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#Top150 CR: In 2009 the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst

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#Top150 CR: In 2009 the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst [#permalink]

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In 2009, the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst nationwide with 148 days of unhealthy air after a report was published by the Environmental Protection Agency. In early 2010, a series of pollution control measures were enacted by local government. Still, that year the city recorded smog alerts on 153 days and 160 days the following year. In 2012, however, the number of smog alerts in Los Bernardinos dropped to 118. Air pollutants from cars, buses and trucks, particularly ground-level ozone and particulate matter, can worsen respiratory diseases and trigger asthma attacks. These pollutants have been measured by gas spectrography from 2009-2012.

Which of the following statements, assuming that each is true, would be LEAST helpful in explaining the air pollution levels in Los Bernardinos between 2009 and 2012?

A. The 2010 air pollution control measures enacted in Los Bernardinos were put into effect in 2012.

B. In early 2012, the Pollution Control Board of Los Bernardinos revised the scale used to determine the amount of air pollution considered unhealthful.

C. In early 2012, a new and far more accurate gas spectrometer was invented.

D. In 2011, the mayor of Los Bernardinos was found to have accepted large campaign donations from local industries and to have exempted those same industries from air pollution control measures.

E. Excess ozone and carbon monoxide (some of the air pollution particulates measured) require a minimum of two years to break down naturally in the atmosphere above a given area.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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#Top150 CR: In 2009 the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 01 Jan 2016, 12:21
IMO the answer is B.
A. The 2010 air pollution control measures enacted in Los Bernardinos were put into effect in 2012.
--> provide new information and help to explain the conclusion

B. In early 2012, the Pollution Control Board of Los Bernardinos revised the scale used to determine the amount of air pollution considered unhealthful.
-->This does not help to explain why level of pollution is reduced

C. In early 2012, a new and far more accurate gas spectrometer was invented.
-->Relevant but can be explained

D. In 2011, the mayor of Los Bernardinos was found to have accepted large campaign donations from local industries and to have exempted those same industries from air pollution control measures.
-->Relevant and can be explained

E. Excess ozone and carbon monoxide (some of the air pollution particulates measured) require a minimum of two years to break down naturally in the atmosphere above a given area.
--> Relevant and can be explained
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Originally posted by Kingsman on 01 Jan 2016, 02:46.
Last edited by Kingsman on 01 Jan 2016, 12:21, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: #Top150 CR: In 2009 the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst [#permalink]

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Ugh, tough. I went with B. We need to find the answer that is NOT helpful in explaining the drop of air pollution levels.

A. The 2010 air pollution control measures enacted in Los Bernardinos were put into effect in 2012. This would explain why levels dropped in 2012. Helpful.


B. In early 2012, the Pollution Control Board of Los Bernardinos revised the scale used to determine the amount of air pollution considered unhealthful. While the health effects of pollution are discussed, we are asked to examine what doesn't explain the drop in pollution levels. It the Pollution Control Board changed the scale and now 50 smog days are unhealthy as opposed to the previous 75 (hypothetically), that doesn't explain the drop in pollution levels.

C. In early 2012, a new and far more accurate gas spectrometer was invented. Would explain the drop in 2012. Helpful

D. In 2011, the mayor of Los Bernardinos was found to have accepted large campaign donations from local industries and to have exempted those same industries from air pollution control measures. I could possibly see this as an explanation. Just because they had been exempt from 2009-2011 doesn't mean they weren't exempt in 2012. Possibly helpful

E. Excess ozone and carbon monoxide (some of the air pollution particulates measured) require a minimum of two years to break down naturally in the atmosphere above a given area. If it took two years for the 2009 controls to take effect, that explains why the drop didn't happen until 2012. Helpful.
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#Top150 CR: In 2009 the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2016, 14:42
In 2009, the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst nationwide with 148 days of unhealthy air after a report was published by the Environmental Protection Agency. In early 2010, a series of pollution control measures were enacted by local government. Still, that year the city recorded smog alerts on 153 days and 160 days the following year. In 2012, however, the number of smog alerts in Los Bernardinos dropped to 118. Air pollutants from cars, buses and trucks, particularly ground-level ozone and particulate matter, can worsen respiratory diseases and trigger asthma attacks. These pollutants have been measured by gas spectrography from 2009-2012.

Which of the following statements, assuming that each is true, would be LEAST helpful in explaining the air pollution levels in Los Bernardinos between 2009 and 2012?

A. The 2010 air pollution control measures enacted in Los Bernardinos were put into effect in 2012..........explains the paradox

B. In early 2012, the Pollution Control Board of Los Bernardinos revised the scale used to determine the amount of air pollution considered unhealthful.........................explains the paradox

C. In early 2012, a new and far more accurate gas spectrometer was invented...........explains the paradox

D. In 2011, the mayor of Los Bernardinos was found to have accepted large campaign donations from local industries and to have exempted those same industries from air pollution control measures.............does not explain why the smog alerts dropped if the pollution increased

E. Excess ozone and carbon monoxide (some of the air pollution particulates measured) require a minimum of two years to break down naturally in the atmosphere above a given area...........explains the paradox

Here is my analysis. Please explain why C is right and D is wrong.
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Re: #Top150 CR: In 2009 the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2016, 14:59
What???? C?! What's the reasoning behind C?
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Re: #Top150 CR: In 2009 the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2016, 20:44
souvik101990 wrote:
In 2009, the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst nationwide with 148 days of unhealthy air after a report was published by the Environmental Protection Agency. In early 2010, a series of pollution control measures were enacted by local government. Still, that year the city recorded smog alerts on 153 days and 160 days the following year. In 2012, however, the number of smog alerts in Los Bernardinos dropped to 118. Air pollutants from cars, buses and trucks, particularly ground-level ozone and particulate matter, can worsen respiratory diseases and trigger asthma attacks. These pollutants have been measured by gas spectrography from 2009-2012.


tough one, was struck between C and E.


Which of the following statements, assuming that each is true, would be LEAST helpful in explaining the air pollution levels in Los Bernardinos between 2009 and 2012?

A. The 2010 air pollution control measures enacted in Los Bernardinos were put into effect in 2012.
now this explains why in 2010 and 2011 the # of days did not drop.

B. In early 2012, the Pollution Control Board of Los Bernardinos revised the scale used to determine the amount of air pollution considered unhealthful.
this one helps explain. before, the level considered unhealthful was way higher than now. thus, the number of days have decreased.

C. In early 2012, a new and far more accurate gas spectrometer was invented.
so what? does it explain why the number of days has dropped?

D. In 2011, the mayor of Los Bernardinos was found to have accepted large campaign donations from local industries and to have exempted those same industries from air pollution control measures.
now this is interesting, in 2011 people found out that some industries were not actually reducing the pollution. after everything came out to public, the pollution decreased, and thus we can explain why in 2012 the number of days decreased.

E. Excess ozone and carbon monoxide (some of the air pollution particulates measured) require a minimum of two years to break down naturally in the atmosphere above a given area.
this one help explain as well, although might not, from the first look. we are told that in 2010, the city adopted some measures. if the measures were successful, but the ozone and carbon monoxide takes time to decompose, then of course, in 2010 and 2011 the number of days with high level of smog were high, and in 2012 dropped considerably.
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Re: #Top150 CR: In 2009 the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2016, 22:16
Nevernevergiveup wrote:
In 2009, the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst nationwide with 148 days of unhealthy air after a report was published by the Environmental Protection Agency. In early 2010, a series of pollution control measures were enacted by local government. Still, that year the city recorded smog alerts on 153 days and 160 days the following year. In 2012, however, the number of smog alerts in Los Bernardinos dropped to 118. Air pollutants from cars, buses and trucks, particularly ground-level ozone and particulate matter, can worsen respiratory diseases and trigger asthma attacks. These pollutants have been measured by gas spectrography from 2009-2012.

Which of the following statements, assuming that each is true, would be LEAST helpful in explaining the air pollution levels in Los Bernardinos between 2009 and 2012?

A. The 2010 air pollution control measures enacted in Los Bernardinos were put into effect in 2012..........explains the paradox

B. In early 2012, the Pollution Control Board of Los Bernardinos revised the scale used to determine the amount of air pollution considered unhealthful.........................explains the paradox

C. In early 2012, a new and far more accurate gas spectrometer was invented...........explains the paradox

D. In 2011, the mayor of Los Bernardinos was found to have accepted large campaign donations from local industries and to have exempted those same industries from air pollution control measures.............does not explain why the smog alerts dropped if the pollution increased

E. Excess ozone and carbon monoxide (some of the air pollution particulates measured) require a minimum of two years to break down naturally in the atmosphere above a given area...........explains the paradox

Here is my analysis. Please explain why C is right and D is wrong.


C actually doesn't help us to analyse the air pollution levels between 2009-2012.

Just compare the words of the two options:

B. In early 2012, the Pollution Control Board of Los Bernardinos revised the scale used to determine the amount of air pollution considered unhealthful

Suppose the scale was 0-100 mg/Nm3 dust level. This scale was changes to, say, 0-250 mg/Nm3. what would happen next? This leads to increased amount of pollution level currently exisiting.

It is now connected to final sentence of the argument-----

"Air pollutants from cars, buses and trucks, particularly ground-level ozone and particulate matter, can worsen respiratory diseases and trigger asthma attacks. These pollutants have been measured by gas spectrography from 2009-2012."

Thanks,

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Re: #Top150 CR: In 2009 the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jan 2016, 13:25
sun01 wrote:
Nevernevergiveup wrote:
In 2009, the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst nationwide with 148 days of unhealthy air after a report was published by the Environmental Protection Agency. In early 2010, a series of pollution control measures were enacted by local government. Still, that year the city recorded smog alerts on 153 days and 160 days the following year. In 2012, however, the number of smog alerts in Los Bernardinos dropped to 118. Air pollutants from cars, buses and trucks, particularly ground-level ozone and particulate matter, can worsen respiratory diseases and trigger asthma attacks. These pollutants have been measured by gas spectrography from 2009-2012.

Which of the following statements, assuming that each is true, would be LEAST helpful in explaining the air pollution levels in Los Bernardinos between 2009 and 2012?

A. The 2010 air pollution control measures enacted in Los Bernardinos were put into effect in 2012..........explains the paradox

B. In early 2012, the Pollution Control Board of Los Bernardinos revised the scale used to determine the amount of air pollution considered unhealthful.........................explains the paradox

C. In early 2012, a new and far more accurate gas spectrometer was invented...........explains the paradox

D. In 2011, the mayor of Los Bernardinos was found to have accepted large campaign donations from local industries and to have exempted those same industries from air pollution control measures.............does not explain why the smog alerts dropped if the pollution increased

E. Excess ozone and carbon monoxide (some of the air pollution particulates measured) require a minimum of two years to break down naturally in the atmosphere above a given area...........explains the paradox

Here is my analysis. Please explain why C is right and D is wrong.


C actually doesn't help us to analyse the air pollution levels between 2009-2012.

Just compare the words of the two options:

B. In early 2012, the Pollution Control Board of Los Bernardinos revised the scale used to determine the amount of air pollution considered unhealthful

Suppose the scale was 0-100 mg/Nm3 dust level. This scale was changes to, say, 0-250 mg/Nm3. what would happen next? This leads to increased amount of pollution level currently exisiting.

It is now connected to final sentence of the argument-----

"Air pollutants from cars, buses and trucks, particularly ground-level ozone and particulate matter, can worsen respiratory diseases and trigger asthma attacks. These pollutants have been measured by gas spectrography from 2009-2012."

Thanks,

Sun01


I would have to agree here. Between B and C, C would not affect the drop in pollution level because even if a new spectrometer was INVENTED, the answer choice does not suggest anything about it being implemented in early 2012 (which would give this choice a little more credibility in explaining the paradox). Furthermore, I would say that B can explain the paradox because if the scale was changed, the smog alert may not be triggered, and therefore cause a reduction in the "pollution days".

Either way, I think B is poorly worded and slightly ambiguous in meaning.
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#Top150 CR: In 2009 the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst [#permalink]

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New post 29 Feb 2016, 10:17
confused about C - if it was more accurate, it could be reading more correctly now - this could mean that earlier it was raising false alerts.. so how can C least explain the paradox? It certainly can go both ways.

If the meter was inaccurate before, it could be reading incorrectly and raising unnecessary false alerts?
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#Top150 CR: In 2009 the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst [#permalink]

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New post 19 Oct 2016, 07:08
dina98 wrote:
confused about C - if it was more accurate, it could be reading more correctly now - this could mean that earlier it was raising false alerts.. so how can C least explain the paradox? It certainly can go both ways.

If the meter was inaccurate before, it could be reading incorrectly and raising unnecessary false alerts?


All the answers can explain the drop in 2012. However, the question is “which would be the LEAST helpful"

A. Explains

B. The scale could be very different in 2012. Explains

C. The premise does not say that the older gas spectrometer was very inaccurate, just that the new one is more accurate. The drop is too steep to be blamed for the accuracy of the spectrometer. Even if the new gas spectrometer could explain some drop, it is the least helpful.

D. When the mayor of Los Bernardinos was found to have accepted donations (He was stopped, so in 2012 those industries were not exempted.) Explains

E. Explains

Answer is C
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#Top150 CR: In 2009 the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst [#permalink]

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Option C:
If an accurate* detector was invented in 2012, then the number of alarms should have INCREASED (not decreased) in 2012. However the passage states that the number of smog alerts in Los Bernardinos dropped to 118. Thus invention of detector DOES NOT EXPLAIN the trend seen during the period. Hence Option C is the correct answer.

(*N.B.: Technically, the wording should have been "more sensitive", not "more accurate". Sensitivity of an instrument causes more number of true alarms that are not possible to detect by a less sensitive instrument. Accuracy of an instrument has nothing to do with more number of alarms.)
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Re: #Top150 CR: In 2009 the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst [#permalink]

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New post 11 Apr 2018, 14:57
I don't agree with this answer at all. A more accurate measuring instrument could absolutely affect the number of smog days recorded. Lets say our threshold is for smog is 10 units (whatever that means). I could have true measurements of 9.9999, 10.0005, 9.9999 10.0004. If my measuring instrument can only give me to the 100ths spot I would likely have four measurements of 10 instead of 2 measures above and 2 measurements below.

Also the example I gave was very small incremental number differences, but the answer states that it was "far more accurate." I personally picked D, although I wasn't happy with that answer either.
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Re: #Top150 CR: In 2009 the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst [#permalink]

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New post 11 Apr 2018, 20:23
IMO "C".

Which of the following statements, assuming that each is true, would be LEAST helpful in explaining the air pollution levels in Los Bernardinos between 2009 and 2012?

C. In early 2012, a new and far more accurate gas spectrometer was invented.

Invention of a more accurate spectrometer in 2012 has nothing to explain the air pollution levels between 2009-2012.
Re: #Top150 CR: In 2009 the city of Los Bernardinos ranked worst   [#permalink] 11 Apr 2018, 20:23
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