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# V08-03

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Bunuel wrote:
Official Solution:

Among the various factors that foster innovative accomplishments are the change for the better that signify disruption of the routine, deviation from the normal and redirection from the past.

A. are the change for the better that signify
B. are the change for the better that signifies
C. is the change for the better that signifies
D. is the change for the better that signify
E. are changing for the better, signifying

Issue 1:

Hers is a typical example of subject-verb flip: Generally in a sentence the subject comes before the verb, whereas in this sentence the subject “the change” comes after the verb “is” / are”.

Generally (subject before verb):

The change for the better is among the various factors that foster innovative accomplishments.

Here (S-V flip - subject after verb):

Among the various factors that foster innovative accomplishments Is the change for the better.

Since the subject “the change” is singular, the verb also should be singular. Hence “is” is the correct form.

Issue 2:

In the relative clause “that signify” / “signifies…….”, the subject pronoun “that” refers to “change (for the better)”. Thus the verb of this clause should also be singular. Hence “signifies” is the correct form.

A. Wrong because of issue 1 and issue 2.

B. Wrong because of issue 1

C. CORRECT. Note verbs, “is” and “signifies” are singular.

D. Wrong because of issue 2.

E. There are two ways of interpreting this sentence:

a. The main verb is present continuous tense (”is changing”). In this case there is no main subject in the sentence.

b. The main verb is “are” and the subject is the gerund “changing”. In this case there is a subject-verb disagreement because “changing” is singular and “are” is plural.

Thus with either interpretation this option is wrong.

How Signifies is singular ? Can you please explain ?
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Bunuel wrote:
Official Solution:

Among the various factors that foster innovative accomplishments are the change for the better that signify disruption of the routine, deviation from the normal and redirection from the past.

A. are the change for the better that signify
B. are the change for the better that signifies
C. is the change for the better that signifies
D. is the change for the better that signify
E. are changing for the better, signifying

Issue 1:

Hers is a typical example of subject-verb flip: Generally in a sentence the subject comes before the verb, whereas in this sentence the subject “the change” comes after the verb “is” / are”.

Generally (subject before verb):

The change for the better is among the various factors that foster innovative accomplishments.

Here (S-V flip - subject after verb):

Among the various factors that foster innovative accomplishments Is the change for the better.

Since the subject “the change” is singular, the verb also should be singular. Hence “is” is the correct form.

Issue 2:

In the relative clause “that signify” / “signifies…….”, the subject pronoun “that” refers to “change (for the better)”. Thus the verb of this clause should also be singular. Hence “signifies” is the correct form.

A. Wrong because of issue 1 and issue 2.

B. Wrong because of issue 1

C. CORRECT. Note verbs, “is” and “signifies” are singular.

D. Wrong because of issue 2.

E. There are two ways of interpreting this sentence:

a. The main verb is present continuous tense (”is changing”). In this case there is no main subject in the sentence.

b. The main verb is “are” and the subject is the gerund “changing”. In this case there is a subject-verb disagreement because “changing” is singular and “are” is plural.

Thus with either interpretation this option is wrong.

How Signifies is singular ? Can you please explain ?

Singular verbs in third person generally carry "s" at the end.

He eats. (singular)
They eat. (plural)

I think you got mixed up between noun and verb - in general plural nouns and singular verbs in third person carry "s" at the end, .
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