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Until recently, nearly everyone thought of intelligence as a single en

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Until recently, nearly everyone thought of intelligence as a single en [#permalink]

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Source: Manhattan Prep Question Bank - Reading Comprehension

Until recently, nearly everyone thought of intelligence as a single entity that could be measured by a simple IQ test. In 1983, however, Dr. Howard Gardner, a professor of education at Harvard University, introduced his theory of multiple intelligences. Today, there are two major schools of thought on intelligence. Despite extensive and ongoing research, scientists have been unable to prove definitively one theory over the other.

The single intelligence model is based on the idea of one general intelligence, known as positive manifold or simply g. Perhaps the most convincing evidence in support of this theory is the fact that individuals who perform well on tests of one cognitive ability also perform well on tests of a second cognitive ability. For example, those who do well on verbal tests also do well on mathematics tests, and vice versa. Another argument in support of the general intelligence theory is the strong positive correlation between intelligent quotient, or IQ, as measured by psychometric tests, and reaction time. Individuals with faster reaction times or neural processing speeds have higher IQs, suggesting that neural processing speed is equivalent to the one general intelligence.

The theory of multiple intelligences asserts that there is more than one type of intelligence. Proponents of this model differ on the number of intelligences. Gardner, for example, originally proposed seven, but has since added an eighth. His categories are linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. Dr. Robert Sternberg, a professor of psychology and education at Yale University, proposes a triarchic theory of intelligence, which divides intelligence into three categories: analytical, creative, and practical. Gardner’s theory is supported primarily by biological evidence. By studying individuals with paralysis, speech impairment, or other disabilities, Gardner has been able to identify specific parts of the brain associated with different physical and cognitive skills. Sternberg’s model relies on observations of real-life situations. He notes that in Brazil, for example, street children can do the math they need to know to survive, thereby demonstrating practical intelligence, but cannot pass a school math class, which requires analytical intelligence.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA & OE
This is a specific question pertaining to the correlation between IQ and reaction time. Recall that for specific questions, we should be able to find one or two sentences to defend the correct answer choice.

(A) The correlation between IQ and reaction time supports the theory of general intelligence, not multiple intelligences.

(B) As stated above, the correlation is evidence in favor of the general intelligence model.

(C) While positive manifold is associated with the general intelligence model, the author introduces the idea of positive manifold earlier in the second paragraph. The key idea or term associated with the correlation between IQ and reaction time is neural processing speed.

(D) CORRECT. The passage specifically states, “Another argument in support of the general intelligence theory is the strong correlation between IQ and reaction time.”

(E) This statement is too extreme. The author does not indicate that one theory is better or worse than the other.

1. The author mentions the correlation between IQ and reaction time in order to

(A) provide justification for Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences

(B) explain the triarchic model of intelligence proposed by Robert Sternberg

(C) introduce the idea of positive manifold

(D) point out one argument in support of general intelligence

(E) prove that the single intelligence model is superior to the theory of multiple intelligences


[Reveal] Spoiler: OA & OE
Your answer to an inference question must be supported by evidence from the passage. Remember that Reading Comprehension inferences rarely go far beyond what is stated in the passage, so you should infer as little as possible.

(A) The author describes two theories of intelligence, but does not indicate that one is more prominent than the other.

(B) CORRECT. In the first paragraph, the author states that “Until recently, nearly all researchers thought of intelligence as a single entity.” This traditional view was challenged when Howard Gardner introduced a theory of multiple intelligences in 1983.

(C) Although the passage suggests that Sternberg’s model is supported primarily by “observations of real-life situations,” we cannot be sure that there is no biological evidence for his model.

(D) This answer choice is tempting because the author cites Sternberg’s observation that street children in Brazil exhibit relatively low analytical intelligence. However, it is unclear from the passage how Sternberg’s concept of analytical intelligence correlates with IQ.

(E) The passage does not mention schoolteachers, nor give any indication of their views on intelligence.

2. It can be inferred from the passage that

(A) the theory of multiple intelligences is more prominent than the single intelligence model

(B) the traditional view of intelligence has been challenged in recent years

(C) there is no biological evidence for Sternberg’s model

(D) street children in Brazil would not do well on standard IQ tests

(E) the theory of multiple intelligences has been adopted by some schoolteachers


[Reveal] Spoiler:
The author uses the term “positive manifold” in the first sentence of the second paragraph. From this sentence, we can deduce that “positive manifold” is associated, or even synonymous with, the idea of one general intelligence.

(A) The existence of a strong correlation between IQ and reaction time allows for a single measure of intelligence to be proposed – positive manifold – but the correlation does not give the actual value of that intelligence measure. Positive manifold is related to this correlation, but there is a better answer choice.

(B) This observation supports the theory of multiple intelligences, but does not have to do with positive manifold.

(C) There is no specific reference to standardized tests in the passage or to the relationship between IQ and performance on standardized tests.

(D) Positive manifold is not associated with the multiple intelligences model.

(E) CORRECT. From the first sentence of the second paragraph, we know that positive manifold is essentially synonymous with one general intelligence, or g. Further down in the second paragraph, the author states, "Individuals with faster reaction times or neural processing speeds have higher IQs, suggesting that neural processing speed is equivalent to the one general intelligence." This indicates that neural processing speed is also synonymous with one general intelligence. If positive manifold is one general intelligence and neural processing speed is one general intelligence, then it follows that positive manifold can be identified with neural processing speed.

3. According to the passage, the term “positive manifold” can be most closely identified with which of the following?

(A) The correlation between IQ and reaction time

(B) The observation that individuals with speech impairment are able to demonstrate other forms of intelligence

(C) The relationship between IQ and performance on standardized tests

(D) The three intelligences proposed by Dr. Robert Sternberg

(E) Neural processing speed


[Reveal] Spoiler: OA & OE
Although this question appears to be a specific question, it is really a general question concerned with the tone of the passage. A close reading reveals that the general tone is objective and neutral. Therefore, you should eliminate answer choices that are too extreme or that favor one theory over the other.

(A) The author of the passage might well agree that the theory of multiple intelligences is “relatively new,” since she appears to say that the theory originated in 1983. However, there is no indication that the author believes the theory is relatively untested. Indeed, she cites a variety of evidence supporting the theory.

(B) This passage is descriptive, not predictive. There is no indication that the author believes the intelligence debate will be resolved.

(C) CORRECT. This statement is attractive because it is very neutral. The author would most likely agree that any additional evidence would strengthen Sternberg’s theory, but especially biological evidence as the passage only mentions evidence for the triarchic model from “real-life situations.”

(D) The author states that there are different models of multiple intelligence, but does not indicate that this weakens the theory.

(E) The author does not appear to favor one theory over the other, and expresses no opinion as to the relative merits of the biological evidence supporting each theory.

4. The author of this passage would most likely agree with which of the following?

(A) The theory of multiple intelligences is relatively new and untested.

(B) Within the next decade, discoveries about the human brain will resolve the debate about intelligence.

(C) Dr. Sternberg’s theory would be strengthened by the discovery of biological evidence for his conclusions.

(D) The theory of multiple intelligences is undermined by disagreements among its proponents as to the number of intelligences.

(E) There is stronger biological evidence in favor of the single-intelligence model than of the theory of multiple intelligences.

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 13 Oct 2017, 00:30, edited 3 times in total.
Edited the question.

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Re: Until recently, nearly everyone thought of intelligence as a single en [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2008, 05:19
aaron22197 wrote:
Until recently, nearly everyone thought of intelligence as a single entity that could be measured by a simple IQ test. In 1983, however, Dr. Howard Gardner, a professor of education at Harvard University, introduced his theory of multiple intelligences. Today, there are two major schools of thought on intelligence. Despite extensive and ongoing research, scientists have been unable to prove definitively one theory over the other.
The single intelligence model is based on the idea of one general intelligence, known as positive manifold or simply g. Perhaps the most convincing evidence in support of this theory is the fact that individuals who perform well on tests of one cognitive ability also perform well on tests of a second cognitive ability. For example, those who do well on verbal tests also do well on mathematics tests, and vice versa. Another argument in support of the general intelligence theory is the strong positive correlation between intelligent quotient, or IQ, as measured by psychometric tests, and reaction time. Individuals with faster reaction times or neural processing speeds have higher IQs, suggesting that neural processing speed is equivalent to the one general intelligence.
The theory of multiple intelligences asserts that there is more than one type of intelligence. Proponents of this model differ on the number of intelligences. Gardner, for example, originally proposed seven, but has since added an eighth. His categories are linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. Dr. Robert Sternberg, a professor of psychology and education at Yale University, proposes a triarchic theory of intelligence, which divides intelligence into three categories: analytical, creative, and practical. Gardner’s theory is supported primarily by biological evidence. By studying individuals with paralysis, speech impairment, or other disabilities, Gardner has been able to identify specific parts of the brain associated with different physical and cognitive skills. Sternberg’s model relies on observations of real-life situations. He notes that in Brazil, for example, street children can do the math they need to know to survive, thereby demonstrating practical intelligence, but cannot pass a school math class, which requires analytical intelligence.

According to the passage, the term “positive manifold” can be most closely identified with which of the following?

A)The correlation between IQ and reaction time
Its a support for g.
B)The observation that individuals with speech impairment are able to demonstrate other forms of intelligence
speech impairment : Is a disability and cannot guarantee ability according to theory.
C)The relationship between IQ and performance on standardized tests
This should be close.
D)The three intelligences proposed by Dr. Robert Sternberg
E)Neural processing speed

C

The author mentions the correlation between IQ and reaction time in order to

A)provide justification for Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences
B)explain the triarchic model of intelligence proposed by Robert Sternberg
C)introduce the idea of positive manifold
D)point out one argument in support of general intelligence
E)prove that the single intelligence model is superior to the theory of multiple intelligences

D

The author of this passage would most likely agree with which of the following?

A)The theory of multiple intelligences is relatively new and untested.
B)Within the next decade, discoveries about the human brain will resolve the debate about intelligence.
C)Dr. Sternberg’s theory would be strengthened by the discovery of biological evidence for his conclusions.
D)The theory of multiple intelligences is undermined by disagreements among its proponents as to the number of intelligences.
E)There is stronger biological evidence in favor of the single-intelligence model than of the theory of multiple intelligences.
A

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Re: Until recently, nearly everyone thought of intelligence as a single en [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2008, 09:45
aaron22197 wrote:
Until recently, nearly everyone thought of intelligence as a single entity that could be measured by a simple IQ test. In 1983, however, Dr. Howard Gardner, a professor of education at Harvard University, introduced his theory of multiple intelligences. Today, there are two major schools of thought on intelligence. Despite extensive and ongoing research, scientists have been unable to prove definitively one theory over the other.
The single intelligence model is based on the idea of one general intelligence, known as positive manifold or simply g. Perhaps the most convincing evidence in support of this theory is the fact that individuals who perform well on tests of one cognitive ability also perform well on tests of a second cognitive ability. For example, those who do well on verbal tests also do well on mathematics tests, and vice versa. Another argument in support of the general intelligence theory is the strong positive correlation between intelligent quotient, or IQ, as measured by psychometric tests, and reaction time. Individuals with faster reaction times or neural processing speeds have higher IQs, suggesting that neural processing speed is equivalent to the one general intelligence.
The theory of multiple intelligences asserts that there is more than one type of intelligence. Proponents of this model differ on the number of intelligences. Gardner, for example, originally proposed seven, but has since added an eighth. His categories are linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. Dr. Robert Sternberg, a professor of psychology and education at Yale University, proposes a triarchic theory of intelligence, which divides intelligence into three categories: analytical, creative, and practical. Gardner’s theory is supported primarily by biological evidence. By studying individuals with paralysis, speech impairment, or other disabilities, Gardner has been able to identify specific parts of the brain associated with different physical and cognitive skills. Sternberg’s model relies on observations of real-life situations. He notes that in Brazil, for example, street children can do the math they need to know to survive, thereby demonstrating practical intelligence, but cannot pass a school math class, which requires analytical intelligence.

According to the passage, the term “positive manifold” can be most closely identified with which of the following?

A)The correlation between IQ and reaction time
B)The observation that individuals with speech impairment are able to demonstrate other forms of intelligence
C)The relationship between IQ and performance on standardized tests
D)The three intelligences proposed by Dr. Robert Sternberg
E)Neural processing speed
>>>
The single intelligence model is based on the idea of one general intelligence, known as positive manifold
Individuals with faster reaction times or neural processing speeds have higher IQs, suggesting that neural processing speed is equivalent to the one general intelligence.


The author mentions the correlation between IQ and reaction time in order to

A)provide justification for Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences
B)explain the triarchic model of intelligence proposed by Robert Sternberg
C)introduce the idea of positive manifold
D)point out one argument in support of general intelligence
>>>Another argument in support of the general intelligence theory is the strong positive correlation between intelligent quotient,
E)prove that the single intelligence model is superior to the theory of multiple intelligences



The author of this passage would most likely agree with which of the following?

A)The theory of multiple intelligences is relatively new and untested.
B)Within the next decade, discoveries about the human brain will resolve the debate about intelligence.
C)Dr. Sternberg’s theory would be strengthened by the discovery of biological evidence for his conclusions.
D)The theory of multiple intelligences is undermined by disagreements among its proponents as to the number of intelligences.
E)There is stronger biological evidence in favor of the single-intelligence model than of the theory of multiple intelligences.

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Re: Until recently, nearly everyone thought of intelligence as a single en [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2008, 23:03
Quote:
The author of this passage would most likely agree with which of the following?

(A) The theory of multiple intelligences is relatively new and untested.

(B) Within the next decade, discoveries about the human brain will resolve the debate about intelligence.

(C) Dr. Sternberg’s theory would be strengthened by the discovery of biological evidence for his conclusions.

(D) The theory of multiple intelligences is undermined by disagreements among its proponents as to the number of intelligences.

(E) There is stronger biological evidence in favor of the single-intelligence model than of the theory of multiple intelligences.


Although this question appears to be a specific question, it is really a general question concerned with the tone of the passage. A close reading reveals that the general tone is objective and neutral. Therefore, you should eliminate answer choices that are too extreme or that favor one theory over the other.

(A) The author of the passage might well agree that the theory of multiple intelligences is “relatively new,” since she appears to say that the theory originated in 1983. However, there is no indication that the author believes the theory is relatively untested. Indeed, she cites a variety of evidence supporting the theory.

(B) This passage is descriptive, not predictive. There is no indication that the author believes the intelligence debate will be resolved.

(C) CORRECT. This statement is attractive because it is very neutral. The author would most likely agree that any additional evidence would strengthen Sternberg’s theory, but especially biological evidence as the passage only mentions evidence for the triarchic model from “real-life situations.”

(D) The author states that there are different models of multiple intelligence, but does not indicate that this weakens the theory.

(E) The author does not appear to favor one theory over the other, and expresses no opinion as to the relative merits of the biological evidence supporting each theory.

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Re: Until recently, nearly everyone thought of intelligence as a single en [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2017, 00:24
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Re: Until recently, nearly everyone thought of intelligence as a single en [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2017, 09:50
Someone could enlighten what support the answer B at the question 2?

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Re: Until recently, nearly everyone thought of intelligence as a single en   [#permalink] 15 Oct 2017, 09:50
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