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In 1868, Hayward was hit with a major earthquake that shook the East

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In 1868, Hayward was hit with a major earthquake that shook the East  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2018, 20:55
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In 1868, Hayward was hit with a major earthquake that shook the East Bay and was one of the most destructive quakes in California history, with a magnitude of 6.8 to 7.0 on the Richter scale. As this earthquake happened almost a century and a half ago, many people may have forgotten about it. But to forget an earthquake, especially this one, would be a mistake. The residents of California’s East Bay should note that the last five earthquakes on the Hayward Fault were each 140 years apart.

The Hayward Fault is a type of earthquake fault called strike-slip. In a strike-slip fault, the movement of blocks along a fault is horizontal. In these earthquake zones, the phenomenon of force released from the fault has a repetitive pattern of occurrence, which provides geologists with an approximate timeframe for estimating upcoming earthquakes. Thus, an earthquake in California can be expected before long, especially after the 1989 Loma Prieta quake near the San Andreas Fault zone, which registered as 6.9 on the Richter scale. This scale, developed in the 1930s, is a base-10 logarithmic scale that defines magnitude as the logarithm of the ratio of the amplitude of the seismic waves to an arbitrary, minor amplitude. Today, because of earthquake retrofitting, most homes in the Bay Area are designed to withstand small-to-medium earthquakes. The majority, however, cannot withstand a quake of 8.0 magnitude on the Richter scale. The material of a home’s foundation, i.e. whether it is built on solid stone, dirt or sand, is an important determining factor in how much movement the structure experiences while the earth shakes. A solid stone foundation experiences significantly less vibration than does sand, which acts like water during a quake.

The biggest changes between 1868 and today, in terms of earthquake preparedness, stem from urbanization, which has made earthquakes more threatening. Buildings are no longer limited to single-story houses and shops, but include skyscrapers. To assist residents in high-risk earthquake zones like the Hayward Fault, California has invested in ShakeAlert, a system designed to deliver a quick warning to people who may be in harm’s way due to collapsing infrastructure in the case of an earthquake. However, the ShakeAlert system notifies users only a few seconds in advance of an earthquake. Thus, the residents of California must make sure they are individually fully prepared for the upcoming earthquake.


1. Which of the following titles best summarizes the contents of the passage?

a. Technology for Earthquake Strikes
b. The Richter Scale: No Alert is Better
c. The 1868 Earthquake in Hayward Fault: Why It Matters Today
d. California Earthquakes: How to Measure Them
e. The Evolution of Earthquake Assessment


2. Which of the following is true of the next Hayward Fault earthquake?

a. It is expected to be less devastating than the last Hayward Fault earthquake.
b. It should be expected any time soon.
c. It is the reason for the development of an early warning system called ShakeAlert.
d. It is forecast to happen in about 140 years from now.
e. Its magnitude is forecast to be between 6.8 and 7.0 on the Richter scale.


3. The author implies that ALL the following statements about earthquakes are true, EXCEPT:

a. A house built on sand would probably have more structural damage after a quake than a house built on granite.
b. California residents living in major earthquake zones should be aware of past earthquakes because they tend to be cyclical.
c. While buildings are now retrofitted for earthquakes, the risk of damage is higher nowadays because of skyscrapers.
d. Had the Loma Prieta quake happened today, most houses in California would have survived it.
e. The magnitude of the quake determines the amount of damage, thus the Hayward quake of 1868 and the Loma Prieta quake had the same destructive impact.


4. The author mentions the homes’ foundations mainly to

a. give a baseline structural integrity measurement for the Richter scale.
b. understand the different possible impacts earthquakes can have on homes, based on their foundational materials.
c. show that the Richter scale does not alone determine the impact of quake damage.
d. demonstrate the vulnerability of houses in earthquake zones.
e. give a demonstration of the impact of an 8.0 earthquake on different foundational surfaces.


5. The author implies ShakeAlert is flawed because it does NOT provide

a. long-term detection against quakes.
b. an alert for residents against structural damage in their homes after a quake.
c. calculation of the strength and velocity of the P-waves as they arrive.
d. analysis of the infrastructure of the buildings.
e. any protection to the user of the device.


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Re: In 1868, Hayward was hit with a major earthquake that shook the East  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2018, 21:38

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Re: In 1868, Hayward was hit with a major earthquake that shook the East  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2018, 13:12
3
1. Which of the following titles best summarizes the contents of the passage?

a. Technology for Earthquake Strikes- out of scope
b. The Richter Scale: No Alert is Better- Only partial scope
c. The 1868 Earthquake in Hayward Fault: Why It Matters Today - main summary
d. California Earthquakes: How to Measure Them - only partial scope
e. The Evolution of Earthquake Assessment -out of scope

2. Which of the following is true of the next Hayward Fault earthquake?

a. It is expected to be less devastating than the last Hayward Fault earthquake. -out of scope
b. It should be expected any time soon. - given in 2nd para "Thus, an earthquake in California can be expected before long, especially after the 1989 Loma Prieta quake near the San Andreas Fault zone, which registered as 6.9 on the Richter scale."
c. It is the reason for the development of an early warning system called ShakeAlert. - out of scope
d. It is forecast to happen in about 140 years from now. - the time period is not defined for "from now" - Inconsistent
e. Its magnitude is forecast to be between 6.8 and 7.0 on the Richter scale. - cannot determine - out of scope

3. The author implies that ALL the following statements about earthquakes are true, EXCEPT:

a. A house built on sand would probably have more structural damage after a quake than a house built on granite. - given in 2nd para
b. California residents living in major earthquake zones should be aware of past earthquakes because they tend to be cyclical.
- given in 1 st para
c. While buildings are now retrofitted for earthquakes, the risk of damage is higher nowadays because of skyscrapers. - given in last para
d. Had the Loma Prieta quake happened today, most houses in California would have survived it. - given in 2nd para
e. The magnitude of the quake determines the amount of damage, thus the Hayward quake of 1868 and the Loma Prieta quake had the same destructive impact. - inconsistent with the passage

4. The author mentions the homes’ foundations mainly to

a. give a baseline structural integrity measurement for the Richter scale. - out of scope
b. understand the different possible impacts earthquakes can have on homes, based on their foundational materials. - inconsistent
c. show that the Richter scale does not alone determine the impact of quake damage. - as stated in the passage, the amount is take into consideration when the structure takes the quake. If richter scale is high and the structure movement is less, this can be concluded that RS is not alone in determing the impact of quake.
d. demonstrate the vulnerability of houses in earthquake zones. - out of scope
e. give a demonstration of the impact of an 8.0 earthquake on different foundational surfaces. - out of scope

5. The author implies ShakeAlert is flawed because it does NOT provide

a. long-term detection against quakes. - given in last para
b. an alert for residents against structural damage in their homes after a quake. - Inconsistent
c. calculation of the strength and velocity of the P-waves as they arrive. - out of scope
d. analysis of the infrastructure of the buildings. - out of scope
e. any protection to the user of the device. - inconsistent
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Re: In 1868, Hayward was hit with a major earthquake that shook the East  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Dec 2018, 15:25
could anyone clarify the 4th a bit? B still makes sense.
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Re: In 1868, Hayward was hit with a major earthquake that shook the East  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Dec 2018, 18:11
Q3 - "Today, because of earthquake retrofitting, most homes in the Bay Area are designed to withstand small-to-medium earthquakes."
in this statement the info is only about the houses in bayarea and not the entire california but in option D we are talking about MOST houses in california..
Could you please temme where can i find support for this??? "most houses in CALIFORNIA" aragonn
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Re: In 1868, Hayward was hit with a major earthquake that shook the East  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Dec 2018, 18:31

Official Explanation for Q3:


the question looks for implication. The statements supporting answers (A) to (D) are: (A) "solid stone foundation will feel significantly less vibration than sand"; (B) "the Hayward Fault is... strike-slip... [which has) a repetitive pattern of occurrence"; (C) "today, most homes in the Bay Area are designed to withstand small-to-medium earthquakes due to earthquake retrofitting....The biggest changes... which made earthquakes riskier... buildings... include sky scrapers"; (D) "...the 1989 Loma Prieta quake, which was a 6.9 on the Richter scale... Today, most homes in the Bay Area... cannot hold against an 8.0 magnitude on the Richter scale." (E) is not implied, since the definition of the Richter scale does not relate to the destructive impact.
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Re: In 1868, Hayward was hit with a major earthquake that shook the East  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Dec 2018, 22:31
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aragonn

Need help with Q4. Not able to eliminate option B)
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Re: In 1868, Hayward was hit with a major earthquake that shook the East  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Dec 2018, 01:46
Dear aragonn,

Can you please post the OEs? Great passage!

Best,
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Re: In 1868, Hayward was hit with a major earthquake that shook the East  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Dec 2018, 05:52
1. Which of the following titles best summarizes the contents of the passage?
a. Technology for Earthquake Strikes - Incorrect - Though the passage talks about technology to minimise the damage of earthquakes, it is not the main point
b. The Richter Scale: No Alert is Better - Incorrect - the passage does talk about ShakeAlert but it is not the main point
c. The 1868 Earthquake in Hayward Fault: Why It Matters Today - Correct
d. California Earthquakes: How to Measure Them - Incorrect
e. The Evolution of Earthquake Assessment - Incorrect

Answer C

2. Which of the following is true of the next Hayward Fault earthquake?
b. It should be expected any time soon. - Correct

The residents of California’s East Bay should note that the last five earthquakes on the Hayward Fault were each 140 years apart.

3. The author implies that ALL the following statements about earthquakes are true, EXCEPT:

a. A house built on sand would probably have more structural damage after a quake than a house built on granite. - Incorrect - Here we should know(assume) that granite is a solid stone?

The material of a home’s foundation, i.e. whether it is built on solid stone, dirt or sand, is an important determining factor in how much movement the structure experiences while the earth shakes. A solid stone foundation experiences significantly less vibration than does sand, which acts like water during a quake.

b. California residents living in major earthquake zones should be aware of past earthquakes because they tend to be cyclical. - Incorrect - it is mentioned
c. While buildings are now retrofitted for earthquakes, the risk of damage is higher nowadays because of skyscrapers. - Incorrect

d. Had the Loma Prieta quake happened today, most houses in California would have survived it.
Today, because of earthquake retrofitting, most homes in the Bay Area are designed to withstand small-to-medium earthquakes. ---> As per the bolded portion, we can infer that earthquake retrofitting was done in the Bay area. How can we infer that most houses in California will survive ?

The majority, however, cannot withstand a quake of 8.0 magnitude on the Richter scale. --> the 1989 Loma Prieta quake is well below the 8 magnitude

e. The magnitude of the quake determines the amount of damage, thus the Hayward quake of 1868 and the Loma Prieta quake had the same destructive impact. - The destructive impact depends on other factors too such as material of a home’s foundation , skyscrapers etc


4. The author mentions the homes’ foundations mainly to

a. give a baseline structural integrity measurement for the Richter scale. - Incorrect

b. understand the different possible impacts earthquakes can have on homes, based on their foundational materials. - I think different possible impact can also be interpreted as magnitude of the impact

c. show that the Richter scale does not alone determine the impact of quake damage. - The material of a home's foundation also affects the damage caused by a quake

The material of a home’s foundation, i.e. whether it is built on solid stone, dirt or sand, is an important determining factor in how much movement the structure experiences while the earth shakes. A solid stone foundation experiences significantly less vibration than does sand, which acts like water during a quake.

d. demonstrate the vulnerability of houses in earthquake zones. - Incorrect
e. give a demonstration of the impact of an 8.0 earthquake on different foundational surfaces. - Incorrect


In 4, I found it difficult to eliminate one after narrowing down to B and C.

5. The author implies ShakeAlert is flawed because it does NOT provide

a. long-term detection against quakes. - Correct
However, the ShakeAlert system notifies users only a few seconds in advance of an earthquake.


AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , DavidTutorexamPAL , other experts - please provide your advice for questions 3 and 4.
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Re: In 1868, Hayward was hit with a major earthquake that shook the East  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2019, 07:37
Experts, please clarify Question 4 as even i was down to the same two options and marked B as it looked more appropriate

Skywalker18 wrote:
1. Which of the following titles best summarizes the contents of the passage?
a. Technology for Earthquake Strikes - Incorrect - Though the passage talks about technology to minimise the damage of earthquakes, it is not the main point
b. The Richter Scale: No Alert is Better - Incorrect - the passage does talk about ShakeAlert but it is not the main point
c. The 1868 Earthquake in Hayward Fault: Why It Matters Today - Correct
d. California Earthquakes: How to Measure Them - Incorrect
e. The Evolution of Earthquake Assessment - Incorrect

Answer C

2. Which of the following is true of the next Hayward Fault earthquake?
b. It should be expected any time soon. - Correct

The residents of California’s East Bay should note that the last five earthquakes on the Hayward Fault were each 140 years apart.

3. The author implies that ALL the following statements about earthquakes are true, EXCEPT:

a. A house built on sand would probably have more structural damage after a quake than a house built on granite. - Incorrect - Here we should know(assume) that granite is a solid stone?

The material of a home’s foundation, i.e. whether it is built on solid stone, dirt or sand, is an important determining factor in how much movement the structure experiences while the earth shakes. A solid stone foundation experiences significantly less vibration than does sand, which acts like water during a quake.

b. California residents living in major earthquake zones should be aware of past earthquakes because they tend to be cyclical. - Incorrect - it is mentioned
c. While buildings are now retrofitted for earthquakes, the risk of damage is higher nowadays because of skyscrapers. - Incorrect

d. Had the Loma Prieta quake happened today, most houses in California would have survived it.
Today, because of earthquake retrofitting, most homes in the Bay Area are designed to withstand small-to-medium earthquakes. ---> As per the bolded portion, we can infer that earthquake retrofitting was done in the Bay area. How can we infer that most houses in California will survive ?

The majority, however, cannot withstand a quake of 8.0 magnitude on the Richter scale. --> the 1989 Loma Prieta quake is well below the 8 magnitude

e. The magnitude of the quake determines the amount of damage, thus the Hayward quake of 1868 and the Loma Prieta quake had the same destructive impact. - The destructive impact depends on other factors too such as material of a home’s foundation , skyscrapers etc


4. The author mentions the homes’ foundations mainly to

a. give a baseline structural integrity measurement for the Richter scale. - Incorrect

b. understand the different possible impacts earthquakes can have on homes, based on their foundational materials. - I think different possible impact can also be interpreted as magnitude of the impact

c. show that the Richter scale does not alone determine the impact of quake damage. - The material of a home's foundation also affects the damage caused by a quake

The material of a home’s foundation, i.e. whether it is built on solid stone, dirt or sand, is an important determining factor in how much movement the structure experiences while the earth shakes. A solid stone foundation experiences significantly less vibration than does sand, which acts like water during a quake.

d. demonstrate the vulnerability of houses in earthquake zones. - Incorrect
e. give a demonstration of the impact of an 8.0 earthquake on different foundational surfaces. - Incorrect


In 4, I found it difficult to eliminate one after narrowing down to B and C.

5. The author implies ShakeAlert is flawed because it does NOT provide

a. long-term detection against quakes. - Correct
However, the ShakeAlert system notifies users only a few seconds in advance of an earthquake.


AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , DavidTutorexamPAL , other experts - please provide your advice for questions 3 and 4.
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Re: In 1868, Hayward was hit with a major earthquake that shook the East  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2019, 02:25
How do tell the value of small-to-medium earthquakes on the Richter scale ?
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Re: In 1868, Hayward was hit with a major earthquake that shook the East  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2019, 19:16
Hi,
For the 5th question option A ,what i interpreted from "long term detection" is does the shake alert is good for further usage after years for detecting the quakes..and since i know that last para states the "However, the ShakeAlert system notifies users only a few seconds in advance of an earthquake."....How to relate the "few seconds in advance" to "long term detection"

Please assist
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Re: In 1868, Hayward was hit with a major earthquake that shook the East  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2019, 23:43
Can anyone explain question 4?
I am not convinced with option c as the answer

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Re: In 1868, Hayward was hit with a major earthquake that shook the East   [#permalink] 23 Jun 2019, 23:43
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