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Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of

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Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 03 Aug 2018, 01:35
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Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors that mark the passage of time like the rings in a tree trunk.


(A) seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors that mark

(B) see layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, whose different colors mark

(C) been seeing layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, whose different colors are markers of

(D) been able to see layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors marking

(E) seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, marking by different colors

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Originally posted by neelesh on 22 Mar 2008, 20:35.
Last edited by Bunuel on 03 Aug 2018, 01:35, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2012, 11:08
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The problem is not with the - ",with" or ",whose"

The issue is - Colors mark or colors that mark.
In the first underline it sounds as if colors are marking but in reality you are just trying to point out the significance of colors.

Let's try again - Trees have rings that mark the passage of time OR Trees have rings mark the passage of time .

Hope this helps.
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Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2009, 22:23
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KAPLAN OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:



The key to getting the right answer for this question is recognizing that the underlined portion of the sentence should not contain a pronoun. The answer choices give you the option of replacing with different colors with whose different colors but the second option is wrong because, if you added whose, it could refer to the layers or the Canyon, and whenever a pronoun has more than one possible antecedent (the thing it refers to), it's used incorrectly. Eliminate (B) and (C).

Eliminate (E) as well because the subject of "marking" is similarly unclear; is it the layers or the Canyon that is marking the passage of time? And (A) is better than (D) because, once again, seen is better than the wordier alternative been able to see. (A) is correct.
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Re: Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2008, 20:50
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neelesh wrote:
This question has been posted a few times before but looking for better explanations...

Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors that mark the passage of time like the rings in a tree trunk.

(A) seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors that mark

(B) see layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, whose different colors mark

(C) been seeing layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, whose different colors are markers of

(D) been able to see layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors marking

(E) seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, marking by different colors

Spoiler : A



B out, no discussion
C: have...been seeing.. OUT ALSO
D:out: with...marking
E: out: "marking" should not modify "those"

A is remaining
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Re: Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2010, 18:12
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I will not take the credit for this as I found the explanation on another forum.

A has to be the right answer here.

B: the word 'whose' illogically refers to the 'the canyon'.

C: the word 'whose' illogically refers to the 'the canyon'. Also, the GMAT prefers Verb forms to noun forms. So 'mark' is better than 'are markers of', which is unnecessarily wordy as well. Also, 'have been seeing' distorts the original meaning by suggesting that the action has been going on nonstop.

D: 'been able to see' distorts the meaning by suggesting that the action was intended on part of the visitors. Also, 'colors marking' is not correct as it makes the sentence ambiguous. 'colors that mark' is non-ambiguous; 'that' refers to 'colors'.

E: Here 'marking' is an adverbial modifier. Usually adverbial modifiers modify the entire clause. So this choice is definitely wrong as the word 'marking' should unambiguously refer to (layers of) sediment.
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Re: Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2010, 22:47
Noboru,
please do not forget to provide OA! :x

OA is A, according to 1000 series.

985. Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors that mark the passage of time like the rings in a tree trunk.

(A) seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors that mark- true canyon has different colors
(B) seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, whose different colors mark - read this as "different colors of canyon mark something" - they do not mark , they show something
(C) been seeing layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, whose different colors are markers of -unnecessary wordy
(D) been able to see layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors marking- unnecessary wordy
(E) seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, marking by different colors - the action of seeing "layers of sediment in the gaping", does not relate to "marking by different colors "
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Re: Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Mar 2012, 10:44
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Hi, there. I'm happy to help with this.

The first split in the answers is the way the verb is completed. The auxiliary verb "have" can be followed by "seen", "been able", or "been seeing" (although that last is ridiculously wordy). The "see" of (B) is completely wrong.

(C) is absurdly wordy with "have been seeing" --- there's absolutely no reason for the past progressive in this context. (C) is out.

(D) is also unnecessarily wordy. Think about it. Folks who have been to the Grand Canyon have seen the colored layers of sediment. Plain and simple. To say ---- Folks who have been to the Grand Canyon have been able to see the colored layers of sediment. ----- that adds extra words without adding any extra meaning. In GMAT terms, it's unacceptable to lengthen a sentence for no purpose. The only reason to introduce "have been able to" would be if the subject of the sentence itself is about establishing whether folks have the ability to see it at all. If it were in doubt whether anything could be seen, then establishing that folks were able to see something is meaningful. Here, in this context, there's no doubt about one's ability to see the Grand Canyon. It's perhaps the single most photographed natural feature in the USA. Everyone has seen it. There's no reason to raise the question about whether folks are able to see it. (D) is out.

(A) & (E) are close, but the odd passive construction in (E) --- "marking by different colors" --- is weak and indirect. (A) is the best answer, and I believe this is the OA.

Does this make sense? Let me know if you have any further questions.

Mike :)
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Re: Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Mar 2012, 10:05
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devinawilliam83 wrote:
thanks Mike
Just 1 ques - is there a rule of thuimb while decinding between the use of THAT and an -ING form
as stated in option A and D.Many thanks


Ms. Devina Williams,

There's not a rule of thumb. Consider these sentences,

Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors that mark the passage of time like the rings in a tree trunk.

Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors marking the passage of time like the rings in a tree trunk.


Here, both are grammatically correct and acceptable. There might be some special case where one is right and the other is wrong, but I can't think of an example at the moment. I would say: certainly there's not a hard-and-fast grammar rule distinguishing these two that would, in an of itself, separate a right answer from a wrong answer on GMAT SC.

I would say: one beware of parallel constructions --- you can't have one of the parallel elements be -ing and the other "that". That's a standard GMAT SC snare. Both with the -ing or both with the "that" would be fine.

Does that make sense? Let me know if you have any further questions.

Mike :)
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New post 07 Dec 2017, 23:31
can someone please clarify why "mark" is correct in A? I eliminated it because i thought it should be "marking" why means it's still true whereas "mark" is past tense (when in reality it's not past tense)

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Re: Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Dec 2017, 03:47
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mdacosta wrote:
can someone please clarify why "mark" is correct in A? I eliminated it because i thought it should be "marking" why means it's still true whereas "mark" is past tense (when in reality it's not past tense)

Thanks!


Hi mdacosta,

(A) seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors that mark

'mark' is correct in A - plural subject (colors) - plural verb 'mark'

in case of the singluar subject (color) verb will be marks

Past tense of mark is marked.
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Re: Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Dec 2017, 17:28
mdacosta "Marking" works fine as a modifier. However, if we use the word "that" to create a modifier, we use the present tense form of the verb: "mark."
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Re: Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2019, 04:15
neelesh wrote:
Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors that mark the passage of time like the rings in a tree trunk.


(A) seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors that mark

(B) see layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, whose different colors mark

(C) been seeing layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, whose different colors are markers of

(D) been able to see layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors marking

(E) seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, marking by different colors


D should not be the right choice, since it is needlessly wordy and slightly changes the meaning. C’s tense is incorrect. Same problem with E. B is definitely wrong, as it makes the sentence say ‘have typically see’. Very incorrect tense usage.

A is the right answer.
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Re: Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2019, 18:03
In the non-underlined part,“the rings” is noun,
Doesn’t that mean we need another noun to compare, since the passage is using the word “like”, which is a comparison meaning??
so I thought the “markers” would do the job
Can anyone clarify??

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Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2019, 18:30
jinwshin wrote:
In the non-underlined part,“the rings” is noun,
Doesn’t that mean we need another noun to compare, since the passage is using the word “like”, which is a comparison meaning??
so I thought the “markers” would do the job
Can anyone clarify??

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jinwshin , the (short version) of the comparison noun is "colored layers of sediment."

The differently colored layers in the canyon mark (off) time. So do rings in trees.

The noun, verbatim, in option A: layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors that mark

It's okay if a noun contains a comma; the comma probably adds clarity.

Everything that follows "layers" is a modifier of layers. Colored sediment layers in the canyon are likened to rings in tree trunks.

Hope that helps.
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Re: Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2019, 20:41
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generis wrote:
jinwshin wrote:
In the non-underlined part,“the rings” is noun,
Doesn’t that mean we need another noun to compare, since the passage is using the word “like”, which is a comparison meaning??
so I thought the “markers” would do the job
Can anyone clarify??

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jinwshin , the (short version) of the comparison noun is "colored layers of sediment."

The differently colored layers in the canyon mark (off) time. So do rings in trees.

The noun, verbatim, in option A: layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors that mark

It's okay if a noun contains a comma; the comma probably adds clarity.

Everything that follows "layers" is a modifier of layers. Colored sediment layers in the canyon are likened to rings in tree trunks.

Hope that helps.


Understood! So much thanks to you!
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Re: Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2019, 22:05
neelesh wrote:
Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors that mark the passage of time like the rings in a tree trunk.


(A) seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors that mark

(B) see layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, whose different colors mark

(C) been seeing layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, whose different colors are markers of

(D) been able to see layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, with different colors marking

(E) seen layers of sediment in the gaping canyon, marking by different colors


B - have typically see is incorrect. Should be have typically seen. whose is pointing to what is not clear. if it is pointing to grand canyon, it is incorrect.
C - whose is confusing. have been seeing (present perfect continuous) is also unnecessary and somewhat changes meaning.
D - with different colors marking passage of time. somewhat marking doesn't seem appropriate compared to that mark
E - marking by different colors...What does marking modiy...is it canyon....incorrect.

A seems to be the best choice. Sediment with different colors that mark the passage of time looks decent.
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Re: Those who have visited the Grand Canyon have typically seen layers of   [#permalink] 20 Aug 2019, 22:05
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