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V61-05

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04 Sep 2018, 23:13
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In 2005, near the small town of Dmanisi, Georgia, a 1.8 million-year-old skull was discovered by the anthropologist David Lordkipanidze. The skull was not the first archeological finding uncovered in the area, but in fact was the most recent of five skulls, all said to be from the same era. The skull, simply named Dmanisi skull 5, is the most complete skull specimen of a Pleistocene Homo species, and the oldest complete adult hominin skull found to date. What is truly groundbreaking about the discovery, however, is that it provides evidence to suggest that two species of early hominins, Homo rudolfensis and Homo habilis, are actually both subspecies of Homo erectus. Furthermore, the discovery also implies that the Homo erectus georgicus ventured out of Africa as far back as 1.85 million years ago, hundreds of thousands of years earlier than anthropologists had previously thought.
Naturally, the skull has been the cause of a paleontological controversy, one still going on today. While these findings are quite compelling, even Lordkipanidze himself admits that his interpretation of the Dmanisi discoveries is far from certain. Skeptics tend to point to the clear differences between the skulls of Dmanisi and the skull structure of Homo erectus. They note that the Dmanisi skulls are smaller and rounded instead of angled at the back, which is reminiscent of the earlier species, Homo habilis, which appeared in Africa two million years ago. Those who support the notion of a single lineage mention the multiple features of the Dmanisi skulls, particularly skull 5, which resemble those of classic homo erectus fossils. These features include straight brow ridges, a line of heavy bone running front-to-back across the top of the skull, and the shape of the nasal cavity. Although there has yet to be a clear agreement regarding the meaning of these findings, it is clear that the long-held notions as to which of our ancestors first left Africa, when they left, and why, have been challenged.

The author uses the word ‘naturally’ in the second paragraph because

A. the discovery concerns the natural sciences.
B. the finding would inevitably cause controversy given that it has yet to be authenticated.
C. the interpretation of this finding is so groundbreaking, that it is completely logical that it would cause dispute among researchers.
D. given that the interpretation of the finding is not yet conclusive, it makes sense people will have different opinions about its meaning.
E. this discovery relates to a common and long-held disagreement among researchers.

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04 Sep 2018, 23:13
Official Solution:

In 2005, near the small town of Dmanisi, Georgia, a 1.8 million-year-old skull was discovered by the anthropologist David Lordkipanidze. The skull was not the first archeological finding uncovered in the area, but in fact was the most recent of five skulls, all said to be from the same era. The skull, simply named Dmanisi skull 5, is the most complete skull specimen of a Pleistocene Homo species, and the oldest complete adult hominin skull found to date. What is truly groundbreaking about the discovery, however, is that it provides evidence to suggest that two species of early hominins, Homo rudolfensis and Homo habilis, are actually both subspecies of Homo erectus. Furthermore, the discovery also implies that the Homo erectus georgicus ventured out of Africa as far back as 1.85 million years ago, hundreds of thousands of years earlier than anthropologists had previously thought.
Naturally, the skull has been the cause of a paleontological controversy, one still going on today. While these findings are quite compelling, even Lordkipanidze himself admits that his interpretation of the Dmanisi discoveries is far from certain. Skeptics tend to point to the clear differences between the skulls of Dmanisi and the skull structure of Homo erectus. They note that the Dmanisi skulls are smaller and rounded instead of angled at the back, which is reminiscent of the earlier species, Homo habilis, which appeared in Africa two million years ago. Those who support the notion of a single lineage mention the multiple features of the Dmanisi skulls, particularly skull 5, which resemble those of classic homo erectus fossils. These features include straight brow ridges, a line of heavy bone running front-to-back across the top of the skull, and the shape of the nasal cavity. Although there has yet to be a clear agreement regarding the meaning of these findings, it is clear that the long-held notions as to which of our ancestors first left Africa, when they left, and why, have been challenged.

The author uses the word ‘naturally’ in the second paragraph because

A. the discovery concerns the natural sciences.
B. the finding would inevitably cause controversy given that it has yet to be authenticated.
C. the interpretation of this finding is so groundbreaking, that it is completely logical that it would cause dispute among researchers.
D. given that the interpretation of the finding is not yet conclusive, it makes sense people will have different opinions about its meaning.
E. this discovery relates to a common and long-held disagreement among researchers.

We’ll go for the ExamPal Strategy called LOGICAL because the answer doesn’t appear explicitly in the text.

The first paragraph explains how unprecedented these findings and their interpretations are. Since a groundbreaking discovery necessarily contradicts existing opinions (the text explicitly says it implies something different from what anthropologists had thought up to this point) it is logical that it would lead to a dispute

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08 Oct 2018, 18:13
Hi chetan2u workout examPAL

Can you explain the POE for options D and E?

Thanks.
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08 Oct 2018, 19:12
Harshgmat wrote:
Hi chetan2u workout examPAL

Can you explain the POE for options D and E?

Thanks.

E for sure you can eliminate.
The disagreement is on the interpretation of the findings . The discovery does not relate to some disagreement but the disagreement has happened after the discovery.
The para does not mention that there was some dispute on who left America, and why?
The dispute is now that the discovery not necessarily can be interpreted in some particular way.
D is a close one.
Only flaw I can see is the disagreement is on the interpretation itself not the meaning. Also D mentions that "given that the interpretation are not conclusive' but the word NATURALLY leads to point that you cannot take these interpretations to be conclusive.
So if D was just " interpretations are not conclusive", it would be a slightly stronger contender.
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1) Absolute modulus : http://gmatclub.com/forum/absolute-modulus-a-better-understanding-210849.html#p1622372
2)Combination of similar and dissimilar things : http://gmatclub.com/forum/topic215915.html
3) effects of arithmetic operations : https://gmatclub.com/forum/effects-of-arithmetic-operations-on-fractions-269413.html
4) Base while finding % increase and % decrease : https://gmatclub.com/forum/percentage-increase-decrease-what-should-be-the-denominator-287528.html

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Re: V61-05   [#permalink] 08 Oct 2018, 19:12
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