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# A recent survey done in the US shows that in 2013 child penalty

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A recent survey done in the US shows that in 2013 child penalty  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 09 Feb 2019, 09:29
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Difficulty:

65% (hard)

Question Stats:

49% (01:53) correct 51% (02:07) wrong based on 76 sessions

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A recent survey done in the US shows that, in 2013, child penalty – the amount by which women’s earnings fall behind men after they become mothers – alone was responsible for the entire difference between the incomes of men and women and the women who had working mothers tended to suffer less in terms of child penalties.

(A) falls behind those of men after they become mothers – alone was responsible for the entire difference between the incomes of men and women and the women who had

(B) fall behind those of men after they become mothers – alone was responsible for the entire difference between the incomes of men and women and that the women who had

(C) falls behind those of men after they become mothers – alone was responsible for the entire difference between the incomes of men and women, and that the women who had

(D) fall behind men after they become mothers – alone was responsible for the entire difference between the incomes of men and women and the women who had

(E) fall behind men after they become mothers – alone was responsible for the entire difference between the incomes of men and women, and that the women who are

P.S: Got this question on WhatsApp group. Question was really hard, so thought of sharing it here on gmatclub.

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Originally posted by EncounterGMAT on 04 Feb 2019, 07:42.
Last edited by EncounterGMAT on 09 Feb 2019, 09:29, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: A recent survey done in the US shows that in 2013 child penalty  [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2019, 15:10
topper97 wrote:
A recent survey done in the US shows that, in 2013, child penalty – the amount by which women’s earnings fall behind men after they become mothers – alone was responsible for the entire difference between the incomes of men and women and the women who had working mothers tended to suffer less in terms of child penalties.

(A) falls behind those of men after they become mothers – alone was responsible for the entire difference between the incomes of men and women and the women who had

(B) fall behind those of men after they become mothers – alone was responsible for the entire difference between the incomes of men and women and that the women who had

(C) falls behind those of men after they become mothers – alone was responsible for the entire difference between the incomes of men and women, and that the women who had

(D) fall behind men after they become mothers – alone was responsible for the entire difference between the incomes of men and women and the women who had

(E) fall behind men after they become mothers – alone was responsible for the entire difference between the incomes of men and women, and that the women who are

Hi topper97 - option A and the prompt do not match.
Which one is correct?

Just beneath option E, please write Source: ____________
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Re: A recent survey done in the US shows that in 2013 child penalty  [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2019, 15:10
topper97 wrote:
A recent survey done in the US shows that, in 2013, child penalty – the amount by which women’s earnings fall behind men after they become mothers – alone was responsible for the entire difference between the incomes of men and women and the women who had working mothers tended to suffer less in terms of child penalties.

(A) falls [???] behind those of men after they become mothers – alone was responsible for the entire difference between the incomes of men and women and [THAT] the women who had

(B) fall behind those of men after they become mothers – alone was responsible for the entire difference between the incomes of men and women and that the women who had

(C) falls behind those of men after they become mothers – alone was responsible for the entire difference between the incomes of men and women, and that the women who had

(D) fall behind men after they become mothers – alone was responsible for the entire difference between the incomes of men and women and the women who had

(E) fall behind men after they become mothers – alone was responsible for the entire difference between the incomes of men and women, and that the women who are

The meaning of this sentence is hard to find.

I ditched the meaning for a bit because differences between and among options are very slight.
Once I found the right answer through splits, or was faced with A and B only, the meaning became clearer.

How to eliminate? The differences are small. Find them.

Split #1: PARALELLISM - missing pronoun for earnings - fell behind those of men or fell behind men

Women's earnings fell . . . behind men?
Men is a noun that has nothing to do with the noun earnings.
Earnings did not fall behind men.
A bunch of women's paychecks did not drop down behind a line of men or fail to keep pace with men.

We need those of to maintain parallelism.

Earnings of women . . . fell behind earnings [those] of men.

Eliminate options D and E

Split #2: Subject/verb agreement
Subject in the first that clause is earnings. Verb should be plural FALL.
Eliminate C. (Maybe A. I cannot tell.)

If A should say "FALLS," then we are finished.
Eliminate C and A.

The answer is B

If A does not use the incorrect FALL, then

Split #3: THAT vs. no THAT

Assuming that A actually should say FALL, the only different between options A and B is the word that.
A does not contain a second THAT and B does.

In this case, we need the second THAT.
We need the second part of the second IC to refer back to "study shows THAT."

One way to start? If we see a THAT clause plus an AND, we should look for another THAT clause.
We use the THAT to tie the second clause, which is very far away from the verb found, back to the verb found

A survey shows two things:
(1) THAT a "child penalty" occurs after women have children.
After women have children, that fact alone explains the difference
between women's incomes and men's incomes.

(2) THAT women whose own mothers had worked "tended to suffer less in terms of child penalties."
Presumably these women knew what they were up again prior to the fact.

Without a second THAT, option A sounds like babble.
"the women who had working mothers" is not connected to the explanation, namely, that the mere fact
of having children explains the entire difference between women's and men's incomes.

Once we attach THAT to "the women who had working mothers," though, the phrase refers back to the study's findings, and
that construction makes sense.

BTW, I think option B should say "the women who had had working mothers. . . ."
What, if the mother and grandmother are both working, the mother has an easier time?
Doubtful.

The experience of having had a working mother taught the women who did better
that those women were in for a tough ride. Those women were more prepared.

In any event, option B is the best of the lot.

Extras
• Option E: women who are [working mothers tended to suffer less in terms of child penalties.]
Given the first part of the sentence, that logic is absurd. Eliminate E.

• COMMAS in C and E probably should not be there
The study [single subject] shows THAT [clause 1] and THAT [clause 2]
We have a single subject whose verb has two direct objects [shows that (1) child penalty is X and that (2) women who had Y do better].
We usually should not split the objects with a comma, especially if the objects are dependent clauses.

Just as is the case in official questions, the options that contain commas (C and E)
contain other errors.

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Re: A recent survey done in the US shows that in 2013 child penalty   [#permalink] 08 Feb 2019, 15:10
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# A recent survey done in the US shows that in 2013 child penalty

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