference from paragraph 2. Doesn't represents the idea of the passage.
E: only in the third paragraph. Eliminate
4. We know from the passage that some recessive genes can appear in future generations. The paragraph 2 talks about it. The one third law proves it.
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Re: This much was well known that the purpose of a gene  [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2018, 23:34
1
This much was well known that the purpose of a gene is to store the recipe for making proteins and that we inherit from our parents a gigantic list of recipes for making proteins and protein-making machines. What was not clear as late as the early 20th century until Gregor Mendel’s experiments were published and understood was that when crossed, the expression of these genes skipped a generation.

Mendel discovered that when white flower and purple flower plants are crossed, the result is not a blend. Rather than being a mix of the two, the offspring was purple flowered. He then conceived the idea of heredity units, which he called "factors", one of which is a recessive characteristic and the other dominant. Mendel said that factors, later called genes, normally occur in pairs in ordinary body cells, yet segregate during the formation of sex cells. The dominant gene, such as the purple flower in Mendel's plants, will hide the recessive gene, the white flower. Mendel crossed over 29,000 plants including inflated seed pods with wrinkled seed pods, green unripe pods with yellow unripe pods, and axial flowers with terminal flowers. In every case the resulting hybrids were just like one parent with the essence of other parent missing. However, as these hybrids were allowed to self-fertilize, the essence of the recessed parent re-appeared in exactly one third of the cases. This re-appearance is called the law of thirds. This law is not just obeyed in plants but also in every living species as demonstrated by Nageli’s experiment on crossing angora cats with another breed. Nageli observed that the angora coat disappeared in the next generation but re-appeared in the kittens in the third.

Mendel’s law has been put to a variety of uses such as selecting the right plants to hybridize to get the desired mix of dominant factors. A surprising use of the law has been to explain Alkaptonuria in which the patients suffered from arthritis and their urine and the ear wax turned reddish black upon exposure to air. Rare in the general population but frequent in children of first-cousin marriages, the incidence of Alkaptonuria is attributed to expression of recessive factors.

Q1. E is the correct answer. The passage references are marked in color blue to arrive at the correct answer.

Q2. Straight B, passage reference is marked in red color.

Q3. A: Correct answer, Para 1 gives us a background, para 2 describes the law and para 3 mentions its applications.
B: Wrong, time and formalization has not been discussed in the passage.
C: Wrong, the law of thirds is only a part of the passage and not its main point.
D: Incorrect, the examples given in the passage states that the offsprings do contain either dominant or recessive factors belonging to one of the parents, and not to neither of the parents. Also, this choice only points to an application of the law observed so it doesn't cover the central idea of the passage.
E: Wrong, again it is not the central idea, only described in para 3, option A is a better choice.

Q4: Straight D, passage references are marked in pink color.
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Re: This much was well known that the purpose of a gene  [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2018, 05:28
1
Skywalker18 wrote:
This much was well known that the purpose of a gene is to store the recipe for making proteins and that we inherit from our parents a gigantic list of recipes for making proteins and protein-making machines. What was not clear as late as the early 20th century until Gregor Mendel’s experiments were published and understood was that when crossed, the expression of these genes skipped a generation.

Mendel discovered that when white flower and purple flower plants are crossed, the result is not a blend. Rather than being a mix of the two, the offspring was purple flowered. He then conceived the idea of heredity units, which he called "factors", one of which is a recessive characteristic and the other dominant. Mendel said that factors, later called genes, normally occur in pairs in ordinary body cells, yet segregate during the formation of sex cells. The dominant gene, such as the purple flower in Mendel's plants, will hide the recessive gene, the white flower. Mendel crossed over 29,000 plants including inflated seed pods with wrinkled seed pods, green unripe pods with yellow unripe pods, and axial flowers with terminal flowers. In every case the resulting hybrids were just like one parent with the essence of other parent missing. However, as these hybrids were allowed to self-fertilize, the essence of the recessed parent re-appeared in exactly one third of the cases. This re-appearance is called the law of thirds. This law is not just obeyed in plants but also in every living species as demonstrated by Nageli’s experiment on crossing angora cats with another breed. Nageli observed that the angora coat disappeared in the next generation but re-appeared in the kittens in the third.

Mendel’s law has been put to a variety of uses such as selecting the right plants to hybridize to get the desired mix of dominant factors. A surprising use of the law has been to explain Alkaptonuria in which the patients suffered from arthritis and their urine and the ear wax turned reddish black upon exposure to air. Rare in the general population but frequent in children of first-cousin marriages, the incidence of Alkaptonuria is attributed to expression of recessive factors.
1. According to the passage, all of the following about Mendel’s dominant factors are true except

A. They were later called genes.
B. They exist in all living organisms including human beings.
C. They belong to only one of the crossed parents.
D. They define some of the key characteristics of the first offspring.
E. They are responsible for the incidence of Alkaptonuria.

A.They were later called genes.
Per Passage - “Mendel said that factors, later called genes”.
Both recessive and dominant factors are called genes. So this choice is TRUE.
B.They exist in all living organisms including human beings.
Per Passage – “This law is not just obeyed in plants but also in every living species as…”
Dominant factors are needed for the law. So if law is applicable to all living being, this means that this choice is TRUE.
C.They belong to only one of the crossed parents.
Per Passage – “In every case the resulting hybrids were just like one parent with the essence of other parent missing…”
Only one parent has dominant gene. So this choice is TRUE.
D.They define some of the key characteristics of the first offspring.
Per Passage – “In every case the resulting hybrids were just like one parent with the essence of other parent missing.”
This choice is TRUE
E.They are responsible for the incidence of Alkaptonuria.
Per passage “the incidence of Alkaptonuria is attributed to expression of recessive factors.”, recessive factors and not dominant factors are responsible

2. The author mentions Nageli’s experiment to illustrate

A. How unique property of the Angora cat – its fur can be transferred to another cat species.
B. An example of the validity of law of thirds in other living organisms.
C. That it is possible to cross-fertilize extremely distinct species.
D. An instance in which the recessive factor dominates the first offspring.
E. Demonstrate how selective species when cross-hybridized could lead to an offspring with extremely desirable characteristics.

A.How unique property of the Angora cat – its fur can be transferred to another cat species.
This choice states the result of the experiment but not the purpose
B.An example of the validity of law of thirds in other living organisms.
Reword of the purpose of entity as derived in question analysis.
C.That it is possible to cross-fertilize extremely distinct species.
Proof of cross-fertilizing extremely distinct species is outside the scope of the passage.
D.An instance in which the recessive factor dominates the first offspring.
The fact stated in this choice is opposite to what is stated in the passage.
E.Demonstrate how selective species when cross hybridized could lead to an offspring with extremely desirable characteristics.
While this fact is true, it is not the purpose of why Nageli’s experiment is mentioned in the passage.

3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. Explain Mendel's law and its utilities
B. Describe why a phenomena that was readily observed took so long to be formalized
C. Illustrate how Mendel discovered the law of thirds.
D. Show with appropriate examples, that crossbreeding can lead to offsprings that may show characteristics that are present in neither of the parents.
E. To evaluate some of the benefits of Mendal’s law of thirds

A.Explain Mendel's law and its utilities
Correct
B. Describe why a phenomena that was readily observed took so long to be formalized
No such discussion in the passage
C. Illustrate how Mendel discovered the law of thirds.
Presented only in second paragraph of the 3 paragraph passage.
D. Show with appropriate examples, that cross breeding can lead to offsprings that may show characteristics that are present in neither of the parents.
Not discussed in the passage.
E.To evaluate some of the benefits of Mendal’s law of thirds
Presented only in third paragraph of the 3 paragraph passage.

4. According to the passage, which of the following is not true about genes?

A. Genes store a recipe for making proteins.
B. We inherit a number of genes from our parents.
C. They occur in pairs in every cell but those that govern our sex.
D. The dominant genes in crossed offspring may never allow the recessive gene to express even in a future generations.
E. The recessive gene in a crossed offspring is not expressed in the first generation.

A. Genes store a recipe for making proteins.
Per Passage “the purpose of a gene is to store the recipe for making proteins”
B. We inherit a number of genes from our parents.
Per Passage “that we inherit from our parents a gigantic list of recipes”.
Recipe is stored in genes, so we inherit genes from our parents.
C. They occur in pairs in every cell but those that govern our sex.
Per Passage “factors, later called genes, normally occur in pairs in ordinary body cells, yet segregate during the formation of sex cells.”
D.The dominant genes in crossed offspring may never allow the recessive gene to express even in a future generations.
The law of thirds explained in the pasasge states opposite to this choice. So this choice is NOT TRUE about genes.
E. The recessive gene in a crossed offspring is not expressed in the first generation.
Per Passage “The dominant gene, such as the purple flower in Mendel's plants, will hide the recessive gene, the white flower”.

Here are my 2 cents!

1. According to the passage, all of the following about Mendel’s dominant factors are true except

A. They were later called genes-True they were indeed called genes.
B. They exist in all living organisms including human beings.-True mentioned in last para.
C. They belong to only one of the crossed parents-True mentioned in second para.
D. They define some of the key characteristics of the first offspring.-True mentioned in second and third para.
E. They are responsible for the incidence of Alkaptonuria-Our answer! False, recessive genes are responsible for "Alkaptonuria".

2. The author mentions Nageli’s experiment to illustrate

A. How unique property of the Angora cat – its fur can be transferred to another cat species-No this is the description of experiment not the motive.
B. An example of the validity of law of thirds in other living organisms.-Correct! Mentioned in para that it is also applicable to every single living species and that is proven by nageli's experiment.
C. That it is possible to cross-fertilize extremely distinct species-No not mentioned thru this experiment.
D. An instance in which the recessive factor dominates the first offspring.-Recessive factors dominate but not the first offspring..False
E. Demonstrate how selective species when cross-hybridized could lead to an offspring with extremely desirable characteristics.-NO,"extremely desirable characteristics" is wrong!

3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. Explain Mendel's law and its utilities-Bingo! that is what it shows! First para depicts how Mendel's law was conceptualized. Second says how it was conducted and what is its other implications. Third says the utility of Mendel's law.
B. Describe why a phenomena that was readily observed took so long to be formalized-Nowhere mentioned
C. Illustrate how Mendel discovered the law of thirds.-Partial scope
D. Show with appropriate examples, that crossbreeding can lead to offsprings that may show characteristics that are present in neither of the parents.-Partial scope
E. To evaluate some of the benefits of Mendal’s law of thirds-Third para only

4. According to the passage, which of the following is not true about genes?

A. Genes store a recipe for making proteins-True mentioned in first para.
B. We inherit a number of genes from our parents.-True mentioned
C. They occur in pairs in every cell but those that govern our sex.-True mentioned.
D. The dominant genes in crossed offspring may never allow the recessive gene to express even in a future generations-Our answer! False, mentioned in para and is opposite to "Law of thirds"
E. The recessive gene in a crossed offspring is not expressed in the first generation-True mentioned.
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Re: This much was well known that the purpose of a gene  [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2018, 09:24
Skywalker18 wrote:

Mendel discovered that when white flower and purple flower plants are crossed, the result is not a blend. Rather than being a mix of the two, the offspring was purple flowered. He then conceived the idea of heredity units, which he called "factors", one of which is a recessive characteristic and the other dominant. Mendel said that factors, later called genes, normally occur in pairs in ordinary body cells, yet segregate during the formation of sex cells. The dominant gene, such as the purple flower in Mendel's plants, will hide the recessive gene, the white flower.

1. According to the passage, all of the following about Mendel’s dominant factors are true except

A. They were later called genes.
B. They exist in all living organisms including human beings.
C. They belong to only one of the crossed parents.
D. They define some of the key characteristics of the first offspring.
E. They are responsible for the incidence of Alkaptonuria.

As per the passage, 'heredity units' were called 'factors' which were later called 'genes'. Factors were of two types: dominant and recessive. So how can we say dominant factors were later called genes. What's wrong with option A? Please correct me if I'm going wrong.

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Re: This much was well known that the purpose of a gene  [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2018, 19:31
1
1. According to the passage, all of the following about Mendel’s dominant factors are true except.
A. They were later called genes. True given in passage
B. They exist in all living organisms including human beings. True
C. They belong to only one of the crossed parents. True
D. They define some of the key characteristics of the first offspring. True
E. They are responsible for the incidence of Alkaptonuria. false regressive genes are responsible (Alkaptonuria is attributed to expression of recessive factors.)

2. The author mentions Nageli’s experiment to illustrate
A. How unique property of the Angora cat – its fur can be transferred to another cat species. not mentioned in passage
B. An example of the validity of law of thirds in other living organisms. True (This law is not just obeyed in plants but also in every living species as demonstrated by Nageli’s experiment on crossing angora cats with another breed)
C. That it is possible to cross-fertilize extremely distinct species. False
D. An instance in which the recessive factor dominates the first offspring. Not part of Nagelis experiment
E. Demonstrate how selective species when cross-hybridized could lead to an offspring with extremely desirable characteristics. False
Re: This much was well known that the purpose of a gene &nbs [#permalink] 20 Sep 2018, 19:31
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