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V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2015, 07:38
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A cheetah can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart, and augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.

A. can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart, and augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.
B. augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage, can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart.
C. can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart and augmenting it by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.
D. can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart, its acceleration augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.
E. can accelerate in three strides to a speed of 40 mph, augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage, its sudden blast of energy generated by its powerful, oversized heart.

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New post 15 Dec 2015, 07:39
Official Solution:

A cheetah can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart, and augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.

A. can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart, and augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.
B. augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage, can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart.
C. can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart and augmenting it by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.
D. can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart, its acceleration augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.
E. can accelerate in three strides to a speed of 40 mph, augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage, its sudden blast of energy generated by its powerful, oversized heart.


A. The modifiers generating its ………. powerful heart and augmented by………flattened ribcage modify the subject cheetah. While the first (present participle –ing ) correctly modifies the subject, the second is problematic: Being a past participle –ed modifier, it is placed too far from the subject; moreover, the cheetah is not augmented, but its acceleration is.

B. The cheetah is not augmented, but its acceleration is. The modifier augmented by………flattened ribcage wrongly refers to the cheetah.

C. The antecedent of the pronoun it is vague. If it refers to cheetah, itself should be used. Even then the sentence would wrongly mean that the cheetah augments itself, rather than its acceleration.

D. Correct. All above errors are eliminated. An absolute phrase is correctly introduced.

E. The modifier augmented by………flattened ribcage refers to speed of 40mph. In the sentence it is not intended to express that the value 40mph itself is augmented, rather it is intended to be meant that the acceleration with which the cheetah reaches the speed of 40mph is augmented. Hence this placement of the modifier is incorrect.


Answer: D
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Re: V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Mar 2016, 12:12
poor quality with D being a run-on sentence and make no logic sense in linking two clauses
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Re: V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2016, 00:05
Hi,

In option (D), Does "augmented" acts as a participle(verb-ed modifier)?

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Re: V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2016, 11:11
The participle modifier indicate sequence of events as per MGMAT SC Book. If D is correct then - " generating a sudden blast of energy " should be before the "can accelerate part" ?? The generation of energy cant be a subsequent action. Can it be ??
Doesnt the modifer "augmented by its aerodynamic body " fits to modify the cheetah as well. If I am to look at it as a modifer of the verb acceleration what is the rationale behind this. I mean how do we select the correct modifier
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Re: V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2016, 05:55
ankittiss wrote:
Hi,

In option (D), Does "augmented" acts as a participle(verb-ed modifier)?

Thanks,
Ankit


Yes you are right. It is a past participle modifier within an absolute phrase (noun "acceleration"+ noun modifier "augmented by...").
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Re: V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2016, 06:09
korhiyatryinghard wrote:
The participle modifier indicate sequence of events as per MGMAT SC Book. If D is correct then - " generating a sudden blast of energy " should be before the "can accelerate part" ?? The generation of energy cant be a subsequent action. Can it be ??
Doesnt the modifer "augmented by its aerodynamic body " fits to modify the cheetah as well. If I am to look at it as a modifer of the verb acceleration what is the rationale behind this. I mean how do we select the correct modifier



Your query 1:
Probably you have misunderstood something. The present participle modifier can depict a subsequent event or a former event:

Correct: The crime in the region decreased, attracting many real-estate investors. (attracting is a subsequent event)
Correct: Steffi won Wimbledon, defeating Sabatini in straight sets. (defeating is a former event)


Your query 2:
a. The past participle modifier "augmented by...." is outside the main clause - it is within an absolute phrase (see my above post), which as a whole modifies the main cause. Hence this past participle modifier does not refer to "cheetah".

b. "Acceleration" is not a verb, but a noun!

c. Also please note that different types of modifiers may be used to depict the same meaning.
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Re: V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2016, 17:15
shirehobbit wrote:
hi, what is wrong with B?.


The cheetah is not augmented, but its acceleration is. The modifier augmented by………flattened ribcage wrongly refers to the cheetah.

The OE already states the above.
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Re: V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2016, 23:06
I think this is a poor-quality question and the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate. Is not second part of the correct answer - "its acceleration..."
needs verb ?
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Re: V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2016, 06:27
D. can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in 3 strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its oversized powerful heart, its acceleration augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage

how come D is not a run-on sentence??

" powerful heart, its ..... "
please help me undertsand these kind of questions??
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Re: V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2016, 08:52
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deepak268 wrote:
D. can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in 3 strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its oversized powerful heart, its acceleration augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage

how come D is not a run-on sentence??

" powerful heart, its ..... "
please help me undertsand these kind of questions??


The last part of the sentence is not a clause (there is no verb) - it is an absolute phrase
"its acceleration augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage."

An absolute phrase has the following structure:
noun + noun modifier
here,
noun = its acceleration
noun modifier = augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage. (past participle modifier)
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Re: V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2016, 08:55
yogeshrjn wrote:
I think this is a poor-quality question and the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate. Is not second part of the correct answer - "its acceleration..."
needs verb ?


No, it does not, because it is not a clause (otherwise the sentence would be run-on). The second part is an absolute phrase. Please see the post above.
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New post 16 May 2018, 06:23
I think this is a poor-quality question and I don't agree with the explanation.
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Re: V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2018, 10:15
Why is (E) wrong?

To my understanding, verb-ed modifiers after a comma can modify either the subject or the verb of the main clause. When the verb-ed modifier is not preceded with a comma, then it has to modify the noun right before it. In this case, "Augmented..." is preceded by a comma, so why does it have to modify "40mph"?

Thanks for the help!
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Re: V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2018, 01:50
sayantanc2k wrote:
korhiyatryinghard wrote:
The participle modifier indicate sequence of events as per MGMAT SC Book. If D is correct then - " generating a sudden blast of energy " should be before the "can accelerate part" ?? The generation of energy cant be a subsequent action. Can it be ??
Doesnt the modifer "augmented by its aerodynamic body " fits to modify the cheetah as well. If I am to look at it as a modifer of the verb acceleration what is the rationale behind this. I mean how do we select the correct modifier



Your query 1:
Probably you have misunderstood something. The present participle modifier can depict a subsequent event or a former event:

Correct: The crime in the region decreased, attracting many real-estate investors. (attracting is a subsequent event)
Correct: Steffi won Wimbledon, defeating Sabatini in straight sets. (defeating is a former event)


Your query 2:
a. The past participle modifier "augmented by...." is outside the main clause - it is within an absolute phrase (see my above post), which as a whole modifies the main cause. Hence this past participle modifier does not refer to "cheetah".

b. "Acceleration" is not a verb, but a noun!

c. Also please note that different types of modifiers may be used to depict the same meaning.



If there was a comma after "cheetah" would option B have made sense ?

Thanks !
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New post 21 Jul 2018, 05:27
I think this is a high-quality question and I don't agree with the explanation. the OA option D has a run on sentence in the end "its acceleration augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage". This should be connected to the main clause using a conjunction.
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Re: V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2018, 01:20
Hello expert,

I treated 'generating' and 'augmented' as two action modifiers modifying the (same) entire clause 'A cheetah can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides.' They seem to be placed correctly after the clause and are parallel in structure.

Could you elaborate where my thinking in incorrect?

Thanks a ton!
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Re: V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2018, 02:49
souvik101990 wrote:
Official Solution:

A cheetah can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart, and augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.

A. can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart, and augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.
B. augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage, can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart.
C. can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart and augmenting it by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.
D. can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart, its acceleration augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.
E. can accelerate in three strides to a speed of 40 mph, augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage, its sudden blast of energy generated by its powerful, oversized heart.


A. The modifiers generating its ………. powerful heart and augmented by………flattened ribcage modify the subject cheetah. While the first (present participle –ing ) correctly modifies the subject, the second is problematic: Being a past participle –ed modifier, it is placed too far from the subject; moreover, the cheetah is not augmented, but its acceleration is.

B. The cheetah is not augmented, but its acceleration is. The modifier augmented by………flattened ribcage wrongly refers to the cheetah.

C. The antecedent of the pronoun it is vague. If it refers to cheetah, itself should be used. Even then the sentence would wrongly mean that the cheetah augments itself, rather than its acceleration.

D. Correct. All above errors are eliminated. An absolute phrase is correctly introduced.

E. The modifier augmented by………flattened ribcage refers to speed of 40mph. In the sentence it is not intended to express that the value 40mph itself is augmented, rather it is intended to be meant that the acceleration with which the cheetah reaches the speed of 40mph is augmented. Hence this placement of the modifier is incorrect.


Answer: D


In the correct answer choice, shouldn't be an and b/w powerful and oversized - by its powerful, oversized heart, - Please explain
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Re: V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2018, 05:30
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ArupRS wrote:
souvik101990 wrote:
Official Solution:

A cheetah can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart, and augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.

A. can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart, and augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.
B. augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage, can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart.
C. can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart and augmenting it by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.
D. can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart, its acceleration augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.
E. can accelerate in three strides to a speed of 40 mph, augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage, its sudden blast of energy generated by its powerful, oversized heart.


A. The modifiers generating its ………. powerful heart and augmented by………flattened ribcage modify the subject cheetah. While the first (present participle –ing ) correctly modifies the subject, the second is problematic: Being a past participle –ed modifier, it is placed too far from the subject; moreover, the cheetah is not augmented, but its acceleration is.

B. The cheetah is not augmented, but its acceleration is. The modifier augmented by………flattened ribcage wrongly refers to the cheetah.

C. The antecedent of the pronoun it is vague. If it refers to cheetah, itself should be used. Even then the sentence would wrongly mean that the cheetah augments itself, rather than its acceleration.

D. Correct. All above errors are eliminated. An absolute phrase is correctly introduced.

E. The modifier augmented by………flattened ribcage refers to speed of 40mph. In the sentence it is not intended to express that the value 40mph itself is augmented, rather it is intended to be meant that the acceleration with which the cheetah reaches the speed of 40mph is augmented. Hence this placement of the modifier is incorrect.


Answer: D


In the correct answer choice, shouldn't be an and b/w powerful and oversized - by its powerful, oversized heart, - Please explain
Hi, I would like to help you with this.

They are called co-ordinating adjective.

Eg: I saw a big, black truck

Both the adjectives are modifying the truck. You don't need and between big and blue. A mere comma will suffice.

How to check if the adjectives are co-ordinate adjective?

There are three tests you can run:

–       Replace the comma with the word “and”

–       Reverse the order of the adjectives

–       Replace the comma with the word “and” then reverse the order of the adjectives

If the adjectives being used to describe a noun can satisfy these three conditions, then they are almost certainly coordinate adjectives and require a comma. Let’s look at an example:

–       He was a smart, cheerful man.

Is the comma here correct? First, let’s replace the comma with the word “and.”

–       He was a smart and cheerful man.

This sentence still seems to make sense (although it does sound a bit awkward). So, let’s try reversing the order of the adjectives:

–       He was a cheerful, smart man.

Again, everything seems to make sense. Finally, let’s try replacing the comma with the word “and” and then reversing the order of the adjectives:

–       He was a cheerful and smart man.

Once again, everything makes sense, so we can be confident that the comma was actually necessary.

( I have taken this explanation from Mr Ron Purewal)

Hope this helps. Consider kudos if that helped

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