Check GMAT Club Decision Tracker for the Latest School Decision Releases https://gmatclub.com/AppTrack

 It is currently 28 May 2017, 18:02

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers

 new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics
Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Intern
Joined: 12 Feb 2014
Posts: 5
GMAT Date: 06-08-2014
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 11

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

17 Mar 2014, 22:51
maheshsrini wrote:
Can you please clarify my question on the below sentence. What does the protecting and regulating modify?.

For the Stegosauraus, a dinosaur, the seventeen bony plates embedded in its back were necessary elements for survival, regulating its temperature throughout its bus-sized body and protecting it from much larger carnivores.

Can we change or rewrite the above sentence in the below way? Pls explain and correct me if I am wrong. Also explain what is the difference between these two sentences. And If the answer choices contain both of these options which one we need to choose..?

For the Stegosauraus, a dinosaur, the seventeen bony plates embedded in its back were necessary elements for survival, to regulate its temperature throughout its bus-sized body and to protect it from much larger carnivores
Manager
Joined: 15 Mar 2012
Posts: 69
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 20

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

29 Mar 2014, 20:28
egmat wrote:
Singular “that” cannot refer to plural “life-forms”.

Hi,

that in "E) Scientists have gathered evidence that suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that" refers to "emergence of complex life-forms" & not just "life-forms" & that should be correct.
"emergence of complex life-forms" is a noun phrase, so, "that" can refer to it => Evidence suggests a much earlier emergence of life-forms than the emergence (of life-forms) they had previously thought.

No? Could you please explain why or why not? I'm not able to get my head around it. Please help.
Intern
Joined: 18 Mar 2014
Posts: 2
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 0

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

30 Mar 2014, 03:14
The level 1 for SC in egmat does states that verb-ed modifies the closest noun and there is no exception to it and all examples are given for nouns, however in explanation it states verb-ed modifies noun clause also , this creates confusion, this should be correct or should not be stated as rule with "nouns and without anu"
Intern
Joined: 18 Mar 2014
Posts: 2
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 0

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

30 Mar 2014, 03:15
The level 1 for SC in egmat does states that verb-ed modifies the closest noun and there is no exception to it and all examples are given for nouns, however in explanation it states verb-ed modifies noun clause also , this creates confusion, this should be correct or should not be stated as rule with "nouns and without exception"
Manager
Joined: 15 Mar 2012
Posts: 69
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 20

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

03 Apr 2014, 17:15
sonalj17 wrote:
The level 1 for SC in egmat does states that verb-ed modifies the closest noun and there is no exception to it and all examples are given for nouns, however in explanation it states verb-ed modifies noun clause also , this creates confusion, this should be correct or should not be stated as rule with "nouns and without exception"

Hi,
The sentence is grammatically correct but is wordy & awkward & that is as big a problem as a grammatical error itself.
e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2022
Followers: 2220

Kudos [?]: 7765 [2] , given: 291

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

16 May 2014, 14:22
2
KUDOS
Expert's post
hhakud wrote:
For the Stegosauraus, a dinosaur, the seventeen bony plates embedded in its back were necessary elements for survival, regulating its temperature throughout its bus-sized body and protecting it from much larger carnivores.

Can we change or rewrite the above sentence in the below way? Pls explain and correct me if I am wrong. Also explain what is the difference between these two sentences. And If the answer choices contain both of these options which one we need to choose..?

For the Stegosauraus, a dinosaur, the seventeen bony plates embedded in its back were necessary elements for survival, to regulate its temperature throughout its bus-sized body and to protect it from much larger carnivores

Hi hhakud,

Sorry for getting back to the thread so late.

Well, if you remove the comma before "to regulate", there will absolutely be no problem with the sentence at all.

But yes, there is a difference in the meaning of both the sentence.

Use of "comma + regulating and protecting" presents the HOW aspect of the preceding action. They provide additional information as to how the bony plates were necessary elements for survival.

Use of "to regulate and protect" presents the purpose or the reason why the bony plates were necessary for survival.

Now, if you get both the answer choices in the same question, then take a hint from the original sentence. If the original sentence uses comma + verb-ing then go by the choice with that modifier. If the original sentence has "to verb", then make the choice accordingly.

Original sentence presents ample of basis to understand the intended meaning of the sentence whether it wants to convey how the action is done or it wants to talk about the purpose.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2022
Followers: 2220

Kudos [?]: 7765 [0], given: 291

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

16 May 2014, 14:46
divineacclivity wrote:
egmat wrote:
Singular “that” cannot refer to plural “life-forms”.

Hi,

that in "E) Scientists have gathered evidence that suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that" refers to "emergence of complex life-forms" & not just "life-forms" & that should be correct.
"emergence of complex life-forms" is a noun phrase, so, "that" can refer to it => Evidence suggests a much earlier emergence of life-forms than the emergence (of life-forms) they had previously thought.

No? Could you please explain why or why not? I'm not able to get my head around it. Please help.

Hi divineacclivity,

Sorry for replying late.

The reason "that" cannot just refer to "emergence of complex lifeforms" because this phrase is preceded by adjective "a much earlier emergence of complex lifeforms". This entire phrase is a noun phrase. We just cannot cut out he adjective before it to suit our preference per the sentence. This is the reason why use of "that" in Choice D and E leads to incorrect comparison.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2022
Followers: 2220

Kudos [?]: 7765 [0], given: 291

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

16 May 2014, 14:59
sonalj17 wrote:
The level 1 for SC in egmat does states that verb-ed modifies the closest noun and there is no exception to it and all examples are given for nouns, however in explanation it states verb-ed modifies noun clause also , this creates confusion, this should be correct or should not be stated as rule with "nouns and without exception"

Hi Sonal,

I guess, we need a little correction here. There is nothing called "noun clause". Clauses are only of two types - Independent and dependent clauses. What you meant to say here is noun phrases.

When we say that verb-ed modifiers can modify preceding noun entity, that entity can be just a single noun word or it can be a noun phrase. In that case, the modifier modifies the head of the noun phrase. I know my eplanation would be sounding confusing to you right now. Read the following article, and you will know what I am talking about:

noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html?hilit=Far%20away%20nouns

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Manager
Joined: 15 Mar 2012
Posts: 69
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 20

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

08 Jun 2014, 09:18

that in option D refers to "a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms" rather than just "emergence of life forms" - that's what you mean right.
(D) scientists have gathered evidence that suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that which was

egmat wrote:
divineacclivity wrote:
egmat wrote:
Singular “that” cannot refer to plural “life-forms”.

Hi,

that in "E) Scientists have gathered evidence that suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that" refers to "emergence of complex life-forms" & not just "life-forms" & that should be correct.
"emergence of complex life-forms" is a noun phrase, so, "that" can refer to it => Evidence suggests a much earlier emergence of life-forms than the emergence (of life-forms) they had previously thought.

No? Could you please explain why or why not? I'm not able to get my head around it. Please help.

Hi divineacclivity,

Sorry for replying late.

The reason "that" cannot just refer to "emergence of complex lifeforms" because this phrase is preceded by adjective "a much earlier emergence of complex lifeforms". This entire phrase is a noun phrase. We just cannot cut out he adjective before it to suit our preference per the sentence. This is the reason why use of "that" in Choice D and E leads to incorrect comparison.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Director
Joined: 10 Mar 2013
Posts: 597
Location: Germany
Concentration: Finance, Entrepreneurship
GMAT 1: 580 Q46 V24
GPA: 3.88
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)
Followers: 17

Kudos [?]: 357 [0], given: 200

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

17 Apr 2015, 15:48
egmat wrote:
sonalj17 wrote:
The level 1 for SC in egmat does states that verb-ed modifies the closest noun and there is no exception to it and all examples are given for nouns, however in explanation it states verb-ed modifies noun clause also , this creates confusion, this should be correct or should not be stated as rule with "nouns and without exception"

Hi Sonal,

I guess, we need a little correction here. There is nothing called "noun clause". Clauses are only of two types - Independent and dependent clauses. What you meant to say here is noun phrases.

When we say that verb-ed modifiers can modify preceding noun entity, that entity can be just a single noun word or it can be a noun phrase. In that case, the modifier modifies the head of the noun phrase. I know my eplanation would be sounding confusing to you right now. Read the following article, and you will know what I am talking about:

noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html?hilit=Far%20away%20nouns

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Hi E-Gmat,

what about the below mentioned OG13 question. "Connected" comes after 600 rooms each, and should modify the rooms in this case. I am aware that noun modifiers can modify sligthly far away nouns. "Of up to 600 rooms" modifies the structures, and conneccted is one more modifier for structures...?

The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, were connected by a complex regional system of roads.
A. with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, were
B. with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each,
C. of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms, each that had been
D. of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms and with each
E. of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms each had been

Below are the exeptions to the touch rule:

1. A “mission-critical” modifier falls between. This modifier is often an Of-phrase that defines the noun. The less important modifier refers to the noun plus the first modifier.

- He had a way OF DODGING OPPONENTS that impressed the scouts
dodging opponents defines the noun way; that impressed the scouts modifies the entire
noun phrase a way of dodging opponents

2. A very short predicate falls between, shifting a very long modifier back.
- Right: A new CEO has been hired who will transform the company bv decentralizing authority to various division heads while increasing their accountability through the use of public scorecards.

3. A short non-essential phrase intervenes and is set off by commas.
- Right: Our system of Presidential elections favors states, such as Delaware, that by population are over-represented in the Electoral College ( That modifies -> States)

4. The modifier is part of a series of parallel modifiers, one of which touches the noun

- In heraldry, the term "tincture" refers to a color emblazoned on a coat of arms and labeled with a special French word. (here, 2 Modifiers are placed fort he noun Color , it’s ok)

5. Normally a relative clause should touch the noun that it modifies, but we are generally allowed to place an appositive between a relative clause and the modified noun.

- Mary buys cookies made with SugarFree, an artificial sweetener, which tastes as sweet as the corn syrup that her brother loves but where there are fewer calories than in an equivalent amount of corn syrup.
_________________

When you’re up, your friends know who you are. When you’re down, you know who your friends are.

Share some Kudos, if my posts help you. Thank you !

800Score ONLY QUANT CAT1 51, CAT2 50, CAT3 50
GMAT PREP 670
MGMAT CAT 630
KAPLAN CAT 660

Manager
Joined: 24 May 2013
Posts: 86
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 26 [0], given: 99

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

23 Apr 2015, 19:43
HI Shraddha... Could you please throw light on the question mentioned below :

Although William Pereira first gained national recognition for his movie set designs, including those for the 1942 film "Reap the Wild Wind," future generationsremember him as the architect of the Transamerica Tower, the Malibu campus of Pepperdine University, and the city of Irvine.
(A) including those for the 1942 film "Reap the Wild Wind," future generations
(B) like that for the 1942 film "Reap the Wild Wind," future generations will
(C) like those for the 1942 film "Reap the Wild Wind," future generations
(D)including that for the 1942 film "Reap the Wild Wind," future generations
will
(E) including those for the 1942 film "Reap the Wild Wind," future generations
will

Here the confusion is in reaching the conclusion that "including" is modifying recognition or set designs?
Thanks
Intern
Joined: 31 Dec 2014
Posts: 3
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 0

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

18 Aug 2015, 23:14
Hello e-Gmat team,

please have a look at the SC answer below, which is the correct answer and not an OG:

The candidate, fresh from a series of primary victories, promised not only to incorporate several popular ideas from her defeated opponents, including some she criticized at the beginning of the campaign, but also to include her two principal opponents in her cabinet, if she wins the upcoming general election.

is the sentence correct as is?

what is the verb-ing ", including..." modifying? the entire preceding clause OR to "incorporate several popular ideas"?

Regards,
Intern
Joined: 16 Aug 2015
Posts: 7
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 1 [0], given: 18

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

26 Sep 2015, 16:07
Egmat, what about this question, in which the OA uses both Verb-ed and Verb-ing modifiers to modify a single noun?

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

OA is
[Reveal] Spoiler:
(E)
Intern
Joined: 26 Aug 2014
Posts: 49
GMAT 1: 650 Q49 V30
GMAT 2: 650 Q49 V31
WE: Programming (Computer Software)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 29 [0], given: 65

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 Oct 2015, 09:55
iyera211 wrote:
Egmat, what about this question, in which the OA uses both Verb-ed and Verb-ing modifiers to modify a single noun?

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

OA is
[Reveal] Spoiler:
(E)

Hi iyera211,
Let me take a crack at it.
"which" modifies "abolition of local times". We need to use the modifier to modify only "local times". This brings us down to D and E.
D) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed --> both determined and differed have the same tense. however, both of them are trying to modify local times. so our sentence will read:
led to the abolition of local times, determined by when ... and
led to the abolition of local times, differed from city to city
--> this is INCORRECT. In order to correctly modify "local times" we need to either use comma +differing or use that + differed

Hopefully I've clarified your doubt.
Thanks

Consider a KUDOS if this post helps you
Intern
Joined: 03 May 2008
Posts: 11
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 4

Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

26 Nov 2015, 01:57
I think the rule related to V-ed cannot be applied in this OG 2016 (#44):

According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a “soft landing,” followed by a gradual increase in business activity.

I think in this sentence, "followed by a gradual increase in business activity" does not modify softland but explain how "gradual increase inbusiness activity" folllows "gains in the stock market".

Please elaborate on this case. Thanks
Intern
Joined: 31 Aug 2015
Posts: 5
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 10

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

01 Dec 2015, 22:52
In this Shardha, for verb ing modifier seperated by comma and placed after then its said that such modifier should be associated to main subject. if its not associated to main subject then its wrong. Associating to subject or modifying entire previous clause is same?
Please give examples for these to differentiate.
Intern
Joined: 22 Mar 2015
Posts: 35
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 4 [0], given: 17

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

11 May 2016, 07:12
egmat wrote:
Thanks for the praise. We are almost at the end of our cycle on modifiers. Below is one such article that you may find useful.

ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html?fl=similar

Hello Rajat/Payal/Shradhha/egmat Experts !

Awesome article ! However I just got stuck on a question from OG which is related to this topic. Would really appreciate your help.

Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

Doubt: One of the reasons for which I rejected choice B is because "growing" was modifying the verb "began"

Can a verb-ed/verb-ing modifier modify a verb ?
Manager
Joined: 10 Mar 2014
Posts: 244
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 79 [0], given: 13

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

20 Jun 2016, 20:50
egmat wrote:
Hi,
Following is the excerpt of the question I replied to on ‘beat the gmat’.
Quote:
Would like to understand minutes difference between these two types of modifiers . Please correct me if my understanding is not right -
Clause + Comma + Past Participle
Technically Work as Adverb BUT also modifies the subject of the Clause

Q1 - Is it always necessary that Past Participle + Comma need to act as Adverb, Can’t it simply modify the subject ONLY of the main clause - look at below construction -
“Diabetes ranks as the nation’s third leading cause of the death, surpassed only by heart disease and cancer”

Q2 - This is valid construction as per OG, not sure why "surpassed" came after comma . It is modifying Diabetes so it should come in beginning ??
“Surpassed only by disease and cancer, Diabetes ranks as the nation’s third leading cause of the death”

Q3 - Can we say that past participle + comma does not need to act as Adverb or modify whole previous clause ALWAYS and it can modify ONLY subject as well ? Is it true for present participle ?

Q4 - What is the difference between present & past participle when these work as modifiers ? Please explain the difference between two sentences -
“Diabetes ranks as the nation’s third leading cause of the death, surpassed only by heart disease and cancer”
“Diabetes ranks as the nation’s third leading cause of the death, surpassing only by heart disease and cancer”

This is my response to the question. I hope you will find the content useful.

We at e-gmat call the present participle the “verb-ing modifiers” and the past participle the “verb-ed modifiers”. So here are the rules for these two types of modifiers:

1: COMMA + verb-ing modifier---> modifies the preceding clause.
Example: The engineer identified the problem, using the latest technology. (as you cited)

2: Verb-ing modifier ONLY ------> modifies the preceding NOUN or NOUN PHRASE only.
Example: John sat in the minivan carrying seven passengers. (“carrying seven passengers” modifies “minivans” and means that the minivan in which John sat had seven passengers)

2 also applies to verb-ed modifiers.

Discouraged by the long hours and low pay, my sister finally quit her job. Correct.

My sister, discouraged by the long hours and low pay, finally quit her job. Correct.

My sister finally quit her job, discouraged by the long hours and low pay. Incorrect as per GMAT rules (Refer to Regular English Vs GMAT section below). Here the verb-ed modifier is modifying the preceding noun “her job” which does not make sense.

RULES PART I: So really speaking these are the rules governing verb-ing & verb-ed modifiers:
Verb-ing modifiers
1: When separated by comma modifies the preceding clause
2: When not separated by comma modifiers the preceding noun or noun phrase

Verb-ed Modifiers
1: Always modify preceding noun or noun phrase.

We have covered this concept in detail in our concept titled "Modifiers - Verb-ing Modifiers". This concept is available in the free preview of the e-GMAT SC course. I suggest you review this concept in the free trial. You will be able to apply the concepts when you take the post assessment quiz in this file. After that definitely review a few OG sentence constructions to understand and apply these concepts on the Official Questions.

REGULAR ENGLISH Vs. GMAT: The point to be noted here is that in regular English, comma + verb-ed modifiers modify the preceding clause. They behave in similar manner as do comma + verb-ing modifiers. However, GMAT goes against this practice as is evident from OG12#56.
Since Official Guides set up the rules here, we incorporate these rules in our course curriculum and questions. If down the line, OG modifies this question and changes the explanation, reflecting that comma + verb-ed modifiers modify preceding clause, then we will change our curriculum and questions based on this rule accordingly.
Here are a few examples from OG12 for verb-ed modifiers:
Verb-ed modifier modifying preceding noun = OG12#28, OG12#56.

In the light of this understanding, let us now analyze OG12#5

Diabetes ranks as the nation’s third leading cause of death, surpassed only by heart disease and cancer.

In this sentence, it will not make sense for verb-ed modifier to modify the preceding noun “death”. Death cannot be surpassed by anything. Hence, the verb-ed modifier is modifying noun phrase “the nation’s third leading cause of death”. Now the reference makes sense and the modifier establishes the fact this particular cause of death is “surpassed only by heart disease and cancer”.
Notice that “diabetes” is the “the nation’s third leading cause of death”. The verb “ranks” stands as “is” meaning “diabetes” = “the nation’s third leading cause of death”. Hence it is logical for the verb-ed modifier to modify “diabetes” also because it is the “the nation’s third leading cause of death”. Structurally, the verb-ed modifier is modifying the preceding noun phrase “the nation’s third leading cause of death”.

RULES PART II: So far we discussed the role of the verb-ed and the verb-ing modifiers placed after the clause preceded or not by a comma. Now answer to your second question is that verb-ed modifier is a noun modifier. When placed in the beginning of the sentence followed by a comma, it always modifies the subject of the clause. Again let me cite your example only:
Discouraged by the long hours and low pay, my sister finally quit her job. (If you ask the modifier, who was discouraged, the answer will be “my sister”).
In case of the verb-ing modifiers, when places before the clause separated by a comma they can modify either the subject or the entire clause, depending upon the context of the sentence.

Example: Singing a beautiful song, Mary mesmerized everyone present in the room. (So how did Mary mesmerize everyone? By singing a beautiful song. Here the verb-ing modifier is modifying the entire clause.)
Wearing a blue short, Joe killed the snake. (Here the verb-ing modifier is just giving additional information about how Joe was dressed. His wearing a blue shirt has nothing to do with killing the snake.)

THE DIFFERENCE: Now let us analyze the difference between these two sentences:
Diabetes ranks as the nation’s third leading cause of the death, surpassed only by heart disease and cancer.

Diabetes ranks as the nation’s third leading cause of the death, surpassing only by heart disease and cancer.
The first sentence is grammatically as well as logically correct. But the second is not grammatically correct. The first sentence can be rewritten as: Diabetes is the nation’s third leading cause of the death that is surpassed only by heart disease and cancer.
Notice that the “that” clause is written in passive voice because diabetes is not the doer of the action “surpass”. It is “heart disease and cancer” that are the doer of this action.
In the second sentence, “surpassing” modifies the preceding clause and hence associates with the subject diabetes. So if we say that Diabetes is X, surpassing only by Y and Z, it will be wrong because it is not the correct grammatical structure. Use of “by” is ungrammatical in this construction. If we remove “by” from here, then the intended meaning of the sentence will change. The sentence will then mean that Diabetes surpasses “heart diseases and cancer” but it is actually the other way round and that is why diabetes is “the nation’s third leading cause of death”.

1. When verb-ing modifier is separated from the clause using a comma, then this modifier modifies the preceding clause.
2. When verb-ing modifier is not separated from the clause using a comma, then it modifies the preceding noun.
3. When verb-ing modifier is placed in the beginning of the sentence followed by a comma, then it may modify either the subject of the clause or the entire clause, depending upon the context of the sentence.
4. Verb-ed modifier modifies the preceding noun or the noun phrase.
5. When verb-ed modifier is placed in the beginning of the clause followed by a comma, then it modifies the subject of the clause.

Hope this helps.

I am not clear about following sentence.

Diabetes ranks as the nation’s third leading cause of the death, surpassing only by heart disease and cancer.

you mentioned that use of by is wrong here. Could you please clarify This.

Thanks
Verbal Forum Moderator
Joined: 02 Aug 2009
Posts: 4514
Followers: 394

Kudos [?]: 4211 [0], given: 109

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

20 Jun 2016, 21:39
Devlikes wrote:
egmat wrote:
Thanks for the praise. We are almost at the end of our cycle on modifiers. Below is one such article that you may find useful.

ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html?fl=similar

Hello Rajat/Payal/Shradhha/egmat Experts !

Awesome article ! However I just got stuck on a question from OG which is related to this topic. Would really appreciate your help.

Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

Doubt: One of the reasons for which I rejected choice B is because "growing" was modifying the verb "began"

Can a verb-ed/verb-ing modifier modify a verb ?

Hi Devlikes,

Every verb+ing word is not present participle, it can be GERUND too...
so do not eliminate a choice on this..
_________________

Absolute modulus :http://gmatclub.com/forum/absolute-modulus-a-better-understanding-210849.html#p1622372
Combination of similar and dissimilar things : http://gmatclub.com/forum/topic215915.html

Intern
Joined: 16 Jul 2016
Posts: 5
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 2

Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers [#permalink]

### Show Tags

20 Jul 2016, 04:46
egmat wrote:
Hi,
I received a PM for this one.

John sat in the minivan carrying seven passengers.
Per the rules of verb-ing modifier, “carrying” is clearly modifying “minivan” there is no comma between the two words. When there is no comma before the verb-ing then it modifies the preceding noun.
So in the above sentence too, “carrying” is referring to “minivans”. It is giving us more information about the minivan that John sat in that minivan that had seven passengers in it.
The sentence that you have provided is also correct. There again, “carrying” is not separated with comma. Hence without any ambiguity or confusion, “carrying” is modifying “minivan”, suggesting that the minivan in which John sat carried load. “carrying” in no way can refer to John if there is no comma between “carrying” and “minibus”.

@maheshrini: For the Stegosaurus, a dinosaur, the seventeen bony plates embedded in its back were necessary elements for survival, regulating its temperature throughout its bus-sized body and protecting it from much larger carnivores.

In this sentence, both the verb-ing modifiers “regulating” and “protecting” are modifying the preceding clause. They are giving information about how “the seventeen bony plates embedded in its back were necessary elements for survival” for the Stegosaurus.
One way to identify what the modifier is modifying is that ask a question. Whatever aspect the modifier is the reply to, that is the aspect it is modifying.
For example, in the above dinosaur sentence, ask how the seventeen bony plates embedded in its back were necessary elements for survival? Both the verb-ing modifiers answer this question. Hence, the modifiers are modifying the preceding clause. They are providing additional information as to how these bony plates were essential for survival for Stegosaurus.
Hope these explanations help.
Thanks.

Thanks for explaining the concept. I have one doubt regarding application of -ing verb. The below question is from the OG:

As an actress and, more importantly, as a teacher of acting, Stella Adler was one of the most influential artists in the American theater, who trained several generations of actors including Marlon Brando and Robert De Niro.

The explanation in the OG says that including is modifying the previous clause 'generations of actors', however as per your rule it modifies actors. Can you please clarify?

Regards
Shekhar
Re: Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers   [#permalink] 20 Jul 2016, 04:46

Go to page   Previous    1   2   3   4    Next  [ 63 posts ]

Similar topics Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
113 NOUN + NOUN MODIFIER VS. VERB-ING MODIFIER 30 24 Apr 2017, 05:33
3 Doubt on verb-ing modifiers 10 06 Mar 2014, 11:35
verb modifiers 1 29 Aug 2012, 12:36
1 Verb modifiers 8 30 Jun 2012, 20:15
Noun modifiers vs Verb Modifier 5 10 Aug 2012, 23:02
Display posts from previous: Sort by

# Verb-ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers

 new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics

 Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group and phpBB SEO Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.