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Usage of That

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Usage of That [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2018, 07:59
"Lying produces emotional responses in individuals that, in turn, create physiological responses."

Does the relative pronoun "that" refer to individuals or emotional responses?

Logically, it should be "emotional responses", but as per the rule relative pronouns refer back to proceeding noun, which in this case is "individuals".

Correct me where I'm going wrong.


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Re: Usage of That [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2018, 08:48
aarkay wrote:
"Lying produces emotional responses in individuals that, in turn, create physiological responses."

Does the relative pronoun "that" refer to individuals or emotional responses?

Hi aarkay, that cannot refer to individuals for the following two reasons:

i) As you mentioned, logically that should be referring to emotional responses

ii) that (when used as a relative pronoun, as is the case here) can only refer to non-persons

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses usage of that, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Usage of That [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2018, 08:48
responses in individuals is a prepositional phrase..In exception cases that refers to noun in propositional phrase. If I'm wrong please correct me

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Re: Usage of That [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2018, 09:07
aarkay wrote:
"Lying produces emotional responses in individuals that, in turn, create physiological responses."

Does the relative pronoun "that" refer to individuals or emotional responses?

Logically, it should be "emotional responses", but as per the rule relative pronouns refer back to proceeding noun, which in this case is "individuals".

Correct me where I'm going wrong.


Sent from my ONEPLUS A3003 using GMAT Club Forum mobile app


Hi,

Prep Phrases always start with prepositions. Here the preposition is "in". So, only 'in individuals' is a prep phrase. Here "that" jumps the prep phrase to refer to the noun "responses".

that always refers to the noun it's placed next to. But in this case there is a noun phrase - "responses (noun) + in individuals (noun modifier)". "that" can jump the noun modifier phrase to refer to noun (responses). The usage is okay as long as :

- There is no ambiguity as 'that' cannot refer to individuals (we need 'who' to refer to individuals'. So this usage is considered okay.
- Whatever comes between 'that' and its referent noun is a noun modifier. In this case 'in individuals' is a noun modifier.

I've seen a couple official questions in which there is a verb between noun and 'that'. It was in the correct answer choice. Keep these exceptions in mind, and use them only if you are able to confidently mark other 4 options wrong. Between Rule and Exception, always go with the rule - that must be placed next to the noun it modifies.

Hope this helps!
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Re: Usage of That [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2018, 10:45
sdlife wrote:
aarkay wrote:
"Lying produces emotional responses in individuals that, in turn, create physiological responses."

Does the relative pronoun "that" refer to individuals or emotional responses?

Logically, it should be "emotional responses", but as per the rule relative pronouns refer back to proceeding noun, which in this case is "individuals".

Correct me where I'm going wrong.


Sent from my ONEPLUS A3003 using GMAT Club Forum mobile app


Hi,

Prep Phrases always start with prepositions. Here the preposition is "in". So, only 'in individuals' is a prep phrase. Here "that" jumps the prep phrase to refer to the noun "responses".

that always refers to the noun it's placed next to. But in this case there is a noun phrase - "responses (noun) + in individuals (noun modifier)". "that" can jump the noun modifier phrase to refer to noun (responses). The usage is okay as long as :

- There is no ambiguity as 'that' cannot refer to individuals (we need 'who' to refer to individuals'. So this usage is considered okay.
- Whatever comes between 'that' and its referent noun is a noun modifier. In this case 'in individuals' is a noun modifier.

I've seen a couple official questions in which there is a verb between noun and 'that'. It was in the correct answer choice. Keep these exceptions in mind, and use them only if you are able to confidently mark other 4 options wrong. Between Rule and Exception, always go with the rule - that must be placed next to the noun it modifies.

Hope this helps!

Thanks sdlife.

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Re: Usage of That [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2018, 11:31
sdlife wrote:
aarkay wrote:
"Lying produces emotional responses in individuals that, in turn, create physiological responses."

Does the relative pronoun "that" refer to individuals or emotional responses?

Logically, it should be "emotional responses", but as per the rule relative pronouns refer back to proceeding noun, which in this case is "individuals".

Correct me where I'm going wrong.


Sent from my ONEPLUS A3003 using GMAT Club Forum mobile app


Hi,

Prep Phrases always start with prepositions. Here the preposition is "in". So, only 'in individuals' is a prep phrase. Here "that" jumps the prep phrase to refer to the noun "responses".

that always refers to the noun it's placed next to. But in this case there is a noun phrase - "responses (noun) + in individuals (noun modifier)". "that" can jump the noun modifier phrase to refer to noun (responses). The usage is okay as long as :

- There is no ambiguity as 'that' cannot refer to individuals (we need 'who' to refer to individuals'. So this usage is considered okay.
- Whatever comes between 'that' and its referent noun is a noun modifier. In this case 'in individuals' is a noun modifier.

I've seen a couple official questions in which there is a verb between noun and 'that'. It was in the correct answer choice. Keep these exceptions in mind, and use them only if you are able to confidently mark other 4 options wrong. Between Rule and Exception, always go with the rule - that must be placed next to the noun it modifies.

Hope this helps!

Thanks for detailed explanation

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Re: Usage of That [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2018, 11:57
shivsuddala aarkay

Glad that my explanation helped! You can also thank me by giving Kudos! :-D
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Re: Usage of That   [#permalink] 04 Feb 2018, 11:57
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