GMAT Question of the Day: Daily via email | Daily via Instagram New to GMAT Club? Watch this Video

It is currently 11 Jul 2020, 20:31

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Unlike vaccinations for polio, measles, mumps, and many other virus-bo

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Find Similar Topics 
GMAT Club team member
User avatar
V
Status: GMAT Club Team Member
Affiliations: GMAT Club
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 6257
GPA: 3.62
Unlike vaccinations for polio, measles, mumps, and many other virus-bo  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Oct 2019, 07:20
1
Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 148 sessions

85% (02:43) correct 15% (02:19) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 147 sessions

59% (01:34) correct 41% (01:29) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 143 sessions

40% (01:33) correct 60% (01:32) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 413, Date: 26-Oct-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Unlike vaccinations for polio, measles, mumps, and many other virus-borne diseases, which yield lifetime protection with one vaccination or a short series of vaccinations, vaccinations combating the influenza virus must be administered annually, and even then they may not be fully successful in preventing illness. The reason for this striking difference is the ability of the influenza virus to evolve quickly. The antigens, the parts of the influenza virus recognized by the human body, include two important surface proteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Hemagglutinin is involved in the invasion of a cell within the human body, and neuraminidase assists in the release of new viruses from the cell after the viruses are replicated. As hemagglutinin is copied, it is not replicated exactly, so the human immune system does not recognize the mutation as the same protein it has encountered before and does not inaugurate the immune response. In this process, called antigenic drift, the known strains of influenza are recognized and effectively combated, but, unchallenged by the immune system, mutated viruses are able to reproduce freely and, thus, form a new strain of influenza.

Researchers in immune therapy are working on a variety of innovations to improve influenza vaccinations such as faster methods of production of vaccines and improvements to existing vaccines to strengthen the immune response of the human body. By far the most intriguing of these efforts are researchers’ attempts to produce vaccines that would target the evolutionarily conserved areas of the influenza virus. The stem that attaches hemagglutinin to the virus, the neuraminidase protein, and M2—a protein found in the membrane of the influenza virus—all appear to be nearly identical across virus strains and seem to evolve slowly. While much work remains to be done, a vaccine targeting one of these may be the key to a one-time immunization protocol that would provide efficacious protection against most influenza strains.

Spoiler: :: OA
D

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) explain the process by which the influenza virus mutates quickly, thus making the development of a single vaccination impossible
(B) identify the action of hemagglutinin within the influenza virus that causes the virus to evolve rapidly
(C) compare and contrast the influenza virus with the viruses that cause polio, measles, mumps, and other virus-borne diseases
(D) discuss the reason influenza vaccinations are administered annually and recent innovations in research that may address this anomaly
(E) describe the mechanism of antigenic drift and how this process affects the human immune system


Spoiler: :: OA
B

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which of the following to be true about a vaccine that could provide permanent protection against influenza with a single immunization protocol?

(A) Research into such a vaccine is promising, and the vaccine will be available soon if tests are completed successfully.
(B) The vaccine could affect neuraminidase or other areas of the virus that do not mutate rapidly.
(C) Such a vaccine cannot be effective because hemagglutinin antigens evolve too quickly.
(D) The vaccine will most likely target hemagglutinin antigens because their rapid mutation makes them susceptible to the defenses of the human immune system.
(E) The vaccine will have a similar mechanism to that of the vaccines now administered for polio, measles, mumps, and other virus-borne diseases.


Spoiler: :: OA
E

3. According to the passage, each of the following is true of the influenza virus EXCEPT:

(A) The rapid evolution of hemagglutinin on the surface of the virus can prevent the human immune system from recognizing and attacking the virus.
(B) Some of the surface proteins on the influenza virus have different functions.
(C) The antigenic drift of the influenza virus means that a vaccine against influenza must change frequently.
(D) Annual immunization is not always effective protection against the influenza virus.
(E) The influenza virus is remarkable in its ability to mutate more rapidly than any other known virus.



Source: Kaplan Prep Plus 2020

_________________
Verbal Forum Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: Greatness begins beyond your comfort zone
Joined: 08 Dec 2013
Posts: 2445
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
Schools: Kelley '20, ISB '19
GPA: 3.2
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge
Re: Unlike vaccinations for polio, measles, mumps, and many other virus-bo  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 Oct 2019, 02:27
1
1
All correct in 7 mins,including 3 mins 30 seconds to read.

Para 1- influenza virus(IV) vaccines must be administered annually, and even then they may not be fully successful in preventing illness, ability of the influenza virus to evolve quickly- As hemagglutinin is copied, it is not replicated exactly
Para 2- R&D on improving IV vaccines, target the evolutionarily conserved areas of the influenza virus

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(D) discuss the reason influenza vaccinations are administered annually and recent innovations in research that may address this anomaly- Correct

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which of the following to be true about a vaccine that could provide permanent protection against influenza with a single immunization protocol?
(B) The vaccine could affect neuraminidase or other areas of the virus that do not mutate rapidly.
By far the most intriguing of these efforts are researchers’ attempts to produce vaccines that would target the evolutionarily conserved areas of the influenza virus. The stem that attaches hemagglutinin to the virus, the neuraminidase protein, and M2—a protein found in the membrane of the influenza virus—all appear to be nearly identical across virus strains and seem to evolve slowly.

3. According to the passage, each of the following is true of the influenza virus EXCEPT:

(A) The rapid evolution of hemagglutinin on the surface of the virus can prevent the human immune system from recognizing and attacking the virus.- incorrect, As hemagglutinin is copied, it is not replicated exactly, so the human immune system does not recognize the mutation as the same protein it has encountered before and does not inaugurate the immune response.
(B) Some of the surface proteins on the influenza virus have different functions.- incorrect, include two important surface proteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase; the functions are also listed
(C) The antigenic drift of the influenza virus means that a vaccine against influenza must change frequently.- incorrect,
In this process, called antigenic drift, the known strains of influenza are recognized and effectively combated, but, unchallenged by the immune system, mutated viruses are able to reproduce freely and, thus, form a new strain of influenza.
(D) Annual immunization is not always effective protection against the influenza virus. - incorrect
vaccinations combating the influenza virus must be administered annually, and even then they may not be fully successful in preventing illness.
(E) The influenza virus is remarkable in its ability to mutate more rapidly than any other known virus.- Correct, we don't whether influenza virus is No 1 among the known viruses in the ability to mutuate
_________________
When everything seems to be going against you, remember that the airplane takes off against the wind, not with it. - Henry Ford
The Moment You Think About Giving Up, Think Of The Reason Why You Held On So Long
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 24 Jan 2019
Posts: 16
Re: Unlike vaccinations for polio, measles, mumps, and many other virus-bo  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Mar 2020, 05:24
please provide explanation for 3 question...and why the oa is correct
CrackVerbal Representative
User avatar
G
Affiliations: CrackVerbal
Joined: 03 Oct 2013
Posts: 1890
Location: India
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
Re: Unlike vaccinations for polio, measles, mumps, and many other virus-bo  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Mar 2020, 06:04
1
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

The first paragraph of the passage explains the changes in the influenza virus as it mutates and hence the requirement of frequent vaccinations. The second paragraph talks about the steps being taken by researchers to develop a one-time vaccination for flu.

(A) explain the process by which the influenza virus mutates quickly, thus making the development of a single vaccination impossible The passage does not explain the steps of mutation, nor does it say that the development of a single vaccine is "impossible. Eliminate.

(B) identify the action of hemagglutinin within the influenza virus that causes the virus to evolve rapidly The passage only states that the hemagglutinin evolves, whether rapidly or not we do not know. It also does not specify the specific action by which it evolves. Eliminate.

(C) compare and contrast the influenza virus with the viruses that cause polio, measles, mumps, and other virus-borne diseases There is only one sentence (the first, maybe the second as well) which contrasts the flu virus with those of other diseases - this cannot be the "primary purpose" of the passage. Eliminate.

(D) discuss the reason influenza vaccinations are administered annually and recent innovations in research that may address this anomaly Correct. Consistent with our thinking above.

(E) describe the mechanism of antigenic drift and how this process affects the human immune system The passage does not describe the "process" or antigenic drift. Eliminate.

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which of the following to be true about a vaccine that could provide permanent protection against influenza with a single immunization protocol?

On this topic, the author's opinion is given by: "While much work remains to be done, a vaccine targeting one of these may be the key to a one-time immunization protocol that would provide efficacious protection against most influenza strains."

(A) Research into such a vaccine is promising, and the vaccine will be available soon if tests are completed successfully. The author does not state this. Eliminate.

(B) The vaccine could affect neuraminidase or other areas of the virus that do not mutate rapidly. Correct. Consistent with above.

(C) Such a vaccine cannot be effective because hemagglutinin antigens evolve too quickly. The author does not state this. Eliminate.

(D) The vaccine will most likely target hemagglutinin antigens because their rapid mutation makes them susceptible to the defenses of the human immune system. The author, in fact, states that such a vaccine should target neuraminidase and not hemagglutinin. Eliminate.

(E) The vaccine will have a similar mechanism to that of the vaccines now administered for polio, measles, mumps, and other virus-borne diseases. The author does not state this. Eliminate.

3. According to the passage, each of the following is true of the influenza virus EXCEPT:

(A) The rapid evolution of hemagglutinin on the surface of the virus can prevent the human immune system from recognizing and attacking the virus. This is true ("As hemagglutinin is copied, it is not replicated exactly, so the human immune system does not recognize the mutation as the same protein it has encountered before and does not inaugurate the immune response"). Eliminate.

(B) Some of the surface proteins on the influenza virus have different functions. This is true. Different functions are identified for the surface proteins neuraminidase ("..assists in the release of new viruses from the cell..") and hemagglutinin ("..involved in the invasion of a cell .."). Eliminate.

(C) The antigenic drift of the influenza virus means that a vaccine against influenza must change frequently. This is true ("..the known strains of influenza are recognized and effectively combated, but, unchallenged by the immune system, mutated viruses are able to reproduce freely and, thus, form a new strain of influenza" and "vaccinations combating the influenza virus must be administered annually...the reason for this striking difference is the ability of the influenza virus to evolve quickly"). Eliminate.

(D) Annual immunization is not always effective protection against the influenza virus. This is true ("..vaccinations combating the influenza virus must be administered annually, and even then they may not be fully successful in preventing illness.."). Eliminate.

(E) The influenza virus is remarkable in its ability to mutate more rapidly than any other known virus. Correct. The passage does not state anything about the ability of the flu virus to mutate compared to other viruses.

Hope this helps.
_________________
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Unlike vaccinations for polio, measles, mumps, and many other virus-bo   [#permalink] 18 Mar 2020, 06:04

Unlike vaccinations for polio, measles, mumps, and many other virus-bo

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  





Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne