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Too old to bear arms himself, Frederick Douglass served as a recruitin

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Too old to bear arms himself, Frederick Douglass served as a recruitin  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2005, 07:50
2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

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  35% (medium)

Question Stats:

71% (00:56) correct 29% (01:13) wrong based on 69 sessions

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Too old to bear arms himself, Frederick Douglass served as a recruiting agent, traveled through the North to exhort Black men to join the Union army.


(A) traveled through the North to exhort

(B) and he traveled through the North and exhorted

(C) and traveling through the North exhorted

(D) traveling through the North and exhorted

(E) traveling through the North and exhorting


After answering the question could someone respond to my query please:

Although the OA is pretty obvious, how would you syntactically show for the aforementioned construct that "served" and "exhorted" are parallel verbs with "traveling" used as a participle for recruiting agent?

IC, participle and IC with the verb elements from both the IC's being at the "same level" of recursiveness?
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Re: Frederick Douglass  [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2010, 12:43
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parallelism question ... don't let gmat confuse you with superficial parallelism, as manhattan gmat calls it

doug served as recruiter, traveled the east and hired employees
here each verb has equal emphasis

doug served as recruiter, traveling the east and hiring employees
here serve as recruiter is the main verb .... traveling and hiring are subordinate verbs .. doug traveled and hired while he served as recruiter

in the problem, travel and exhort are subordinate verbs

D: not parallel; travelling .. and exhorted
E: parallel and correct use of subordinate verb; traveling .. and exhorting

so E it is
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Re: Frederick Douglass  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2010, 12:27
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Hey All,

For what it's worth, just wanted to lend my bit of street cred to Dimitri's explanation, which is exactly right. Working out where the list starts here is paramount, and the reason we know that it begins with "traveling" instead of "served" is because logic tells us the portion after the comma here is subordinate to the first, rather than separate actions. Well done, Dimitri!

-tommy
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Re: Frederick Douglass  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2010, 18:36
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noboru wrote:
Too old to bear arms himself, Frederick Douglass served as a recruiting agent, traveled through the North to exhort Black men to join the Union army.

(A) traveled through the North to exhort
(B) and he traveled through the North and exhorted
(C) and traveling through the North exhorted
(D) traveling through the North and exhorted
(E) traveling through the North and exhorting


For me is between D and E


The way I picked between D and E was through modifiers . The present participle can modify the noun Frederick Douglass from far away while the past participle has to touch. i.e The broken door
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Re: Frederick Douglass  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2010, 13:07
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Hey Detran,

Sorry to butt in, but the explanation you gave isn't actually right. Participles (present or past) always have to touch what they're modifying if it's a noun, though they can be far away if it's a verb.

In this case, we have a LIST of modifiers, which is why one of them doesn't really get to touch (there are two of them), though it does touch in a more figurative, grammatical way. In other words, I could say:

The man born of a serpent and forged in the fires of hardship was my best friend.

Notice how "forged" is a past participle, but it doesn't touch "man". This is because it's part of a list of two participles ("born" and "forged"), and both of them can't touch (it would be physically impossible). This is NOT because past participles have any different rules surrounding them then present participles.

Hope that makes sense!

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Re: Too old to bear arms himself, Frederick Douglass served as a recruitin  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Mar 2011, 21:41
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The first thing is to define the primary purpose of the passage and then the secondary purpose or secondary purposes, if more than one. We can not logically assign all of them equal status. While the main purpose will take a working verb, the secondary purposes will take the participles, either present or past. At this juncture we must be alert to the fact that part participles very often take the form of simple past (as in this context, traveled is used as a verb here and should not be mistaken for a past participle.)

As such, Choice A will be a run-on without using a conjunction between the two verbs there - wrong

B equates traveled and exhorted with served. In addition the pronoun ‘he’ is redundant; ---wrong; if you mean to equate all the three functions, then you have to say “served, traveled and exhorted”

C equates exhorted with served --wrong

D Exhorted equated with served--- wrong

E, served remains primacy purpose and other incidentals are expressed with present participles—perfect combination and right answer.
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Re: Too old to bear arms himself, Frederick Douglass served as a recruitin  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2011, 05:07
daagh wrote:
The first thing is to define the primary purpose of the passage and then the secondary purpose or secondary purposes, if more than one. We can not logically assign all of them equal status. While the main purpose will take a working verb, the secondary purposes will take the participles, either present or past. At this juncture we must be alert to the fact that past participles very often take the form of simple past (or atmost other forms of past tense{continuous/perfect etc etc})(as in this context, traveled is used as a verb here and should not be mistaken for a past participle.)

As such, Choice A will be a run-on without using a conjunction two verbs between the two verbs there - wrong

B equates traveled and exhorted with served. In addition the pronoun ‘he’ is redundant; ---wrong; if you mean to equate all the three functions, then you have to say “served, traveled and exhorted”

C equates exhorted with served --wrong

D Exhorted equated with served--- wrong

E, served remains primacy purpose and other incidentals are expressed with present participles—perfect combination and right answer.


Hi daagh
THanks for responding..
I understood and agree your point upto a :P point as far as primary and secondary purposes are concerned.
But what I noticed was that "past participles very often take the form of simple past" does not hold good because "past participles will always take the form of simple past ", because they modify nouns in PAST. That is why they are PAST participles.

Upon some research, I found from a Grammar book that it is "PAST PASSIVE VOICE" which introduces a PAST Participial phrase in a sentence. Below is an exact excerpt from the book:

Do we only have –ing participles in participial phrases?
In addition to the –ing present participle, the –ed past participle also occurs in participial phrases. –ed participial phrases that function as adjectives are closely related to verbs in passive voice:
--> Annoyed by the students’ behavior, the teacher gave them extra work.

I hope that it is the key to this problem.

Please let me know if anyone of you reading this post has observed deviation from this rule. I will be interested in that.
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Re: Too old to bear arms himself, Frederick Douglass served as a recruitin  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 15 Mar 2011, 17:21
joshnsit wrote

Quote:
Point 1. "Past participles will always take the form of simple past ",
-- Do they always take the form of simple Past? Look at the following past participial forms.
Eat - ate - eaten
Eg: Eaten in the Mediterranean, tomatoes were once considered dangerous plants by Europeans

Here are some more examples of past participles in non past-tense forms. Please note that these past participles can not function as past tense verbs. There are so many more.
Arise Arose Arisen
Shrink shrank shrunk –
Bear - bore - borne
Begin began begun
Withdraw withdrew withdrawn
Drink drank drunk

Point 2.
Quote:
Because they modify nouns in PAST. That is why they are PAST participles.
—could you Pl clarify what exactly you mean by calling nouns in the past. Does a noun have a present, past or future?

Well! According to me nope; First thing is that the grammar book you have quoted does not connect past participle with past tense; it connects participle only with passive voice. Passive voice can be expressed both in present and past tense.

Should a past participle be connected only with past tense or can it be connected with present tense also? Let’s see.

Annoyed by the student behavior, the principal was angry
Annoyed by the student behavior, the principal is angry
Both the above are perfectly legal sentences. Few more examples

Targeted by aspirants of management studies in the US mainly, the GMAT is a bench mark test.
Targeted mainly for its affluence in the medieval era, India was battered by a series of raids by the Mediterranean empires.

Similarly, can a present participle using a verb+ing form be used both in present tens and past tense?’

Eg: Rising early in the morning, I go for a brisk walk every day;
Rising early in the morning, I used to go for a brisk walk in my young days

Dropping out from the business school, the shrewd man entered software business to become one of the legends in the history of world.

Dropping out from their primary schools because of abject poverty, many wasted children in the third world countries are becoming a burden to the society

It must now clear that present participle or past participles do not refer to the tense of the sentence; they are just lexical jargons IMO. In essence, they are in fact, timeless and tenseless expressions.
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Originally posted by daagh on 15 Mar 2011, 09:45.
Last edited by daagh on 15 Mar 2011, 17:21, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Too old to bear arms himself, Frederick Douglass served as a recruitin  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2011, 03:41
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The selection of a past or present participle in a given case will depend upon the context and the word involved, IMO. Certain verbs can not be used as past participle. For examples, ‘differed’ is a past participle form, but can u use it as a past participle? ‘Differed from’ or ‘differed by’ are not correct forms, in such cases, we are forced to use differing from and differing by.

Similarly, traveled does not fit in effectively as past participle. ‘Douglas served, traveled to North” is inelegant in the least. Secondly what will the infinitive ‘to exert’ modify now, traveled or served?

There are a few more verbs that I can remember as being suitable for present participle than for past participle. For example

Dive/ Dived / Dived
Dare/ dared/ dared
Have. Had /had
Shine/ shone/ shone
Stink/ stunk/ stunk
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Re: [Grammar Issue] the proper use of participial phrases  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Apr 2019, 03:23
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Re: [Grammar Issue] the proper use of participial phrases   [#permalink] 12 Apr 2019, 03:23
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