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# V03-35, V03-36, V03-37, V03-38, V03-39

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V03-35, V03-36, V03-37, V03-38, V03-39  [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2014, 01:00
When scientists discuss the point in the evolutionary process at which a sense of fairness arose in human beings, one of two theories general prevails. The first theory holds that a sense of fairness – or, more generally, morality – is a late and mostly intellectual addition to the evolutionary process. In this view morality is defined as a set of rules agreed upon by a society, permitting human beings to “rise above” the raw violence and competition found in “nature.” In certain circles this idea is known as “veneer theory,” because it posits human morality as a thin crust on a violently churning interior.

The second theory, by contrast, does not set nature and morality in direct opposition, but rather holds a sense of fairness to be as much a part of human “nature” as violence and competition. Advocates of this theory most often appeal to the behavior of other primates to argue that humans possess an innate sense of fairness common to other species of a shared evolutionary past. Orangutans, for example, have been observed to throw temper tantrums when teased by being shown an apple they are not allowed to have. Experiments with monkeys offering them two kinds of rewards for performing simple tasks have shown that they will refuse the less-preferred reward if they see their companions receiving the preferred reward for performing the same task.
1. Which of the following best describes the primary purpose of this passage?

(a) To speculate about the origins of violence in humans and other primates.
(b) To refute the idea that human nature is inherently violent.
(c) To illustrate the ways in which primates demonstrate an inherent sense of fairness.
(d) To compare and contrast two theories about the development of a sense of fairness in human evolution.
(e) To criticize the assertion that human morality is intended to rise above the violence and competition found in nature.

2. According to the passage, the common concern of the two theories presented in the passage is

(a) Whether orangutans and other primates possess an innate sense of fairness.
(b) Whether a sense of fairness should be considered an earlier or more recent development in the evolution of human beings.
(c) Whether a sense of fairness can rightly be called morality.
(d) Whether morality is the basis of human social patterns, or is a surface concern.
(e) Whether morality is innate, or the result of a series of social interactions and agreements.

3. Which of the following, if added to the end of the passage, would make the best conclusion to the discussion of the second theory?

(a) For advocates of this theory, the behavior of primates offers evidence that a sense of fairness evolved before primate species differentiated, making morality just as “natural” to humans as violence and competition.
(b) In conclusion, both orangutans and monkeys were observed to raise strenuous objections when they felt that a received standard of fairness had somehow been violated.
(c) In contrast to veneer theory, then, the second theory’s use of observation and experiment lends it a credibility that can not be denied.
(d) Because orangutans and monkeys, at least in these examples, demonstrated a clear sense of fairness, it can reasonably be concluded that morality comes more naturally to them than it does to humans.
(e) Despite the suggestion that primates such as monkeys and orangutans possess an innate sense of fairness, however, most scientists continue to accept veneer theory.

4. The passage suggests which of the following about the condition of “nature,” according to veneer theory?

(a) Societies agree to rules of morality in order to recondition themselves to resist the violence and competition of nature.
(b) Nature is inherently violent and competitive and may be contained, but can not be changed.
(c) The violence and competition found in nature must be transformed by morality in order for humans to live peacefully.
(d) Human beings constitute a thin crust living on the outside of a chaotic core of nature.
(e) Morality is as much a part of nature as violence and competition.

5. According to the passage, which of the following is evidence that the development of a sense of fairness occurred early in the evolution of human beings?

(a) History shows that violence and competition have not been a significant part of human behavior.
(b) Societies establish laws designed to enforce agreed-upon ideals of fairness, and to protect members from violence.
(c) Observation demonstrates that this sense is shared by other primates such as orangutans and monkeys.
(d) Orangutans became visibly upset when they were unfairly denied something they wanted.
(e) Experiments involving monkeys prove that primates feel entitled to rewards when they have successfully completed simple tasks.

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Re V03-35, V03-36, V03-37, V03-38, V03-39  [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2014, 01:00
Spoiler: :: Question V03-35 explanation
Examining the passage as a whole helps to identify the primary purpose or main idea. In this passage, the first sentence contains the key to understanding the primary purpose. The first sentence gives the general topic of the passage, then states that one of two theories generally prevails. This is a clue that the passage that follows will discuss each of the two theories, comparing and contrasting them.
1. The origins of violence are not discussed in the passage.
2. Though this idea is implied in the first theory, this answer choice does not speak to the passage as a whole.
3. A sense of fairness in primates is discussed in the second paragraph, but this option does not speak to the passage as a whole.
4. The first sentence of the passage introduces the fact that two theories will be discussed, and the logical structure of the passage follows this expectation.
5. Though this idea is mentioned in the first paragraph, the passage does not criticize it.
Spoiler: :: Question V03-36 explanation
This question requires a determination of which option in the answer choices is common to both theories. The first theory, called veneer theory, posits that a sense of fairness, or morality, is a later development in the evolutionary process that allows humans to rise above raw nature. The position of the second theory is that a sense of fairness developed much earlier, not in humans only, but in primates generally. Both of these concerns are anticipated in the first sentence of the passage.
1. This concern is addressed only by the second theory.
2. This option correctly identifies the concern set out by the first sentence of the passage. Though the theories differ in their answers to the question, the common concern is the timing of the development of a sense of fairness.
3. The passage assumes, but does not directly address, whether a sense of fairness can aptly be called morality.
4. This concern is addressed explicitly only in the first paragraph.
5. The passage does not discuss this question directly
Spoiler: :: Question V03-37 explanation
To answer this question, it will be necessary to understand the general point the second paragraph is attempting to prove. The passage as a whole is concerned with the point in the evolutionary process at which a sense of fairness arose; the second paragraph will deal with this question in a specific way, using the examples of observations of primates as supporting detail. The best answer choice will summarize only the second paragraph, and will do so in a way that re-connects the paragraph to the concern of the passage as a whole.
1. This answer choice summarizes the main points of the second paragraph in the phrases advocates of this theory and behavior of primates, and it restates the general concern of the passage, as stated in the first sentence.
2. Though the words in conclusion appear in this option, the sentence summarizes only the previous sentences about scientists’ observations of primates and does not sufficiently conclude the discussion of the second theory.
3. This option stresses too clear a preference for the second theory and is not appropriate within the overall purpose of the passage.
4. The idea that morality comes more easily to orangutans and monkeys is not discussed in the second paragraph.
5. Because of the assertion that most scientists prefer veneer theory, this sentence does not adequately conclude the second paragraph.
Spoiler: :: Question V03-38 explanation
The word suggests indicates that this question must be answered by making an inference based on information in the passage. First, review these lines In these sentences, it is stated that raw violence and competition are found in“nature” and that human morality is a crust or veneer that does not change nature, but covers or controls it.
1. This option is tempting, but the first paragraph does not discuss a desire of societies to recondition themselves, and in fact implies that true reconditioning is impossible.
2. The first half of this sentence is a paraphrase of line, and the second half is an inference drawn directly from the fact that veneer theory understands morality as only a crust that does not essentially alter the interior of nature.
3. It can not be inferred from the discussion of veneer theory that morality must transform nature.
4. This option is a misreading of line, which states that human morality is a thin crust on nature.
5. This idea is a paraphrase of the argument presented in paragraph two, not of veneer theory.
Spoiler: :: Question V03-39 explanation
This question is based on information stated explicitly in the passage. More specifically, this information will be found in the second paragraph, where the theory arguing that a sense of fairness was an early evolutionary development is discussed. The discussion of this theory assumes that all primates share a common evolutionary ancestor; the examples involving orangutans and monkeys provide evidence that a sense of fairness evolved very early, before the species had even differentiated.
1. This statement is outside the scope of the passage, which does not discuss the role of violence and competition in history.
2. This idea appears in the passage as part of the discussion of veneer theory, which argues that morality is a late development in human evolution.
3. This option correctly identifies the purpose of the examples involving orangutans and monkeys in the second paragraph: to prove that a sense of fairness developed early in human evolution, before primate species had differentiated.
4. This option is too narrow and concerns only orangutans, not humans.
5. This sentence, though drawn from the passage, does not directly address the question of the evolutionary timing of a sense of fairness in human beings.

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13 Oct 2016, 05:38
I don't agree with the explanation. I think the second theory argues that fairness is an innate characteristic, not one that was acquired earlier rather than later. The option B is only discussing the timing of when in the evolutionary process, fairness was acquired by humans. But the second theory states it wasn't a product of evolution at all. Is my understanding correct? Please correct me where needed
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Re: V03-35, V03-36, V03-37, V03-38, V03-39  [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2016, 09:07
akshaya1112 wrote:
I don't agree with the explanation. I think the second theory argues that fairness is an innate characteristic, not one that was acquired earlier rather than later. The option B is only discussing the timing of when in the evolutionary process, fairness was acquired by humans. But the second theory states it wasn't a product of evolution at all. Is my understanding correct? Please correct me where needed

The passage states:
"..humans possess an innate sense of fairness common to other species of a shared evolutionary past.".

This is an indication that the fairness is after all an evolutionary development (observed in the evolutionary path of humans) rather than a characteristic that had been there forever in the "nature" (starting from the birth of the first life-form).
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Re: V03-35, V03-36, V03-37, V03-38, V03-39  [#permalink]

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19 Jan 2017, 12:18
why is E wrong then?
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Re: V03-35, V03-36, V03-37, V03-38, V03-39  [#permalink]

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22 Feb 2017, 00:28
B and E are one and same.
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Re: V03-35, V03-36, V03-37, V03-38, V03-39  [#permalink]

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25 Mar 2017, 08:23
sayantanc2k wrote:
akshaya1112 wrote:
I don't agree with the explanation. I think the second theory argues that fairness is an innate characteristic, not one that was acquired earlier rather than later. The option B is only discussing the timing of when in the evolutionary process, fairness was acquired by humans. But the second theory states it wasn't a product of evolution at all. Is my understanding correct? Please correct me where needed

The passage states:
"..humans possess an innate sense of fairness common to other species of a shared evolutionary past.".

This is an indication that the fairness is after all an evolutionary development (observed in the evolutionary path of humans) rather than a characteristic that had been there forever in the "nature" (starting from the birth of the first life-form).

I don't agree with that, neither with the explanation why B) is wrong.

1) First Part gives reason that mortality is a synonym for sense of fairness: " The first theory holds that a sense of fairness – or, more generally, morality - .. " also backed up in the second part, in which it is definately used as a synonym " does not set nature and morality in direct opposition, but rather holds a sense of fairness to be as much a part of human “nature” "

Also B) is concerned about a comparison of earlier or later development. This is not at at issue. It is not even logical.

Why is it not logical? There are only two explanations (also so conveyed in the passage). Either morality is innate or it is developed.
Therefore, the correct answer choice does not revolve around a timeline, but rather about the possiblities of origins of sense of fairness.

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Re: V03-35, V03-36, V03-37, V03-38, V03-39  [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2017, 11:01
Can someone please explain me the 4th question? Why D is wrong?
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Re: V03-35, V03-36, V03-37, V03-38, V03-39  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2017, 09:58
Could someone explain that why option C is wrong ?
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Re: V03-35, V03-36, V03-37, V03-38, V03-39  [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2017, 01:55
dyg wrote:
Can someone please explain me the 4th question? Why D is wrong?

"because it posits human morality as a thin crust on a violently churning interior."
The passages discusses morality as a thin crust, not human beings.
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V03-35, V03-36, V03-37, V03-38, V03-39  [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2017, 08:17
Bunuel
Can you please explain as to why D is the wrong answer. In this case not only option 'D' limits the answer to orangutans,even option Ç is limited to orangutans and monkeys. Like as in what can be the rejecting factor for option D when comparing it with C.
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Re: V03-35, V03-36, V03-37, V03-38, V03-39  [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2017, 04:16
The question is:
According to the passage, which of the following is evidence that the development of a sense of fairness occurred early in the evolution of human beings?

The contention is primarily on option C and E. I chose answer E and not C and the reason is:

Option C: Observation demonstrates that this sense is shared by other primates such as orangutans and monkeys: Since the question uses the phrase, "according to the passage", my first clue was that the "evidence" should come directly from the passage. This answer choice uses the phrase "observation demonstrates", and observation could not be classified as evidence. I rejected this choice on two accounts , one, this is not "evidence", second, the passage doesn't mention this.
Option E: Experiments involving monkeys prove that primates feel entitled to rewards when they have successfully completed simple tasks: I chose this option because this could be inferred directly from the passage that upon completion of simple tasks, since monkeys refused the less preferred reward, a valid inference could be that there is a sense of fairness in them already. Since this is "evidence" and directly deducible from the passage, this to me , seemed a better answer choice. The words "primates" also convinces us that this refers to some timeline in the evolutionary process - since experiments prove that primates have sense of fairness, this (sense of fairness) would not be a recent addition (to modern humans).

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V03-35, V03-36, V03-37, V03-38, V03-39  [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2018, 08:55
that human morality is a crust or veneer that does not change nature, but covers or controls it.

Where is it stated that human morality covers/controls [nature]?
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Re: V03-35, V03-36, V03-37, V03-38, V03-39  [#permalink]

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08 Apr 2018, 08:32
for some reason I can't see the answer... can someone post it here with explaination
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Re: V03-35, V03-36, V03-37, V03-38, V03-39  [#permalink]

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20 Jul 2018, 04:11
I go with E....I disagree with B
Reasoning -
passage- The first theory holds that a sense of fairness – or, more generally, morality – is a late and mostly intellectual addition to the evolutionary process.
Meaning- sense of fairness is an evolutionary feat. That it has developed and not INNATE( already existing nature) .

passage- holds a sense of fairness to be as much a part of human “nature” as violence and competition. Advocates of this theory most often appeal to the behavior of other primates to argue that humans possess an innate sense of fairness common to other species of a shared evolutionary past.
Meaning- Sense of fairness has not evolved but is infact a part of nature (innate) just as violence and competition.( violence is a part of nature- proof- the raw violence and competition found in “nature.”(from passage)). The advocates appeal to the behavior of other primates to show THAT THIS SENSE WAS SHARED BY THEM. Why is " evolutionary past " mentioned? to specify which primates the advocates are referring to. That in no ways means the primates DEVELOPED THE SENSE OF FAIRNESS EARLIER. AND IF THIS WERE TRUE THE ENTIRE PURPOSE OF THE PASSAGE IS VOID. AS THE MAIN PURPOSE OF THE PASSAGE IS TO COMPARE AND CONTRAST TWO THEORIES . AND IF THE OPTION B IS TRUE THEN THERE ARE TWO OPPOSING VIEWS IN THE SAME THEORY. >> SOF IS INNATE vs SOF HAS DEVELOPED IN THE EARLIER EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS.
INNATE MEANING- INBORN; EXISTING OR HAVING EXISTED FROM BIRTH.
Re: V03-35, V03-36, V03-37, V03-38, V03-39 &nbs [#permalink] 20 Jul 2018, 04:11
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# V03-35, V03-36, V03-37, V03-38, V03-39

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